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Pontic Steppe

* Domestication of the horse
Domestication of the horse
* Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* Steppe cultures

* Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk

* Yamna

* Mikhaylovka culture

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* Maykop

East-Asia

* Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

* Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni

Northern Europe

* Corded ware

* Baden * Middle Dnieper
Dnieper

------------------------- Bronze Age
Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

* Chariot
Chariot
* Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

* Abashevo culture
Abashevo culture
* Andronovo * Sintashta

Europe

* Beaker * Globular Amphora * Corded ware * Tumulus
Tumulus
* Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* Terramare * Trzciniec

South-Asia

* BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave

------------------------- Iron Age
Iron Age

Steppe

* Chernoles

Europe

* Thraco-Cimmerian * Hallstatt * Jastorf

Caucasus

* Colchian

India

* Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies Bronze Age
Bronze Age

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Middle Ages
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East-Asia

* Tocharians

Europe

* Balts
Balts
* Slavs * Albanians * Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

* Medieval India

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Religion and mythology Reconstructed

* Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

------------------------- Historical

* Hittite

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Practices

* Fire-sacrifice * Horse sacrifice * Sati * Winter solstice
Winter solstice
/ Yule
Yule

Indo-European studies
Indo-European studies
Scholars

* Marija Gimbutas
Marija Gimbutas
* J.P. Mallory

Institutes

* Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

* Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
* The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
* Journal of Indo-European Studies * Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch * Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

* v * t * e

The KURGAN HYPOTHESIS (also known as the KURGAN THEORY or KURGAN MODEL) or STEPPE THEORY is the most widely accepted proposal to identify the Proto-Indo-European homeland from which the Indo-European languages spread out throughout Europe and parts of Asia . It postulates that the people of a KURGAN CULTURE in the Pontic steppe north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
were the most likely speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE). The term is derived from the Russian kurgan (курган), meaning tumulus or burial mound.

The Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis was first formulated in the 1950s by Marija Gimbutas , who used the term to group various cultures, including the Yamna , or Pit Grave, culture and its predecessors. David Anthony instead uses the core Yamna culture
Yamna culture
and its relationship with other cultures as a point of reference.

Marija Gimbutas
Marija Gimbutas
defined the Kurgan
Kurgan
culture as composed of four successive periods, with the earliest ( Kurgan
Kurgan
I) including the Samara and Seroglazovo cultures of the Dnieper
Dnieper
- Volga
Volga
region in the Copper Age (early 4th millennium BC). The people of these cultures were nomadic pastoralists , who, according to the model, by the early 3rd millennium BC had expanded throughout the Pontic-Caspian steppe and into Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
.

Three genetic studies in 2015 gave partial support to Gimbutas's Kurgan
Kurgan
theory regarding the Indo-European Urheimat . According to those studies, haplogroups R1b and R1a, now the most common in Europe (R1a is also common in South Asia) would have expanded from the Russian steppes, along with the Indo European languages; they also detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic Europeans, which would have been introduced with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as Indo European Languages.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Predecessors * 1.2 Overview

* 2 Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* 2.1 Cultural horizon * 2.2 Stages of culture and expansion * 2.3 Timeline * 2.4 Further expansion during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* 3 Revisions

* 3.1 Invasionist vs. diffusionist scenarios * 3.2 Anthony\'s "Revised Steppe Theory"

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

HISTORY

PREDECESSORS

Arguments for the identification of the Proto-Indo-Europeans
Proto-Indo-Europeans
as steppe nomads from the Pontic-Caspian region had already been made in the 19th century by German philologists Theodor Benfey and especially Otto Schrader . In his standard work about PIE and to a greater extent in a later abbreviated version, Karl Brugmann took the view that the urheimat could not be identified exactly at that time, but he tended toward Schrader's view. However, after Karl Penka's 1883 rejection of non-European origins, most scholars favoured a Northern European origin. The view of a Pontic origin was still strongly favoured, e.g., by the archaeologists V. Gordon Childe and Ernst Wahle . One of Wahle's students was Jonas Puzinas , who in turn was one of Gimbutas' teachers. Gimbutas, who acknowledges Schrader as a precursor, was able to marshal a wealth of archaeological evidence from the territory of the Soviet Union (and other countries then belonging to the eastern bloc) not readily available to scholars from western countries, enabling her to achieve a fuller picture of prehistoric Europe.

OVERVIEW

When it was first proposed in 1956, in The Prehistory of Eastern Europe, Part 1, Marija Gimbutas's contribution to the search for Indo-European origins was an interdisciplinary synthesis of archaeology and linguistics. The Kurgan
Kurgan
model of Indo-European origins identifies the Pontic-Caspian steppe as the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) urheimat , and a variety of late PIE dialects are assumed to have been spoken across the region. According to this model, the Kurgan
Kurgan
culture gradually expanded until it encompassed the entire Pontic-Caspian steppe, Kurgan
Kurgan
IV being identified with the Yamna culture
Yamna culture
of around 3000 BC.

The mobility of the Kurgan
Kurgan
culture facilitated its expansion over the entire region, and is attributed to the domestication of the horse and later the use of early chariots . The first strong archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from the Sredny Stog culture north of the Azov Sea in Ukraine
Ukraine
, and would correspond to an early PIE or pre-PIE nucleus of the 5th millennium BC.

Subsequent expansion beyond the steppes led to hybrid, or in Gimbutas's terms "kurganized" cultures, such as the Globular Amphora culture to the west. From these kurganized cultures came the immigration of Proto- Greeks
Greeks
to the Balkans
Balkans
and the nomadic Indo-Iranian cultures to the east around 2500 BC.

KURGAN CULTURE

CULTURAL HORIZON

Gimbutas defined and introduced the term " Kurgan
Kurgan
culture" in 1956 with the intention of introducing a "broader term" that would combine Sredny Stog II , Pit-Grave and Corded ware horizons (spanning the 4th to 3rd millennia in much of Eastern and Northern Europe). The model of a " Kurgan
Kurgan
culture" brings together the various cultures of the Copper Age to Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(5th to 3rd millennia BC) Pontic-Caspian steppe to justify their identification as a single archaeological culture or cultural horizon, based on similarities among them. The eponymous construction of kurgans (mound graves) is only one among several factors. As always in the grouping of archaeological cultures, the dividing line between one culture and the next cannot be drawn with hard precision and will be open to debate.

Cultures that Gimbutas considered as part of the " Kurgan
Kurgan
culture":

* Bug-Dniester (6th millennium) * Samara (5th millennium) * Khvalynsk (5th millennium) * Dnieper-Donets (5th to 4th millennia) * Sredny Stog (mid-5th to mid-4th millennia) * Maikop - Dereivka (mid-4th to mid-3rd millennia) * Yamna (Pit Grave) : This is itself a varied cultural horizon, spanning the entire Pontic-Caspian steppe from the mid-4th to the 3rd millennium. * Usatovo culture (late 4th millennium)

STAGES OF CULTURE AND EXPANSION

Overview of the Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis.

Gimbutas' original suggestion identifies four successive stages of the Kurgan
Kurgan
culture:

* KURGAN I, Dnieper
Dnieper
/ Volga
Volga
region, earlier half of the 4th millennium BC. Apparently evolving from cultures of the Volga
Volga
basin, subgroups include the Samara and Seroglazovo cultures. * KURGAN II–III, latter half of the 4th millennium BC. Includes the Sredny Stog culture
Sredny Stog culture
and the Maykop culture
Maykop culture
of the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
. Stone circles , anthropomorphic stone stelae of deities. * KURGAN IV or Pit Grave culture, first half of the 3rd millennium BC, encompassing the entire steppe region from the Ural to Romania
Romania
.

In other publications she proposes three successive "waves" of expansion:

* WAVE 1, predating Kurgan
Kurgan
I, expansion from the lower Volga
Volga
to the Dnieper, leading to coexistence of Kurgan
Kurgan
I and the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture . Repercussions of the migrations extend as far as the Balkans
Balkans
and along the Danube
Danube
to the Vinča culture in Serbia
Serbia
and Lengyel culture
Lengyel culture
in Hungary
Hungary
. * WAVE 2, mid 4th millennium BC, originating in the Maykop culture and resulting in advances of "KURGANIZED" hybrid cultures into northern Europe around 3000 BC ( Globular Amphora culture
Globular Amphora culture
, Baden culture , and ultimately Corded Ware culture). According to Gimbutas this corresponds to the first intrusion of Indo-European languages into western and northern Europe. * WAVE 3, 3000–2800 BC, expansion of the Pit Grave culture beyond the steppes, with the appearance of the characteristic pit graves as far as the areas of modern Romania, Bulgaria, eastern Hungary
Hungary
and Georgia, coincident with the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and Trialeti culture in Georgia (c.2750 BC).

TIMELINE

* 4500–4000: EARLY PIE. Sredny Stog, Dnieper-Donets and Samara cultures, domestication of the horse (WAVE 1). * 4000–3500: The Pit Grave culture (a.k.a. Yamna culture), the prototypical kurgan builders, emerges in the steppe, and the Maykop culture in the northern Caucasus
Caucasus
. Indo-Hittite models postulate the separation of Proto-Anatolian before this time. * 3500–3000: MIDDLE PIE. The Pit Grave culture is at its peak, representing the classical reconstructed Proto-Indo-European society with stone idols , predominantly practicing animal husbandry in permanent settlements protected by hillforts , subsisting on agriculture, and fishing along rivers. Contact of the Pit Grave culture with late Neolithic Europe
Neolithic Europe
cultures results in the "kurganized" Globular Amphora and Baden cultures (WAVE 2). The Maykop culture shows the earliest evidence of the beginning Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, and Bronze weapons and artifacts are introduced to Pit Grave territory. Probable early Satemization . * 3000–2500: LATE PIE. The Pit Grave culture extends over the entire Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
(WAVE 3). The Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture
extends from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Volga
Volga
, corresponding to the latest phase of Indo-European unity, the vast "kurganized" area disintegrating into various independent languages and cultures, still in loose contact enabling the spread of technology and early loans between the groups, except for the Anatolian and Tocharian branches, which are already isolated from these processes. The Centum-Satem break is probably complete, but the phonetic trends of Satemization remain active.

FURTHER EXPANSION DURING THE BRONZE AGE

Main article: Indo-European migrations

The Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis describes the initial spread of Proto-Indo-European during the 5th and 4th millennia BC. As used by Gimbutas, the term "kurganized" implied that the culture could have been spread by no more than small bands who imposed themselves on local people as an elite. This idea of the PIE language and its daughter-languages diffusing east and west without mass movement proved popular with archaeologists in the 1970s (the pots-not-people paradigm). The question of further Indo-Europeanization of Central and Western Europe, Central Asia and Northern India during the Bronze Age is beyond its scope, far more uncertain than the events of the Copper Age, and subject to some controversy. The rapidly developing field of archaeogenetics and genetic genealogy since the late 1990s has not only confirmed a migratory pattern out of the Pontic Steppe at the relevant time, it also suggests the possibility that the population movement involved was more substantial than anticipated.

REVISIONS

INVASIONIST VS. DIFFUSIONIST SCENARIOS

Gimbutas believed that the expansions of the Kurgan
Kurgan
culture were a series of essentially hostile, military incursions where a new warrior culture imposed itself on the peaceful, matrilinear (hereditary through the female line), matrifocal, though egalitarian cultures of "Old Europe ", replacing it with a patriarchal warrior society, a process visible in the appearance of fortified settlements and hillforts and the graves of warrior-chieftains:

The process of Indo-Europeanization was a cultural, not a physical, transformation. It must be understood as a military victory in terms of successfully imposing a new administrative system, language, and religion upon the indigenous groups.

In her later life, Gimbutas increasingly emphasized the authoritarian nature of this transition from the egalitarian process of the "nature/ Gaia"Mother Goddess to a patriarchal society and the worship of the patristic/ father/ sun/ weather God ( Zeus
Zeus
, Dyaus ). Contrary to several critics' opinion, matriarchal hierarchical structures in Gimbutas' opinion are the same as a patriarchal society, not the actual opposite: an egalitarian society without hierarchy.

Scholars who accept the general scenario of Indo-European migrations follow Gimbutas in her observation that the transition was probably more gradual than suggested by Gimbutas. Some scholars following the same assumption tend to misquote her on this issue and emphasize a (not existent) difference. Not all of it was raiding, but often the invadors "took over" the locals like a mafia racketeering, a strategy that the Greeks
Greeks
later often practiced founding their colonies. The migrations were certainly not a sudden, concerted military operation, but the expansion of disconnected tribes and cultures, spanning many generations. To what degree the indigenous cultures were peacefully amalgamated or violently displaced is thus not a matter of controversy among supporters of the Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis, depends on opinion and thereby not scientific arguments. J. P. Mallory (in 1989) accepted the Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis as the de facto standard theory of Indo-European origins, but he recognized criticism of Gimbutas' alleged, but not acually stated "radical" scenario of military invasion. Again slowly getting influence through racketeering (Gimbutas actual main scenario)was mistaken for general and immediate raiding (many "destructions" as well as previously unknown defensive measures of the sites without Kurgan
Kurgan
finds are documented nevertheless, the "gross misinterpretation" is unfortunately instead largely confirmed by independent authors; like in the case of interpreting egalitarian matrifocality as matriarchat, confirming facts are presented as contradictory, even if Gimbutas has written exactly the same):

One might at first imagine that the economy of argument involved with the Kurgan
Kurgan
solution should oblige us to accept it outright. But critics do exist and their objections can be summarized quite simply – almost all of the arguments for invasion and cultural transformations are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansions, and most of the evidence so far presented is either totally contradicted by other evidence or is the result of gross misinterpretation of the cultural history of Eastern, Central, and Northern Europe.

ANTHONY\'S "REVISED STEPPE THEORY"

David Anthony 's The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
describes his "Revised Steppe Theory". David Anthony considers the term "Kurgan culture" so lacking in precision as to be useless, instead using the core Yamna culture
Yamna culture
and its relationship with other cultures as a point of reference. He points out that

The Kurgan
Kurgan
culture was so broadly defined that almost any culture with burial mounds, or even (like the Baden culture) without them could be included.

He does not include the Maykop culture
Maykop culture
among those that he considers to be IE-speaking, presuming instead that they spoke a Caucasian language.

SEE ALSO

* Hamangia culture * Animal sacrifice * Ashvamedha * Shaft tomb * Late Glacial Maximum
Late Glacial Maximum

Genetics

* Archaeogenetics of Europe * Haplogroup R1a
Haplogroup R1a

Competing hypotheses

* Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses

* Armenian hypothesis * Anatolian hypothesis * Out of India theory * Paleolithic Continuity Theory

NOTES

* ^ See:

* Mallory: "The Kurgan
Kurgan
solution is attractive and has been accepted by many archaeologists and linguists, in part or total. It is the solution one encounters in the Encyclopædia Britannica and the Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Larousse." * Strazny: "The single most popular proposal is the Pontic steppes (see the Kurgan
Kurgan
hypothesis)..."

* ^ A B Parpola in Blench Mallory 1989 :162, 197–210). During the Pit Grave culture (c. 3500–2800 BC), which continued the cultures related to Srednij Stog and probably represents the late phase of the Proto-Indo-European culture – full-scale pastoral technology, including the domesticated horse, wheeled vehicles, stock breeding and limited horticulture, spread all over the Pontic steppes, and, c. 3000 BC, in practically every direction from this centre (Anthony 1986 , 1991 ; Mallory 1989 , vol. 1). * ^ >Gimbutas (1970) page 156: "The name Kurgan
Kurgan
culture (the Barrow culture) was introduced by the author in 1956 as a broader term to replace and Pit-Grave (Russian Yamna), names used by Soviet scholars for the culture in the eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
and south Russia, and Corded Ware, Battle-Axe , Ochre-Grave , Single-Grave and other names given to complexes characterized by elements of Kurgan
Kurgan
appearance that formed in various parts of Europe"

REFERENCES

* ^ Mallory 1989 , p. 185. * ^ Strazny 2000 , p. 163. * ^ Gimbutas (1985) page 190. * ^ Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Haak et al, 2015 * ^ Population genomics of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Eurasia, Allentoft et al, 2015 * ^ Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, Mathieson et al, 2015 * ^ Theodor Benfey, Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft und orientalischen Philologie in Deutschland seit dem Anfange des 19. Jahrhunderts, mit einem Rückblick auf die früheren Zeiten (Munich: J.G. Cotta, 1869), 597–600. * ^ Otto Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte, vol. 2. Jena, Ger.: Hermann Costanoble, 1890. * ^ Rydberg, Viktor (1907). Teutonic Mythology. 1. London, UK: Norrœna. p. 19. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. * ^ Karl Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. 1.1, Strassburg 1886, p. 2. * ^ Karl Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, vol. 1, Strassburg 1902, p. 22-23. * ^ Karl Penka, Origines Ariacae: Linguistisch-ethnologische Untersuchungen zur ältesten Geschichte der arischen Völker und Sprachen (Vienna: Taschen, 1883), 68. * ^ Vere Gordon Childe, The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European Origins (London: Kegan Paul, 1926). * ^ Ernst Wahle (1932). Deutsche Vorzeit, Leipzig 1932. * ^ Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London, UK: Thames & Hudson. p. 38. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. * ^ Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. pp. 18, 495. ISBN 978-0-691-05887-0 . * ^ Bojtar 1999 , p. 57. * ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition, 22:587–588 * ^ Razib Khan , Facing the ocean, Discover Magazine, 28 August 2012. * ^ Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, Haak et al, 2015 * ^ Population genomics of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Eurasia, Allentoft et al, 2015 * ^ Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, Mathieson et al, 2015 * ^ Haak 2015 . * ^ Gimbutas (1982 :1) * ^ Gimbutas, Dexter & Jones-Bley (1997 :309) * ^ Mallory (1991 :185) * ^ A B David Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), pp. 306–7: "Why not a Kurgan
Kurgan
Culture?" * ^ David Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), p. 297.

SOURCES

* Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-05887-3 * Anthony, David; Vinogradov, Nikolai (1995), "Birth of the Chariot", Archaeology, 48 (2), pp. 36–41, JSTOR
JSTOR
41771098 * Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew, eds. (1999), Archaeology and Language, III: Artefacts, languages and texts, London: Routledge * Bojtar, Endre (1999), Foreword to the Past: A Cultural History of the Baltic People, Central European University Press * Dexter, Miriam Robbins; Jones-Bley, Karlene, eds. (1997), The Kurgan
Kurgan
Culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: Selected Articles From 1952 to 1993, Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man, ISBN 0-941694-56-9 . * Gimbutas, Marija (1956), The Prehistory of Eastern Europe. Part I: Mesolithic, Neolithic and Copper Age Cultures in Russia and the Baltic Area, Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum . * Gimbutas, Marija (1970), "Proto-Indo-European Culture: The Kurgan Culture during the Fifth, Fourth, and Third Millennia B.C.", in Cardona, George; Hoenigswald, Henry M.; Senn, Alfred, Indo-European and Indo-Europeans: Papers Presented at the Third Indo-European Conference at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 155–197, ISBN 0-8122-7574-8 . * Gimbutas, Marija (1982), "Old Europe in the Fifth Millenium B.C.: The European Situation on the Arrival of Indo-Europeans", in Polomé, Edgar C., The Indo-Europeans in the Fourth and Third Millennia, Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers, ISBN 0-89720-041-1 * Gimbutas, Marija (Spring–Summer 1985), "Primary and Secondary Homeland of the Indo-Europeans: comments on Gamkrelidze-Ivanov articles", Journal of Indo-European Studies, 13 (1&2): 185–201 * Gimbutas, Marija ; Dexter, Miriam Robbins; Jones-Bley, Karlene (1997), The Kurgan
Kurgan
Culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: Selected Articles from 1952 to 1993, Washington, D. C.: Institute for the Study of Man, ISBN 0-941694-56-9 * Gimbutas, Marija ; Dexter, Miriam Robbins (1999), The Living Goddesses, Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-22915-0 * Haak, W.; Lazaridis, I.; Patterson, N.; Rohland, N.; Mallick, S.; Llamas, B.; Brandt, G.; Nordenfelt, S.; Harney, E.; Stewardson, K.; Fu, Q.; Mittnik, A.; Bánffy, E.; Economou, C.; Francken, M.; Friederich, S.; Pena, R. G.; Hallgren, F.; Khartanovich, V.; Khokhlov, A.; Kunst, M.; Kuznetsov, P.; Meller, H.; Mochalov, O.; Moiseyev, V.; Nicklisch, N.; Pichler, S. L.; Risch, R.; Rojo Guerra, M. A.; et al. (2015), "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages