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KWAZULU-NATAL (/kwɑːˌzuːluː nəˈtɑːl/ ; also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province" ) is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu
KwaZulu
("Place of the Zulu" in Zulu ) and Natal Provincewere merged. It is located in the southeast of the country, enjoying a long shoreline beside the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and sharing borders with three other provinces and the countries of Mozambique
Mozambique
, Swazilandand Lesotho
Lesotho
. Its capital is Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
and its largest city is Durban
Durban
. It is the 2nd most populous province in South Africa, with slightly fewer residents than Gauteng
Gauteng
.

During the 1830s and early 1840s, the northern part of what is now KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
was occupied by the Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
while the southern part was, briefly, the Boer
Boer
republic of Natalia before becoming, in 1843, the British Colony of Natal. KwaZulu
KwaZulu
remained independent until 1879.

KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
is the birthplace of many notable figures in South Africa's history, such as Albert Luthuli, the first non-white and the first person from outside Europe and the Americas to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
(1960); Pixley ka Isaka Seme, the founder of the African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) and South Africa's first black lawyer; John Langalibalele Dube, the ANC's founding president; Mangosuthu Buthelezi , the founder of the Inkatha Freedom Party
Inkatha Freedom Party
(IFP); Anton Lembede , the founding president of the ANC Youth League; Jacob Zuma , the current President of South Africa
South Africa
; and Bhambatha, a 19th-century Zulu chief who became an anti-apartheid icon.

Two areas in KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
have been declared UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites : the iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Climate * 1.2 Borders * 1.3 Municipal structure * 1.4 Coastline * 1.5 Interior

* 2 History * 3 Provincial coat of arms

* 4 Law and government

* 4.1 Provincial government * 4.2 Current composition * 4.3 Zulu monarch

* 5 Economy

* 6 Civil society and politics

* 6.1 Evictions and political controversy

* 7 Ecology * 8 HIV

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Private schools * 9.2 Universities

* 10 Sport

* 10.1 Major sports events * 10.2 Provincial sports teams

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

GEOGRAPHY

A view of the Mngeni Rivervalley near Howick Falls.

At around 92,100 km2 in area, KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
is roughly the size of Portugal
Portugal
. It has three different geographic areas. The lowland region along the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
coast is extremely narrow in the south, widening in the northern part of the province, while the central Natal Midlands consists of an undulating hilly plateau rising toward the west. Two mountainous areas, the western Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Mountains and northern Lebombo Mountainsform, respectively, a solid basalt wall rising over 3,000 m (9,800 ft) beside Lesotho
Lesotho
border and low parallel ranges of ancient granite running southward from Swaziland. The area's largest river, the Tugela , flows west to east across the center of the province.

The coastal regions typically have subtropical thickets and deeper ravines; steep slopes host some Afromontane Forest . The midlands have moist grasslands and isolated pockets of Afromontane Forest. The north has a primarily moist savanna habitat, whilst the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
region hosts mostly alpine grassland .

The province contains rich areas of biodiversity of a range of flora and fauna. The iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the uKhahlamba Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Park have been declared UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
. The iSimangaliso Wetland Park, along with uKhahlamba Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Park and Ndumo, are wetlands of international importance for migratory species, and are designated as Ramsar sites. South Africa
South Africa
signed the 1971 Ramsar Convention to try to conserve and protect important wetlands because of their importance to habitats and numerous species.

The former Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
enclave of the town of Umzimkuluand its hinterland have been incorporated into KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
following the 12th amendment of the Constitution of South Africa
South Africa
. The amendment also made other changes to the southern border of the province.

The northwesterly line of equal latitude and longitude traverses the province from the coast at Hibberdene(30°34′35″S 30°34′35″E / 30.57639°S 30.57639°E / -30.57639; 30.57639 ) to northeast Lesotho
Lesotho
.

CLIMATE

Upland savannah near Pietermaritzburg.

KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
has a varied yet verdant climate thanks to diverse, complex topography. Generally, the coast is subtropical with inland regions becoming progressively colder. Durban
Durban
on the south coast has an annual rainfall of 1009 mm, with daytime maxima peaking from January to March at 28 °C (82 °F) with a minimum of 21 °C (70 °F), dropping to daytime highs from June to August of 23 °C (73 °F) with a minimum of 11 °C (52 °F). Temperature drops towards the hinterland, with Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
being similar in the summer, but much cooler in the winter. Ladysmith in the Tugela River
Tugela River
Valley reaches 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer, but may drop below freezing point on winter evenings. The Drakensberg
Drakensberg
can experience heavy winter snow, with light snow occasionally experienced on the highest peaks in summer. The Zululand north coast has the warmest climate and highest humidity, supporting many sugar cane farms around Pongola.

BORDERS

KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
borders the following areas of Mozambique, Swaziland and Lesotho:

* Maputo Province, Mozambique
Mozambique
(far northeast) * Lubombo District, Swaziland(northeast, east of Shiselweni) * ShiselweniDistrict, Swaziland(northeast, west of Lubombo) * Mokhotlong District, Lesotho
Lesotho
(southwest, north of Thaba-Tseka) * Thaba-Tseka District, Lesotho
Lesotho
(southwest, between Mokhotlong and Qacha's Nek) * Qacha\'s Nek District, Lesotho
Lesotho
(southwest, south of Thaba-Tseka)

Domestically, it borders the following provinces:

* Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
(north) * Free State (west) * Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
(southwest)

MUNICIPAL STRUCTURE

A map of South Africa
South Africa
showing the districts of KwaZulu-Natal province. See also: Parks of KwaZulu-Nataland List of cities and towns in KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal

KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
is divided into eleven districts . One of these, eThekwini ( Durban
Durban
and surrounding area), is a metropolitan municipality and the other ten are district municipalities . The local seat of each district municipality is given in parentheses. In 2012, the Ingonyama Trustowns 32% of the land in KwaZulu-Natal, in many municipalities. This amounts to about three million hectares, occupied by over 4 million people. The Zulu king is the chairman of the Trust.

MUNICIPALITY SEAT

Amajuba Newcastle

Zululand Ulundi

uMkhanyakude Mkuze

uThungulu Richards Bay

uMzinyathi Dundee

Uthukela Ladysmith

uMgungundlovu Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg

iLembe kwaDukuza

eThekwini Durban
Durban

Ugu Port Shepstone

Harry Gwala Ixopo

Population density in KwaZulu-Natal.

3000 /km2

Dominant languages in KwaZulu-Natal.

Afrikaans English Xhosa Zulu

Sotho Swati No language dominant

COASTLINE

A beach on the North Coast.

The coastline is dotted with small towns, many of which serve as seasonal recreational hubs. The climate of the coastal areas is humid and subtropical, comparable to southern Florida in the United States, but not quite as hot and rainy in the summer. As one moves further north up the coast towards the border of Mozambique, the climate becomes almost purely tropical. North of Durban
Durban
is locally referred to as "The North Coast ", while south is "The South Coast ". The Kwazulu-Natal Tourist board includes towns such as Margate , Port Shepstone , Scottburghand Port Edward in its definition of the South Coast, while Ballito
Ballito
, Umhlanga and Salt Rockare North Coast resort towns. San Lameer Resort.

Beaches of world-class quality are to be found along virtually every part of South Africa's eastern seaboard, with some of the least-developed gems found in the far southern and far northern ends of the province. Marina Beach (and its adjoining resort San Lameer) was recognised in 2002 as a Blue Flag beach
Blue Flag beach
.

Some visitors come for the annual late autumn or early winter phenomenon on the KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
coast of the "sardine run ". Referred to as "the greatest shoal on earth", the sardine run occurs when millions of sardines migrate from their spawning grounds south of the southern tip of Africa northward along the Eastern Cape
Eastern Cape
coastline toward KwaZulu-Natal. They follow a route close inshore, often resulting in many fish washing up on beaches. The huge shoal of tiny fish can stretch for many kilometres; it is preyed upon by thousands of predators, including game fish , sharks , dolphins and seabirds . Usually the shoals break up and the fish disappear into deeper water around Durban. Scientists have been unable to answer many questions surrounding this exceptional seasonal event.

INTERIOR

The interior of the province consists largely of rolling hills from the Valley of a Thousand Hillsto the Midlands . Their beauty has inspired literature. Alan Paton
Alan Paton
, in the novel _Cry, the Beloved Country
Country
_, wrote:

_There is a lovely road that runs from Ixopointo the hills. These hills are grass-covered and rolling, and they are lovely beyond any singing of it. The road climbs seven miles (11 km) into them, to Carisbrooke; and from there, if there is no mist, you look down on one of the fairest valleys of Africa. About you there is grass and bracken and you may hear the forlorn crying of the titihoya , one of the birds of the veld. Below you is the valley of the Umzimkulu, on its journey from the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
to the sea; and beyond and behind the river, great hill after great hill; and beyond and behind them, the mountains of Ingeli and Griqualand East._

HISTORY

Further information: Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
, Natalia Republic, Colony of Natal , Natal Province, and KwaZulu
KwaZulu

The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
saw the coast of Natal on Christmas Day 1497. _Natal_ is the Portuguese word for Christmas which gave rise to the European name for the region. The area was occupied centuries ago by the Nguni branch of the Bantu .

The first European settlers, mostly British, established Port Natal, a trading post. They made almost no attempt to develop the interior, whose inhabitants had been decimated by the Zulu chief Shaka
Shaka
(Chaka) . The Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Voortrekkers
Voortrekkers
entered the area via the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
passes in 1837. These Afrikaners defeated the Zulus at the Battle of Blood River in 1838 and thereafter established the Republic of Natal. Thus, the territory was once part of a short-lived Boer
Boer
republic between 1839 and 1843 until its annexation by Britain. Many Afrikaner inhabitants left for the interior after the annexation and were replaced by immigrants, mainly from Britain. From 1860 onward, increasing numbers of Indians were brought in by the British mainly to work in the sugar plantations on the coast. The colony acquired Zululand (the area north of the Tugela River) after the Zulu War of 1879. The lands north of the Buffalo River were added in 1902. Boer forces entered the area during the South African War (1899 to 1902) – also known as the second Boer
Boer
War – and laid siege to Ladysmith . They failed to build on their initial advantage and for three months the line between the opposing forces followed the course of the Tugela River . In 1910, the colony became a province of the Union of South Africa and in 1961 of the Republic of South Africa.

When the homeland of KwaZulu, which means "Place of the Zulu" was re-incorporated into the Natal province after the end of apartheid in 1994, the province of Natal, which had existed between 1910 and 1994, was renamed KwaZulu-Natal. The province is home to the Zulu monarchy; the majority population and language of the province is Zulu. It is the only province in South Africa
South Africa
that has the name of its dominant ethnic group as part of its name.

PROVINCIAL COAT OF ARMS

The lion and wildebeest supporters are symbols of, respectively, KwaZulu
KwaZulu
and Natal, the regions joined to create KwaZulu-Natal. The zig-zag stripe represents the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
and the star the Zulu myth that the Zulu people
Zulu people
are "star people" ("people of heaven"). The strelitzia flower on the shield symbolizes the province's beauty, while the assegai and knobkierrie behind the shield represent protection and peace. The base of the crown element is a type of headdress traditionally worn by Zulu elders that represents wisdom and maturity; the element itself is a Zulu-style grass hut. The motto is _Masisukume Sakhe_, Zulu for "Let us stand up and build".

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT

KwaZulu-Natal's provincial government sits in Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
. The foundation stone of the new legislative building was laid on 21 June 1887, to commemorate Queen Victoria\'s Golden Jubilee . The building was completed two years later. On 25 April 1889, the Governor of Natal, Sir Arthur Havelock
Arthur Havelock
, opened the first Legislative Council session in the new building.

This was the former site of St Mary's Church, built in the 1860s. The congregation built a new church in 1884 at the corner of Burger Street and Commercial Road. The old building was demolished in 1887 to provide space for the legislative complex.

When governance was granted to Natal in 1893, the new Legislative Assembly took over the chamber used by the Legislative Council since 1889. Further extensions to the parliamentary building were made. The building was unoccupied until 1902, when it was used without being officially opened, due to the country's being engulfed in the Anglo- Boer
Boer
war . The war forced the Legislative Assembly to move the venue of its sittings, as its chamber was used as a military hospital. The KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
parliament building, located in Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
.

The Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council buildings have both been protected as provincial landmarks . They formed a colonial Parliament of two houses: a Council of 11 nominated members and an Assembly of 37 elected members. The Natal Parliament was disbanded in 1910 when the Union of South Africa
South Africa
was formed, and the Assembly became the meeting place of the Natal Provincial Council. The Council was disbanded in 1986.

The Provincial Legislature consists of 80 members.

CURRENT COMPOSITION

Breakup of the 80-seat legislature from the 2014 elections. African National Congress
African National Congress
(52) Democratic Alliance (10) Inkhata Freedom Party (9) National Freedom Party(6) Economic Freedom Fighters (2) Minority Front
Minority Front
(1)

The African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) hold power in the provincial legislature, winning the province with a convincing overall majority in South Africa's 2014 elections . After the election, the Democratic Alliance replaced the Inkatha Freedom Party
Inkatha Freedom Party
as the official opposition in the province.

ZULU MONARCH

KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
is the home to the Zulu monarch , King Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu . Although not holding any direct political power, the Zulu king is provided a stipend by the government. He holds considerable influence among the more traditionalist Zulu people
Zulu people
in the province.

To date, the Zulu king has six wives; traditionally, each year a ceremony is performed in which the king receives another wife. This was formerly a way of creating connections among the various peoples. The current King practices the ceremony, called the "Reed Dance", but has not chosen new wives recently. Instead, he has used the occasion to promote abstinence until marriage as a way of preserving Zulu culture and preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
.

ECONOMY

Durban
Durban
is a rapidly growing urban area and is by most measures the busiest port in Africa. A good railway network links the city to other areas of Southern Africa. Sugar refining is Durban's main industry. Sheep, cattle, dairy, citrus fruits, corn , sorghum , cotton, bananas, and pineapples are also raised. There is an embryonic KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
wine industry. Other industries (located mainly in and around Durban) include textile, clothing, chemicals , rubber, fertiliser , paper, vehicle assembly and food-processing plants, tanneries, and oil refineries. There are large aluminium-smelting plants at Richards Bay, on the north coast.

To the north, Newcastle is the province's industrial powerhouse, with Mittal Steel South Africa
South Africa
(previously ISPAT/ISCOR) and the Karbochem synthetic rubber plant dominating the economy. In 2002, Newcastle became the largest producer of chrome chemicals in Africa with the completion of a chrome-chemical plant, a joint-venture project between Karbochem and German manufacturing giant Bayer. Other large operations include a diamond-cutting works, various heavy engineering concerns, the Natal Portland Cement (NPC) slagment cement factory, and the Newcastle Cogeneration Plant (old Ingagane Power Station). This was recommissioned as Africa's first gas-fired power station by Independent Power Southern Africa (IPSA), and it supplies the Karbochem Plant with electricity. The textile industry is a major employer in the Newcastle area, with over 100 factories belonging to ethnic Taiwanese and Chinese industrialists. Maize, livestock and dairy farmers operate on the outskirts of the city. Coal is also mined in the Newcastle area. The province as a whole produces considerable amounts of coal (especially coke) and timber.

Offshore mining of heavy mineral sands including minerals with a concentration of significant economic importance at several locations, such as rutile , ilmenite and zircon are threatening the marine ecology of KwaZulu-Natal's coast, including the Tugela Banks; the fishing economy of the prawn and nurse fisheries are also threatened.

About 86% of the population is Black African. During apartheid, a large percentage of native blacks was forced to live in Bantu homelands (Bantustans ), which had a subsistence economy based on cattle raising and corn growing.

Ecology tourism is increasingly important to the economy of KwaZulu-Natal. The area's rich biodiversity and efforts at conservation have been recognised. Tourists have come to see the iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the uKhahlamba Drakensberg
Drakensberg
Park , declared UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
. These two major parks and that of Ndumo have wetlands of international importance listed as Ramsar sites for conservation. Tourists pay up to $10,000 for safaris on which they might see lions, elephants and giraffes. Others come to hike in the mountains or explore the wetlands with guides.

The Ingonyama Trustowns 32% of all the land in KwaZulu-Natal.

CIVIL SOCIETY AND POLITICS

Prominent civil society organisations based in the province of KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
include: Abahlali baseMjondolo
Abahlali baseMjondolo
(shackdwellers') movement, the Diakonia Council of Churches , the Right2Know campaign, and the Unemployed People\'s Movement .

EVICTIONS AND POLITICAL CONTROVERSY

The government in KwaZulu
KwaZulu
Natal has been under sustained controversy for their eviction of shackdwellers and mistreatment by provincial police structures that has resulted in more than 200 arrests of Abahlali members in the first last three years of its existence and repeated police brutality in people's homes, in the streets and in detention. See also: Attack on Kennedy Road

The attack on Kennedy Road informal settlementby an armed mob in 2009 in put local and provincial government under sustained scrutiny. It was reported by members of the Abahlali baseMjondolo
Abahlali baseMjondolo
movement that the attackers were affiliated with the local branch of the African National Congress and it was claimed that the attack was carefully planned and sanctioned by the provincial police department. Academic research seems to confirm that the attackers self-identified as ANC members and that ANC leaders at Municipal and Provincial level later provided public sanction for the attack. See also: Marikana Land Occupation (Durban)

Despite a court interdict, the eThekwini municipality, with the support of the provincial SAPS, repeatedly evicted shackdwellers in Durban's Cato Crest. The General Council of the Bar has also expressed concern over the evictions.

ECOLOGY

Natal plum

The scaly yellowfish (_Labeobarbus natalensis_) is a fish found in the Tugela River
Tugela River
system as well as in the Umzimkulu, Umfolozi and the Mgeni . It is a common endemic species in KwaZulu- Natal Provinceand it lives in different habitats between the Drakensberg
Drakensberg
foothills and the coastal lowlands.

_ Carissa macrocarpa_ (Natal plum) is a shrub native to South Africa, where it is commonly called the "large num-num". In Zulu, as well as in the Bantu tribes of Uganda, it is known as the _amatungulu_. In Afrikaans, the fruit is called _noem-noem_.

HIV

One of the most urgent crises facing the province is the unparalleled prevalence of HIV infection among its citizens. South Africa
South Africa
as a whole has more HIV-positive citizens than any other nation. Among South Africa's provinces, KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
has the highest rate of HIV infection: 39 percent, according to UNAIDSin 2009.

Without the proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people suffer and die from AIDS-related complications. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has disrupted society, with fatalities high among adults in their prime, and leaving many orphans to be cared for by elderly grandparents. HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
has retarded economic growth by destroying human capital .

EDUCATION

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (October 2008)_

At the 2001 census, 22.9% of KwaZulu-Natal's population aged 20 years or older had received no education; only 4.8% had received some form of higher education.

PRIVATE SCHOOLS

Main page: Category:Private schools in KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal

UNIVERSITIES

* University of KwaZulu-Natal(merger of the University of Nataland the University of Durban-Westville) * University of Zululand * Durban
Durban
University of Technology (merger of ML Sultan Technikonand Technikon Natal) * Mangosuthu University of Technology

SPORT

MAJOR SPORTS EVENTS

* Comrades Marathon, an annual marathon run between Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
and Durban. * Midmar Mile, a mile-long swimming race held annually at Midmar Dam . * Dusi Canoe Marathon, an annual canoe marathon starting in Pietermaritzburg
Pietermaritzburg
and ending in Durban. * Durban
Durban
July , South Africa's premier annual horse racing event at Greyville Racecourse, Durban. * Mr Price Pro, a premier international surfing event at Durban during winter (previously known as the "Gunston 500").

PROVINCIAL SPORTS TEAMS

Football (soccer) The South African Premier Soccer League
Premier Soccer League
(PSL) currently features the following teams from the province: AmaZulu and Golden Arrows
Golden Arrows
(Durban) Thanda Royal Zulu (Richards Bay) Maritzburg United (Pietermaritzburg) Rugby union Super Rugby
Super Rugby
The Sharks Currie Cup
Currie Cup
Sharks Cricket SuperSport Series Dolphins (successor to the KwaZulu
KwaZulu
Natal cricket team )

SEE ALSO

* Black December

REFERENCES

* ^ "KZN Premier Zweli Mkhize resigns". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _Census 2011: Census in brief_ (PDF). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. ISBN 9780621413885 . * ^ Mid-year population estimates, 2015 (PDF) (Report). Statistics South Africa. 31 July 2015. p. 3. Retrieved 11 August 2015. * ^ http://www.southafrica.info/about/geography/kwazulu-natal.htm#.U0ZMuuaSz58 * ^ _My country South Africa
South Africa
– celebrating our national symbols and heritage_, Department of Education (South Africa), ISBN 1-77018-108-3 . * ^ http://www.5stardurban.co.za/durban-africas-eastern-gem/ * ^ Richards BayMinerals: _History_, www.rbm.co.za * ^ South African Coastal Information Centre: _The Zululand coastal region..._. www.sacoast.ioisa.org.za * ^ Ingonyama Trustruling scrutinised - KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
IOL News IOL.co.za * ^ Churches want justice * ^ Churches Ask Parties to Preach Tolerance * ^ 200 march against Information Bill * ^ No mercy, no grants, says Mkhize * ^ Shack Dwellers on the Move in Durban, Richard Pithouse, _Radical Philosophy_, 2007. * ^ "\'Attackers associated with ANC\'". News24. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. * ^ "Joint Statement on the attacks on the Kennedy Road Informal Settlement in Durban". Professor John Dugard SC, et al. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. * ^ The Work of violence:a timeline of armed attacks at Kennedy Road Archived 17 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., Kerry Chance _School of Development Studies Research Report_, 83, July 2010.] * ^ The Work of Violence: Armed Attacks at the Kennedy Road Shack Settlement, Kerry Chance, UKZN, March 2011. * ^ eThekwini interdicted from evictiong cato crest residents (serisa.org) * ^ Shack dwellers take the fight to eThekwini – and the ANC takes note (serisa.org) * ^ General bar council expresses concern over cato crest evictions (serisa.org) * ^ Technical Report on the State of Yellowfishes in South Africa 2007 * ^ Dugger, Celia W. (30 September 2009). "U.N. Cites Global Rise in Detection and Treatment of AIDS". _The New York Times_. p. A12. Retrieved 14 June 2011. * ^ Dugger, Celia W. (19 July 2009). " South Africa
South Africa
Is Seen to Lag in H.I.V. Fight". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 10 July 2009. * ^ Bell C, Devarajan S, Gersbach H (2003). "The long-run economic costs of AIDS: theory and an application to South Africa" (PDF). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3152. Retrieved 28 April 2008.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a

.