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The Horse, the Wheel and Language
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* v * t * e

Sarmatian Kurgan
Kurgan
4th century BC, Fillipovka, South Urals, Russia . This kurgan was excavated in a dig led by Russian Academy of Sciences Archeology Institute Prof. L. Yablonsky in the summer of 2006. It is the first kurgan known to be completely destroyed and then rebuilt to its original appearance.

In English , the archaeological term KURGAN is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term BARROW , also known by the Latin
Latin
loanword TUMULUS and terms such as BURIAL MOUND. These are structures created by heaping earth and stones over a burial chamber , which is often made of wood. The term kurgan is the standard term for such structures in the context of Eastern European and Central Asian archaeology.

The noun курга́н (Kurgán) is first attested in Old East Slavic (also known as "Old Rus'ian"), which borrowed the word from an unidentified Turkic language or languages. The modern Turkish word kurgan, which means "fortress" or "burial mound". Following its use in Soviet archaeology , the word is now widely used for tumuli in the context of archaeology.

The earliest kurgans date to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus, and are associated with the Indo-Europeans . Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic
Eneolithic
, Bronze , Iron , Antiquity and Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, with ancient traditions still active in Southern Siberia
Siberia
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. Kurgan
Kurgan
cultures are divided archeologically into different sub-cultures, such as Timber Grave , Pit Grave , Scythian
Scythian
, Sarmatian , Hunnish and Kuman -Kipchak .

Many placenames contain the word "kurgan".

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins and spread

* 1.1 Scythian-Saka- Siberian
Siberian
monuments * 1.2 Cultural influence

* 2 Usage

* 2.1 Kurgan hypothesis

* 2.2 Architecture

* 2.2.1 Common components * 2.2.2 Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans (Bronze Age) * 2.2.3 Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans (Early Iron Age)

* 2.3 Gender

* 3 Archaeological remains

* 3.1 Excavated kurgans * 3.2 Kurgans in Poland

* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

ORIGINS AND SPREAD

The earliest known kurgans are dated to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus. Kurgan
Kurgan
barrows were characteristic of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
peoples, and have been found from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus
Caucasus
, Ukraine , Romania
Romania
, and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. Kurgans were used in the Ukrainian and Russian steppes, their use spreading with migration into eastern, central, and northern Europe
Europe
in the 3rd millennium BC.

SCYTHIAN-SAKA-SIBERIAN MONUMENTS

The monuments of these cultures coincide with Scythian
Scythian
-Saka - Siberian
Siberian
monuments. Scythian-Saka- Siberian
Siberian
monuments have common features, and sometimes common genetic roots. Also associated with these spectacular burial mounds are the Pazyryk , an ancient people who lived in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
lying in Siberian
Siberian
Russia
Russia
on the Ukok Plateau , near the borders with China
China
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Mongolia
Mongolia
. The archaeological site on the Ukok Plateau associated with the Pazyryk culture is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site .

Scythian-Saka- Siberian
Siberian
classification includes monuments from the 8th to the 3rd century BC. This period is called the Early or Ancient Nomads
Nomads
epoch. "Hunnic " monuments date from the 3rd century BC to the 6th century AD, and other Turkic ones from the 6th century AD to the 13th century AD, leading up to the Mongolian epoch.

CULTURAL INFLUENCE

Oleg being mourned by his warriors, an 1899 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov . This burial rite, with the funerary tumulus, is typical of both Scandinavian and Eurasian nomadic customs.

The tradition of kurgan burials was adopted by some neighboring peoples who did not have such a tradition. Various Thracian kings and chieftains were buried in elaborate mound tombs found in modern Bulgaria. Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
, the father of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, was buried in a magnificent kurgan in present Greece; and Midas , a king of ancient Phrygia , was buried in a kurgan near his ancient capital of Gordion.

USAGE

KURGAN HYPOTHESIS

Main article: Kurgan hypothesis

The Kurgan hypothesis postulates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were the bearers of the Kurgan culture
Kurgan culture
of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the Caucasus and west of the Urals
Urals
. The hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956, combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE)-speaking peoples. She tentatively named the culture "Kurgan" after their distinctive burial mounds and traced its diffusion into Europe. This hypothesis has had a significant impact on Indo-European studies .

Those scholars who follow Gimbutas identify a " Kurgan
Kurgan
culture" as reflecting an early Indo-European ethnicity, which existed in the steppes and southeastern Europe
Europe
from the 5th to 3rd millennia BC. In Kurgan
Kurgan
cultures, most of the burials were in kurgans, either clan kurgans or individual ones. Most prominent leaders were buried in individual kurgans, now called "royal kurgans". More elaborate than clan kurgans and containing grave goods, the elite examples have attracted the greatest attention and publicity.

ARCHITECTURE

Burial mounds are complex structures with internal chambers. Within the burial chamber at the heart of the kurgan, elite individuals were buried with grave goods and sacrificial offerings, sometimes including horses and chariots . The structures of the earlier Neolithic
Neolithic
period from the 4th to the 3rd millenniums BC, and Bronze Age
Bronze Age
until the 1st millennium BC, display continuity of the archaic forming methods. They were inspired by common ritual-mythological ideas.

Common Components

Inside view of the Thracian mound tomb at Sveshtari , Bulgaria
Bulgaria

In all periods, the development of the kurgan structure tradition in the various ethnocultural zones is revealed by common components or typical features in the construction of the monuments. They include:

* funeral chambers * tombs * surface and underground constructions of different configurations * a mound of earth or stone, with or without an entrance * funeral, ritual, and other traits * the presence of an altar in the chamber * stone fence * moat * bulwark * the presence of an entryway into the chamber, into the tomb, into the fence, or into the kurgan * the location of a sacrificial site on the embankments, inside the mound, inside the moat, inside the embankments, and in their links, entryways, and around the kurgan * the location of a fire pit in the chamber * a wooden roof over or under the kurgan, at the top of the kurgan, or around the kurgan * the location of stone statues, columns, poles and other objects; bypass passages inside the kurgan, inside tombs, or around the kurgan * funeral paths from the moat or bulwark.

Depending on the combination of these elements, each historical and cultural nomadic zone has certain architectural distinctions.

Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian Kurgans (Bronze Age)

In the Bronze Age, kurgans were built with stone reinforcements. Some of them are believed to be Scythian
Scythian
burials with built-up soil, and embankments reinforced with stone (Olhovsky, 1991).

Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans were surface kurgans. Underground wooden or stone tombs were constructed on the surface or underground and then covered with a kurgan. The kurgans of Bronze culture across Europe
Europe
and Asia were similar to housing; the methods of house construction were applied to the construction of the tombs. Kurgan Ak-su - Aüly (12th–11th centuries BC) with a tomb covered by a pyramidal timber roof under a kurgan has space surrounded by double walls serving as a bypass corridor. This design has analogies with Begazy, Sanguyr, Begasar, and Dandybay kurgans. These building traditions survived into the early Middle Ages, to the 8th-10th centuries AD.

The Bronze Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian culture developed in close similarity with the cultures of Yenisei
Yenisei
, Altai , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, southern, and southeast Amur regions. In the 2nd millennium BC appeared so-called "kurgans-maidans". On a prepared platform were installed earthen images of a swan , a turtle , a snake , or other image, with and without burials. Similar structures have been found in Ukraine
Ukraine
, India
India
and South America
South America
.

Some kurgans had facing or tiling. One tomb in Ukraine
Ukraine
has 29 large limestone slabs set on end in a circle underground. They were decorated with carved geometrical ornamentation of rhombuses , triangles , crosses , and on one slab, figures of people. Another example has an earthen kurgan under a wooden cone of thick logs topped by an ornamented cornice up to 2 m in height.

Scythian-Saka-Sibirian Kurgans (Early Iron Age)

Coloured lithograph by Carlo Bossoli (London, 1856) of the so-called "Tomb of Mithridates", kurgan near Kerch

The Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans in the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
are notable for their grandiose mounds throughout the Eurasian continent. The base diameters of the kurgans reach 500 m (1,600 ft) in Siberia
Siberia
(Great Salbyk kurgan (53°54′10″N 90°45′47″E / 53.9027959°N 90.7629436°E / 53.9027959; 90.7629436 ) of the settled Tagar culture); in neighboring China
China
they reach 5,000 m (16,000 ft) (kurgan of the first emperor of China
China
in the 3rd century BC near Sian) (Mason, 1997: 71). Kurgans could be extremely tall: the Great Salbyk kurgan is 22–27 m (72–89 ft) (the height of a 7-story building); the kurgan of the Chinese emperor is over 100 m (330 ft). The presence of such structures in Siberia
Siberia
testifies to a high standard of living and a developed construction culture of the nomads.

GENDER

Females were buried in about 20% of graves of the lower and middle Volga river
Volga river
region during the Yamna and Poltavka cultures . Two thousand years later, females dressed as warriors were buried in the same region. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian
Scythian
-Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lower Volga contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons
Amazons
." A near-equal ratio of male-to-female graves was found in the eastern Manych steppes and Kuban
Kuban
- Azov
Azov
steppes during the Yamna culture. In Ukraine, the ratio was intermediate between the other two regions.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS

The most obvious archeological remains associated with the Scythians are the great burial mounds, some over 20 m high, which dot the Ukrainian and Russian steppe belts and extend in great chains for many kilometers along ridges and watersheds. From them much has been learnt about Scythian
Scythian
life and art.

EXCAVATED KURGANS

Some excavated kurgans include:

* The Ipatovo kurgan revealed a long sequence of burials from the Maykop culture
Maykop culture
c. 4000 BC down to the burial of a Sarmatian princess of the 3rd century BC, excavated 1998–99. * Kurgan
Kurgan
4 at Kutuluk near Samara , Russia, dated to c. 24th century BC, contains the skeleton of a man, estimated to have been 35 to 40 years old and about 152 cm tall. Resting on the skeleton's bent left elbow was a copper object 65 cm long with a blade of a diamond-shaped cross-section and sharp edges, but no point, and a handle, originally probably wrapped in leather. No similar object is known from Bronze Age Eurasian steppe cultures. * The Maikop kurgan dates to the 3rd millennium BC. * The Novovelichkovskaya kurgan of c. 2000 BC on the Ponura River, Krasnodar
Krasnodar
region, southern Russia, contains the remains of 11 people, including an embracing couple, buried with bronze tools, stone carvings, jewelry, and ceramic vessels decorated with red ocher. The tomb is associated with the Novotitorovka culture nomads. * The Kostromskaya kurgan of the 7th century BC produced a famous Scythian
Scythian
gold stag (now Hermitage Museum ), next to the iron shield it decorated. Apart from the principal male body with his accoutrements, the burial included thirteen humans with no adornment above him, and around the edges of the burial twenty-two horses were buried in pairs. It was excavated by N. I. Veselovski in 1897. * The Issyk kurgan , in southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, contains a skeleton, possibly female, c. 4th century BC, with an inscribed silver cup, gold ornaments, Scythian
Scythian
animal art objects and headdress reminiscent of Kazakh bridal hats; discovered in 1969. * Kurgan
Kurgan
11 of the Berel cemetery, in the Bukhtarma River valley of Kazakhstan, contains a tomb of c. 300 BC, with a dozen sacrificed horses preserved with their skin, hair, harnesses, and saddles intact, buried side by side on a bed of birch bark next to a funeral chamber containing the pillaged burial of two Scythian
Scythian
nobles; excavated in 1998. * The Ryzhanovka kurgan, a 10 metre high kurgan 125 km south of Kiev , Ukraine
Ukraine
, containing the tomb of a Scythian
Scythian
chieftain, 3rd century BC, was excavated in 1996. * The Solokha kurgan , in the Zaporizhia Oblast of Ukraine, Scythian, dates to the early 4th century BC. * Mamai-gora, kurgan on the banks of Kakhovka Reservoir south west of Enerhodar (near the village of Velyka Znam'yanka). Known as one of the biggest tumulus in Europe. The height of the kurgan is 80 meters. Here were found remains of people from Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, Scythians , Sarmatians , Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Nogai people . * The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak , near the town of Kazanlak
Kazanlak
in central Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, is a Thracian kurgan of c. the 4th century BC. * The Aleksandrovo kurgan is a Thracian kurgan of c. the 4th century BC. * The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari , Bulgaria, is a Thracian kurgan of c. the 3rd century BC. * The Håga Kurgan , located on the outskirts of Uppsala
Uppsala
, Sweden
Sweden
, is a large Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
kurgan from c. 1000 BC. * The Pereshchepina Kurgan
Kurgan
is a burial memorial of the Great Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Khan Kubrat
Kubrat
from c. AD 660. * Noin-Ula kurgan, located by the Selenga River in the northern Mongolia
Mongolia
hills north of Ulan Bator , is the tomb of Uchjulü-Chanuy (8 BC – AD 13), head of the Hun
Hun
confederation.

KURGANS IN POLAND

Memorial of the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
, which took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna, Bulgaria. The facade of the mausoleum is built into the side of an ancient Thracian tomb.

Kurgan
Kurgan
building has a long history in Poland. The Polish word for kurgan is kopiec or kurhan. Some excavated kurgans in Poland:

* Burial mounds of the Unetice culture include fourteen kurgans dated to 2000–1800 BC * Kraśnik Neolithic
Neolithic
(stone age) kurhans * Tombs at Pleśnik * Trawiasta Buczyna — hundreds of stone kurhans dated to 1200–1000 BC * Skalbmierz has kurgans dated 4000 BC. * Zambrow * Mounds at Jawczyce were described by Bishop Nankerus in 1322. Kurgan
Kurgan
mounds dated to the Neolithic
Neolithic
or Bronze Age
Bronze Age
included a burial of an elderly person, probably male. Some weapons and pottery fragments were also found in the tomb. * Near Sieradz a tomb dated to the Trzciniec culture of c. 1500 BC contains a man and woman buried together. * A kurgan burial site at Łubna-Jakusy and a kurgan cremation near Guciów are examples of Trzciniec culture of c. 1500 BC. * The Krakus Mound is located in Kraków
Kraków
. Legend says it is the burial place of Krakus , founder of the city. * Wanda Mound , burial place of the daughter of Krakus, is located in Kraków. * Piłakno near Mrągowo , excavated in 1988, is an example of west Baltic kurhan culture. * In Bełchatow there is a pagan temple built upon a kurgan. Dating of this structure awaited results of carbon 14 tests in 2001. * The mound called Kopiec Tatarski at Przemyśl is triangular in shape, 10 meters in length, and pointing east. In 1869, T. Żebrawski found bones and ancient coins. In 1958, A. Kunysz found skulls and bones and medieval ceramics . a structure called Templum S. Leonardi was constructed around 1534 on top of the mound; it was destroyed in World War II
World War II
. * Kopiec Esterki was erected in the 14th century by Casimir III of Poland for his deceased wife. * Kopiec Władysław III of Poland was buried after 1444 in Varna Image:VarnaMemorial.jpg * Kościuszko Mound in Kraków
Kraków
was completed in November 1823 as a memorial to Tadeusz Kościuszko * The Union of Lublin Mound was completed in Lviv
Lviv
in 1980. Artificial mound in modern-day Ukraine. * A Mound of Immortality was constructed to honor poet Adam Mickiewicz in 1898. * Kopiec Wyzwolenia (Mound of Liberation) commemorates the 250th anniversary of the passage of the Polish Hussars through the city of Piekary Śląskie under John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
. It was completed in 1937. * Piłsudski\'s Mound in Kraków
Kraków
honors Polish general and politician Józef Piłsudski .

GALLERY

*

Salbyk kurgan before excavation, 5th-4th century BC, upper Enisey-Irtysh interfluvial. Salbyk kurgan is surrounded by balbals , and topped with Kurgan stelae
Kurgan stelae
. *

Scythian
Scythian
royal Alexandropol (Ukraine) kurgan C14 dated 394–366 BC, before excavation in 1852–6. *

Engraving of Ukraine's Perepyat kurgan cemetery group before its excavation. *

Undated unattributed unexplored kurgan on the west side of the Samara Bend, Russian Federation
Russian Federation
, with a visible tunnel made by grave robbers. *

Kántor-kurgan near the city of Szentes *

Józsepi-kurgan near the Mindszent *

Kurgans near Mindszent. One of them is covered by trees.

SEE ALSO

* Animal sacrifice , Ashvamedha * Mamayev Kurgan , used during the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
. * Scythia
Scythia
* Tarpan * Ukrainian stone stela * Yamna culture * Kleczanów Wood

NOTES

* ^ It also had some cultural influence; a character representing an ancient culture was referred to as The Kurgan , in the hit movie series Highlander .

REFERENCES

* ^ "kurgan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 October 2006). * ^ Vasmer, Max (1953–1958). Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Heidelberg: Winter. p. 2424. Retrieved 27 July 2015. * ^ A B Kipfer 2000 , p. 291. * ^ Mallory & Adams 1997 , p. 339. * ^ Akishev K.A., Kushaev G.A., Ancient culture of Sakas and Usuns in the valley of river Ili, Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences publication, 1963 (pp 121 - 136) * ^ "Ice Mummies: Siberian
Siberian
Ice Maiden". PBS - NOVA. Retrieved 2007-07-31. * ^ "Golden Mountains of Altai". UNESCO. Retrieved 2007-07-31. * ^ The Funerary Feast of King Midas @ UPM Archived February 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ A B Margulan A.N., "Architecture of the ancient period" in the Architecture of Kazakhstan, 1956, Alma-Ata, (pp 9-95) * ^ British Museum * ^ "Salbyksky mound". unknownsiberia. Retrieved 2014-05-09. * ^ " Tumulus
Tumulus
of the Kings Valley". Wikimapia. Retrieved 2014-05-09.

* ^ A B C D Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05887-3 . * ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. (January 16, 1992), p.550 * ^ Rose, M., Cudgel Culture Archaeology, March/April, 2002 * ^ Honour and Fleming, 124 * ^ Honour and Fleming, 123 * ^ Piotrovsky, 29 * ^ "Hsiung-Nu", Siberia, Hostkingdom, archived from the original on January 27, 2007 * ^ Polish * ^ Mogily, PL: GDA * ^ Skalbmierz, PL: Krakow * ^ Cieciorkami, PL: Ugzambrow, archived from the original ( JPEG ) on February 22, 2007 * ^ "Jawczyce Barrow Cemetery". megalithic.co.uk. August 7, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2017. * ^ Mounds in Jawczycach, Odyssei * ^ Historycy * ^ Odkrywca. nr1(25), 01.2001, Historycy, archived from the original on May 14, 2013 * ^ Polish

SOURCES

* Hugh Honour and John Fleming, A World History of Art, 1st edn. 1982 (many later editions), Macmillan, London, page refs to 1984 Macmillan 1st edn. paperback. ISBN 0333371852 * Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000), Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology, Springer * Mallory, J.P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis * Piotrovsky, Boris , et al. "Excavations and Discoveries in Scythian
Scythian
Lands", in From the Lands of the Scythians: Ancient Treasures from the Museums of the U.S.S.R., 3000 B.C.–100 B.C. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v. 32, no. 5 (1974), available online as a series of PDFs (bottom of the page).

FURTHER READING

* "In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology
Archaeology
and Myth" by J. P. Mallory, ISBN 0-500-27616-1 * " The Kurgan Culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: Selected Articles From 1952 to 1993" von Marija Gimbutas u.a., ISBN 0-941694-56-9 * " Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture " ed. James Mallory, D. Q. Adams, ISBN 1-884964-98-2 * D. Ya. Telegin et al., Srednestogovskaya i Novodanilovskaya Kul'tury Eneolita Azovo-Chernomorskogo Regiona. Kiev: Shlyakh, 2001. Reviewed by J.P. Mallory, JIES vol. 32, 3/4, p. 363–366. * "Reconstruction Of The Genofond Peculiarities Of The Ancient Pazyryk Population (1st-2nd Millennium BC) From Gorny Altai According To The mtDNA Structure" Voevoda M.I., Sitnikova V.V., Romashchenko A.G., Chikisheva T.A., Polosmak N.V., Molodin V. I http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/bgrs/thesis/99/. * O.Ismagulov 'Population of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
from Bronze Epoch to Present (Paleoanthropological research)', Science, Alma-Ata, 1970

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KURGAN .

* Kurgan

.