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Coordinates: 37°00′N 43°00′E / 37.000°N 43.000°E / 37.000; 43.000

Kurdistan کوردستان

Kurdish-inhabited areas (1992)

Language Kurdish

Location Upper Mesopotamia, and the Zagros
Zagros
Mountains, including parts of Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
(Armenian Highlands) and southeastern Anatolia, northern Syria, northern Iraq, and the northwestern Iranian Plateau.[1]

Parts Northern Kurdistan Southern Kurdistan Eastern Kurdistan Western Kurdistan

Countries  Turkey  Iraq  Iran  Syria

Area
Area
(est.) 190,000–390,000 km²–500,000 km² 74,000–151,000 sq. mi[citation needed]

Population 36.4 million (2016 estimate)[2][3][original research?]

Largest cities Erbil
Erbil
(Hawler) Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Amed) Kermanshah
Kermanshah
(Kirmashan) Kirkuk
Kirkuk
(Kerkuk) Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah
(Slemani) Urfa
Urfa
(Riha) Sanandaj
Sanandaj
(Sine) Van (Wan)

Internet TLD .krd

Kurdistan
Kurdistan
(/ˌkɜːrdɪˈstæn/ or /ˌkɜːrdɪˈstɑːn/) (Kurdish: کوردستان‬; [ˌkʊɾdɯˈstɑːn] ( listen); lit. "homeland of the Kurds")[4] or Greater Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is a roughly defined geo-cultural region wherein the Kurdish people
Kurdish people
form a prominent majority population[5] and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.[6] Kurdistan
Kurdistan
roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros
Zagros
and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges.[7] The territory corresponds to Kurdish irredentist claims. Contemporary use of the term refers to the following areas: southeastern Turkey
Turkey
(Northern Kurdistan), northern Iraq
Iraq
(Southern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran
Iran
(Eastern Kurdistan) and northern Syria ( Rojava
Rojava
or Western Kurdistan).[8][9] Some Kurdish nationalist organizations seek to create an independent nation state consisting of some or all of these areas with a Kurdish majority, while others campaign for greater autonomy within the existing national boundaries.[10][11] Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
first gained autonomous status in a 1970 agreement with the Iraqi government, and its status was re-confirmed as an autonomous entity within the federal Iraqi republic in 2005.[12] There is a province by the name Kurdistan
Kurdistan
in Iran; it is not self-ruled. Kurds
Kurds
fighting in the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
were able to take control of large sections of northern Syria
Syria
as government forces, loyal to President Bashar al-Assad, withdrew to fight elsewhere. Having established their own government, they called for autonomy in a federal Syria
Syria
after the war.[13]

Part of a series on Kurdish history and Kurdish culture

People

List of Kurds

Population

Homeland

Kurdistan Turkey
Turkey
(Northern Kurdistan) Iran
Iran
(Eastern Kurdistan) Iraq
Iraq
(Southern Kurdistan) Syria
Syria
(Western Kurdistan)

Diaspora

Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Canada France Georgia Germany Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Lebanon Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan Russia Sweden Turkmenistan United Kingdom United States

History

History of the Kurds

Culture

Kurdish culture Clothing Cuisine Celebrations Dance Flag Historical sites Language Folklore Literature Music Kurdish philosophers

Ancient history

Karduchian dynasties

Corduene Zabdicene Cyrtians Moxoene

Kayusids

Medieval history

Shahrizor Sadakiyans Mir Jafar Dasni Aishanids Daisam Shaddadids Rawadids Hasanwayhids Annazids Marwanids Hadhabani Hazaraspids Ayyubids Zands Badlis Ardalan Badinan Soran Mokryan Baban

Modern history

Simko Shikak revolt Koçgiri Rebellion Ararat rebellion Dersim Rebellion Kingdom of Kurdistan Kurdish Republic of Ararat Republic of Mahabad Al-Anfal campaign Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
(KRG) Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan Syrian Kurdistan Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq Kurds
Kurds
in Iran Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey Kurds
Kurds
in Syria

Languages

Kurmanci Sorani Zazaki Pehlewani Gorani

Religion

Islam Christianity Judaism Yarsanism Yazdânism Yazidism Zoroastrianism

v t e

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Ancient history 1.3 Post-classical history 1.4 Modern history

1.4.1 Northern Kurdistan 1.4.2 Syrian Civil War

2 People 3 Geography

3.1 Subdivisions (Upper and Lower Kurdistan) 3.2 Climate 3.3 Flora and fauna 3.4 Mountains 3.5 Rivers 3.6 Lakes 3.7 Petroleum
Petroleum
and mineral resources

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History Main article: History of the Kurds Etymology "Kurdistan" was also formerly spelled Curdistan.[14][15] The ancient name of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is Corduene.[16][17] Ancient history Main articles: Hurrians, Gutian people, Mannaeans, Corduene, Assyria, and Armenians Various groups, among them the Guti, Hurrians, Mannai (Mannaeans), and Armenians, lived in this region in antiquity.[18] The original Mannaean homeland was situated east and south of the Lake Urmia, roughly centered around modern-day Mahabad.[19] The region came under Persian rule during the reign of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
and Darius I. The Kingdom of Corduene, which emerged from the declining Seleucid Empire, was located to the south and south-east of Lake Van
Lake Van
between Persia
Persia
and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and ruled northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and southeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
from 189 BC to AD 384 as vassals of the vying Parthian and Roman Empire. At its zenith, the Roman Empire ruled large Kurdish-inhabited areas, particularly the western and northern Kurdish areas in the Middle East. Corduene
Corduene
became a vassal state of the Roman Republic in 66 BC and remained allied with the Romans until AD 384. After 66 BC, it passed another 5 times between Rome and Persia. Corduene
Corduene
was situated to the east of Tigranocerta, that is, to the east and south of present-day Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
in south-eastern Turkey.

Ancient Kurdistan
Kurdistan
as Kard-uchi, during Alexander the Great's Empire, 4th century BCE

Some historians have correlated a connection between Corduene
Corduene
with the modern names of Kurds
Kurds
and Kurdistan;[17][20][21] T. A. Sinclair dismissed this identification as false,[22] while a common association is asserted in the Columbia Encyclopedia.[23] Some of the ancient districts of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and their corresponding modern names:[24]

Corduene
Corduene
or Gordyene (Siirt, Bitlis
Bitlis
and Şırnak) Sophene
Sophene
(Diyarbakır) Zabdicene or Bezabde (Gozarto d'Qardu or Jazirat Ibn or Cizre) Basenia (Bayazid) Moxoene
Moxoene
(Muş) Nephercerta (Miyafarkin) Artemita (Van)

19th-century map showing the location of the Kingdom of Corduene
Corduene
in 60 BCE

One of the earliest records of the phrase land of the Kurds
Kurds
is found in an Assyrian Christian
Christian
document of late antiquity, describing the stories of Assyrian saints of the Middle East, such as Abdisho. When the Sasanian
Sasanian
Marzban asked Mar Abdisho about his place of origin, he replied that according to his parents, they were originally from Hazza, a village in Assyria. However they were later driven out of Hazza by pagans, and settled in Tamanon, which according to Abdisho was in the land of the Kurds. Tamanon lies just north of the modern Iraq- Turkey
Turkey
border, while Hazza is 12 km southwest of modern Erbil. In another passage in the same document, the region of the Khabur River is also identified as land of the Kurds.[25] According to Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
and Yaqut al-Hamawi,Tamanon was located on the south-western or southern slopes of Mount Judi
Mount Judi
and south of Cizre.[26] Other geographical references to the Kurds
Kurds
in Syriac sources appear in Zuqnin chronicle, writings of Michael the Syrian
Michael the Syrian
and Bar hebraeus. They mention the mountains of Qardu, city of Qardu and country of Qardawaye.[27] Post-classical history Main articles: Shaddadids, Rawadids, Hasanwayhids, Annazids, and Marwanids

Map of Jibal
Jibal
(mountains of northeastern Mesopotamia), highlighting "Summer and winter resorts of the Kurds", the Kurdish lands. Redrawn from Ibn Hawqal, 977 CE.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, several Kurdish principalities emerged in the region: in the north the Shaddadids
Shaddadids
(951–1174) (in east Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
between the Kur and Araxes
Araxes
rivers) and the Rawadids (955–1221) (centered on Tabriz
Tabriz
and which controlled all of Azarbaijan), in the east the Hasanwayhids
Hasanwayhids
(959–1015) (in Zagros between Shahrizor
Shahrizor
and Khuzistan) and the Annazids
Annazids
(990–1116) (centered in Hulwan) and in the west the Marwanids
Marwanids
(990–1096) to the south of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
and north of Jazira.[28][29]

Map by Mahmud al-Kashgari
Mahmud al-Kashgari
(1074), showing Arḍ al-Akrād Arabic for land of Kurds
Kurds
located between Arḍ al-Šām (Syria), and Arḍ al-ʿIrāqayn (Iraq).

Kurdistan
Kurdistan
in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
was a collection of semi-independent and independent states called emirates. It was nominally under indirect political or religious influence of Khalifs or Shahs. A comprehensive history of these states and their relationship with their neighbors is given in the text of Sharafnama, written by Prince Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi in 1597.[30][31] The emirates included Baban, Soran, Badinan and Garmiyan
Garmiyan
in the south; Bakran, Bohtan (or Botan) and Badlis
Badlis
in the north, and Mukriyan
Mukriyan
and Ardalan
Ardalan
in the east. The earliest medieval attestation of the toponym Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is found in a 12th-century Armenian historical text by Matteos Urhayeci. He described a battle near Amid and Siverek
Siverek
in 1062 as to have taken place in Kurdistan.[32][33] The second record occurs in the prayer from the colophon of an Armenian manuscript of the Gospels, written in 1200.[34][35] A later use of the term Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is found in Empire of Trebizond documents in 1336[36] and in Nuzhat-al-Qulub, written by Hamdollah Mostowfi in 1340.[37] Modern history

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Kurdistan
Kurdistan
in blue

Kurdish independent kingdoms and autonomous principalities circa 1835

According to Sharafkhan Bitlisi in his Sharafnama, the boundaries of the Kurdish land begin at the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and stretch on an even line to the end of Malatya
Malatya
and Marash.[38] Evliya Çelebi, who traveled in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
between 1640 and 1655, mentioned different districts of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
including Erzurum, Van, Hakkari, Cizre, Imaddiya, Mosul, Shahrizor, Harir, Ardalan, Baghdad, Derne, Derteng, until Basra.[39] In the 16th century, after prolonged wars, Kurdish-inhabited areas were split between the Safavid and Ottoman empires. A major division of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
occurred in the aftermath of the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
in 1514, and was formalized in the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.[40] From then until the aftermath of World War I, Kurdish areas (including most of Mesopotamia, eastern Anatolia, and traditionally Kurdish northeastern Syria) were generally under Ottoman rule, apart from the century-long, intermittent Iranian occupation in the early modern to modern period, and the later reconquest and vast expansion by the Iranian military leader Nader Shah
Nader Shah
in the first half of the 18th century. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Allies contrived to split Kurdistan
Kurdistan
(as detailed in the ultimately unratified Treaty of Sèvres) among several countries, including Kurdistan, Armenia
Armenia
and others. However, the reconquest of these areas by the forces of Kemal Atatürk (and other pressing issues) caused the Allies to accept the renegotiated Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
and the borders of the modern Republic of Turkey, leaving the Kurds
Kurds
without a self-ruled region. Other Kurdish areas were assigned to the new British and French mandated states of Iraq
Iraq
and Syria.

Kurdistan
Kurdistan
(shaded area) as suggested by the Treaty of Sèvres

At the San Francisco Peace Conference
San Francisco Peace Conference
of 1945, the Kurdish delegation proposed consideration of territory claimed by the Kurds, which encompassed an area extending from the Mediterranean shores near Adana to the shores of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
near Bushehr, and included the Lur inhabited areas of southern Zagros.[41][42] At the end of the First Gulf War, the Allies established a safe haven in northern Iraq. Amid the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from three northern provinces, Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
emerged in 1992 as an autonomous entity inside Iraq
Iraq
with its own local government and parliament. A 2010 US report, written before the instability in Syria
Syria
and Iraq that exists as of 2014, attested that " Kurdistan
Kurdistan
may exist by 2030".[43] The weakening of the Iraqi state following the 2014 Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive by the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant has also presented an opportunity for independence for Iraqi Kurdistan,[44] augmented by Turkey's move towards acceptance of such a state although it opposes moves toward Kurdish autonomy in Turkey
Turkey
and Syria.[45] Northern Kurdistan Main articles: Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), Iraqi–Kurdish conflict, and Kurdish separatism in Iran The incorporation into Turkey
Turkey
of the Kurdish-inhabited regions of eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
was opposed by many Kurds, and has resulted in a long-running separatist conflict in which thousands of lives have been lost. The region saw several major Kurdish rebellions, including the Koçgiri rebellion
Koçgiri rebellion
of 1920 under the Ottomans, then successive insurrections under the Turkish state, including the 1924 Sheikh Said rebellion, the Republic of Ararat
Republic of Ararat
in 1927, and the 1937 Dersim rebellion. All were forcefully put down by the authorities. The region was declared a closed military area from which foreigners were banned between 1925 and 1965.[46][47][48] In an attempt to deny their existence, the Turkish government categorized Kurds
Kurds
as "Mountain Turks" until 1991.[49][50][51] The words "Kurds", "Kurdistan", or "Kurdish" were officially banned by the Turkish government.[52] Following the military coup of 1980, the Kurdish language was officially prohibited in public and private life.[53] Many people who spoke, published, or sang in Kurdish were arrested and imprisoned.[54] Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, political parties that represented Kurdish interests were banned.[52] In 1983, the Kurdish provinces were placed under martial law in response to the activities of the militant separatist organization the Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK).[55][56] A guerrilla war took place through the 1980s and 1990s in which much of the countryside was evacuated, thousands of Kurdish-populated villages were destroyed by the government, and numerous summary executions were carried out by both sides.[57] Many villages were set on fire.[58][59] Food embargoes were placed on Kurdish villages and towns.[60][61] More than 20,000 Kurds
Kurds
were killed in the violence and hundreds of thousands more were forced to leave their homes.[62] Turkey
Turkey
has historically feared that a Kurdish state in Northern Iraq would encourage and support Kurdish separatists in the adjacent Turkish provinces, and have therefore historically strongly opposed Kurdish independence in Iraq. However, following the chaos in Iraq after the US invasion, Turkey
Turkey
has increasingly worked with the autonomous Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Regional Government.[63] Syrian Civil War See also: 2012 Syrian Kurdistan
Syrian Kurdistan
rebellion and Syrian Kurdish–Islamist conflict (2013–present)

Military situation on 000000002018-03-23-0000March 23, 2018:   Controlled by Syrian Kurds   Controlled by Iraqi Kurds   Controlled by the Islamic State in Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
(ISIL, ISIS, IS)

The successful 2014 Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive by the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant, with the resultant weakening of the ability of the Iraqi state to project power, also presented a "golden opportunity" for the Kurds
Kurds
to increase their independence and possibly declare an independent Kurdish state.[44] The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, who took more than 80 Turkish persons captive in Mosul during their offensive, is an enemy of Turkey, making Kurdistan
Kurdistan
useful for Turkey
Turkey
as a buffer state. On 28 June 2014 Hüseyin Çelik, a spokesman for the ruling AK party, made comments to the Financial Times indicating Turkey's readiness to accept an independent Kurdistan in northern Iraq.[45] Various sources have reported that Al-Nusra has issued a fatwā calling for Kurdish women and children in Syria
Syria
to be killed,[64] and the fighting in Syria
Syria
has led tens of thousands of refugees to flee to Iraq's Kurdistan
Kurdistan
region.[65][66][67] As of 2015, Turkey
Turkey
is actively supporting the Al-Nusra,[68] but as of January 2017, Turkey's foreign ministry has said that Al-Nusra is a terrorist group and has acted accordingly.[69] People Main article: Kurds The Kurds
Kurds
are a people of Indo-European origin. They speak an Iranian language known as Kurdish, and comprise the majority of the population of the region – however, included therein are Arab, Armenian, Assyrian/Aramean/Syriac,[70] Azerbaijani, Jewish, Ossetian, Persian, and Turkish communities. Most inhabitants are Muslim, but adherents to other religions are present as well – including Yarsanism, Yazidis, Alevis, Christians,[71] and in the past, Jews, most of whom immigrated to Israel.[72] Geography

Historic map from 1721 showing borders of Curdistan provinces in Persia

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Kurdistan
Kurdistan
covers about 190,000 km², and its chief towns are Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır
(Amed), Bitlis (Bedlîs) and Van (Wan) in Turkey, Erbil
Erbil
(Hewlêr) and Slemani
Slemani
in Iraq, and Kermanshah
Kermanshah
(Kirmanşan), Sanandaj
Sanandaj
(Sine), Ilam and Mahabad (Mehabad) in Iran.[73] According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, Kurdistan
Kurdistan
covers around 190,000 km² in Turkey, 125,000 km² in Iran, 65,000 km² in Iraq, and 12,000 km² in Syria, with a total area of approximately 392,000 km².[74] Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
is divided into six governorates, three of which (and parts of others) are under the control of the Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Regional Government. Iranian Kurdistan
Iranian Kurdistan
encompasses Kurdistan Province
Kurdistan Province
and the greater parts of West Azerbaijan, Kermanshah, and Īlām provinces. Syrian Kurdistan
Syrian Kurdistan
(Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) is located primarily in northern Syria, and covers the province of Al Hasakah and northern Raqqa Governorate, northern Aleppo Governorate and also Jabal al-Akrad (Mountain of the Kurds) region. The major cities in this region are Qamishli
Qamishli
(Kurdish: Qamişlo) and Al Hasakah (Kurdish: Hasakah). Turkish Kurdistan
Turkish Kurdistan
encompasses a large area of Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
Region and southeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
of Turkey
Turkey
and it is home to an estimated 6 to 8 million Kurds.[75] There are another 9 to 12 million Turkish citizens of Kurdish descent in predominantly Turkish regions of Turkey as the majority of Turkish Kurds
Kurds
no longer live in Southeastern Anatolia. Subdivisions (Upper and Lower Kurdistan) In A Dictionary of Scripture Geography (published 1846), John Miles describes Upper and Lower Kurdistan
Kurdistan
as following:

The States outlined in red are two Kurdish States named Hakkiari and Mosul
Mosul
in this 1902 map. They are referred to as Upper Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Lower Kurdistan
Kurdistan
respectively.

Modern Curdistan is of much greater extent than the ancient Assyria, and is composed of two parts the Upper and Lower. In the former is the province of Ardelan, the ancient Arropachatis, now nominally a part of Irak Ajami, and belonging to the north west division called Al Jobal. It contains five others namely, Betlis, the ancient Carduchia, lying to the south and south west of the lake Van. East and south east of Betlis is the principality of Julamerick, south west of it is the principality of Amadia. the fourth is Jeezera ul Omar, a city on an island in the Tigris, and corresponding to the ancient Bezabde. the fifth and largest is Kara Djiolan, with a capital of the same name. The pashalics of Kirkook and Solimania also comprise part of Upper Curdistan. Lower Curdistan comprises all the level tract to the east of the Tigris, and the minor ranges immediately bounding the plains and reaching thence to the foot of the great range, which may justly be denominated the Alps of western Asia.[76]

The northern, northwestern and northeastern parts of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
are referred to as upper Kurdistan, and includes the areas from west of Amed to lake Urmia. The lowlands of southern Kurdistan
Kurdistan
are called lower Kurdistan. The main cities in this area are Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and Arbil. Climate Much of the region is typified by a continental climate – hot in the summer, cold in the winter. Despite this, much of the region is fertile and has historically exported grain and livestock. Precipitation varies between 200 and 400 mm a year in the plains, and between 700 and 3,000 mm a year on the high plateau between mountain chains.[74] The climate is dominated by mountains in the zone along the border with Iran
Iran
and Turkey, with dry summers, rainy and sometimes snowy winters, and damp springs, while to the south it progressively transitions towards semi-arid and desert zones. The northern mountainous regions along the border with Iran
Iran
and Turkey receive heavy snowfall and they are more of an extreme version of the continental climate. Flora and fauna Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is one of the most mountainous regions in the world with a cold climate receiving annual precipitation adequate to sustain temperate forests and shrubs. Mountain chains harbor pastures and forested valleys, totaling approximately 16 million hectares (160,000 km²), including firs and countryside is mostly oaks, conifers, platanus, willow, poplar and, to the west of Kurdistan, olive trees.[74] The region north of the mountainous region on the border with Iran
Iran
and Turkey
Turkey
features meadow grasses and such wild trees as poplar, willow and oak, hawthorn, cherry plum, rose hips, mountain apple, pear, mountain ash, and olive. The steppe and desert in the south, by contrast, have such species as palm trees and date palm. Animals found in the region include the Syrian brown bear, wild boar, gray wolf, the golden jackal, Indian crested porcupine, the red fox, goitered gazelle, Eurasian otter, striped hyena, Persian fallow deer, long-eared hedgehog, onager, mangar and the Euphrates
Euphrates
softshell turtle.[77] Birds include, the hooded crow, common starling, Eurasian magpie, European robin, water pipit, spotted flycatcher, namaqua dove, saker falcon, griffon vulture, little crake and collared pratincole, among others.[78] Mountains Mountains are important geographical and symbolic features of Kurdish life, as evidenced by the saying " Kurds
Kurds
have no friends but the mountains."[79] Mountains are regarded as sacred by the Kurds.[80] Included in the region are Mount Judi
Mount Judi
and Ararat (both prominent in Kurdish folklore), Zagros, Qandil, Shingal, Mount Abdulaziz, Kurd Mountains, Jabal al-Akrad, Shaho, Gabar, Hamrin, and Nisir. Rivers The plateaus and mountains of Kurdistan, which are characterized by heavy rain and snow fall, act as a water reservoir for the Near and Middle East, forming the source of the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates
Euphrates
rivers, as well as other numerous smaller rivers, such as the Little Khabur, Khabur, Tharthar, Ceyhan, Araxes, Kura, Sefidrud, Karkha, and Hezil. Among rivers of historical importance to Kurds
Kurds
are the Murat (Arasān) and Buhtān rivers in Turkey; the Peshkhābur, the Little Zab, the Great Zab, and the Diyala in Iraq; and the Jaghatu (Zarrinarud), the Tātā'u (Siminarud), the Zohāb (Zahāb), and the Gāmāsiyāb in Iran. These rivers, which flow from heights of three to four thousand meters above sea level, are significant both as water sources and for the production of energy. Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
dammed many of these rivers and their tributaries, and Turkey
Turkey
has an extensive dam system under construction as part of the GAP (Southeast Anatolia
Anatolia
Project); though incomplete, the GAP already supplies a significant proportion of Turkey's electrical energy needs. Due to the extraordinary archaeological richness of the region, almost any dam impacts historic sites.[81] Lakes Kurdistan
Kurdistan
extends to Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
in Iran
Iran
on the east. The region includes Lake Van, the largest body of water in Turkey; the only lake in the Middle East with a larger surface is Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
– though not nearly as deep as Lake Van, which has a much larger volume. Urmia, Van, as well as Zarivar Lake
Zarivar Lake
west of Marivan, and Lake Dukan
Lake Dukan
near the city of Sulaymaniyah, are frequented by tourists.[81] Petroleum
Petroleum
and mineral resources KRG-controlled parts of Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
are estimated to contain around 45 billion barrels (7.2×10^9 m3) of oil, making it the sixth largest reserve in the world. Extraction of these reserves began in 2007. Al-Hasakah province, also known as Jazira region, has geopolitical importance of oil and is suitable for agricultural lands. In November 2011, Exxon challenged the Iraqi central government's authority with the signing of oil and gas contracts for exploration rights to six parcels of land in Kurdistan, including one contract in the disputed territories, just east of the Kirkuk
Kirkuk
mega-field.[82] This act caused Baghdad
Baghdad
to threaten to revoke Exxon's contract in its southern fields, most notably the West-Qurna Phase 1 project.[83] Exxon responded by announcing its intention to leave the West-Qurna project.[84] As of July 2007, the Kurdish government solicited foreign companies to invest in 40 new oil sites, with the hope of increasing regional oil production over the following 5 years by a factor of five, to about 1 million barrels per day (160,000 m3/d).[85] Gas and associated gas reserves are in excess of 2,800 km3 (100×10^12 cu ft). Notable companies active in Kurdistan include ExxonMobil, Total, Chevron, Talisman Energy, Genel Energy, Hunt Oil, Gulf Keystone Petroleum, and Marathon Oil.[86] Other mineral resources that exist in significant quantities in the region include coal, copper, gold, iron, limestone (which is used to produce cement), marble, and zinc. The world's largest deposit of rock sulfur is located just southwest of Erbil
Erbil
(Hewlêr).[87] In July 2012, Turkey
Turkey
and the Kurdistan Regional Government
Kurdistan Regional Government
signed an agreement by which Turkey
Turkey
will supply the KRG with refined petroleum products in exchange for crude oil. Crude deliveries are expected to occur on a regular basis.[88]

A typical Kurdish village in Hawraman, Kurdistan

Canyon in Rawanduz
Rawanduz
in northern Iraqi Kurdistan

Zê river in Zebari region, Iraqi Kurdistan.

The city of Piranshahr, center of Mokrian district, northwestern Iran

The city of Batman, eastern Turkey

See also

Kurdistan
Kurdistan
portal Geography portal Middle East portal Asia portal

References

^ " Kurdistan
Kurdistan
– Definitions from Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2007-10-21.  ^ "The Kurdish population". Fondation-Institut kurde de Paris. 20 December 2016. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ A rough estimate by the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
has populations of 14.5 million in Turkey, 6 million in Iran, about 5 to 6 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to close to 28 million Kurds living in these countries (i.e. in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
proper and in other parts of the states comprising the area taken together). CIA Factbook estimates as of 2014; Turkey: "Kurdish 18% [of 81.6 million]", Iran: "Kurd 10% [of 80.8 million]", Iraq: "Kurdish 15%-20% [of 32.6 million]" Syria: "Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% [of 17.9 million]". ^ "Kurdistan". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 2010-07-29.  ^ Zaken, Mordechai (2007). Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival. Leiden, The Netherlands: BRILL. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9789004161900. Kurdistan
Kurdistan
was never a sovereign state, though the area with an ethnic and linguistic majority of Kurdish population
Kurdish population
is defined as Kurdistan.  ^ M. T. O'Shea, Trapped between the map and reality: geography and perceptions of Kurdistan, 258 pp., Routledge, 2004. (see p.77) ^ Kurdistan[permanent dead link], Britannica Concise. ^ Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland, (2014), by Ofra Bengio, University of Texas Press ^ "The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2005". bartleby.com.  ^ "The Kurdish Conflict: Aspirations for Statehood within the Spirals of International Relations in the 21st Century". Kurdishaspect.com. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ Hamit Bozarslan “The Kurdish Question: Can it be solved within Europe?”, page 84 “The years of silence and of renewal” in Olivier Roy, ed. Turkey
Turkey
Today: A European Country?. ^ Iraqi Constitution, Article 113. ^ " Kurds
Kurds
seek autonomy in democratic Syria". BBC. August 16, 2012.  ^ The Edinburgh encyclopaedia, conducted by D. Brewster—Page 511, Original from Oxford University—published 1830 ^ An Account of the State of Roman-Catholick Religion, Sir Richard Steele, Published 1715 ^ N. Maxoudian, "Early Armenia
Armenia
as an Empire: The Career of Tigranes III, 95–55 BC", Journal of The Royal Central Asian Society, Vol. 39, Issue 2, April 1952 , pp. 156–163. ^ a b A.D. Lee, The Role of Hostages in Roman Diplomacy with Sasanian Persia, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 40, No. 3 (1991), pp. 366–374 (see p.371) ^ [1] Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Mahabad". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ Rawlinson, George, The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 7, 1871. (copy at Project Gutenberg) ^ Revue des études arméniennes, vol.21, 1988–1989, p.281, by Société des études armeniennes, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Published by Imprimerie nationale, P. Geuthner, 1989. ^ T. A. Sinclair, "Eastern Turkey, an Architectural and Archaeological Survey", 1989, volume 3, page 360. ^ Kurds, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001. ^ J. Bell, A System of Geography. Popular and Scientific (A Physical, Political, and Statistical Account of the World and Its Various Divisions), pp.133–4, Vol. IV, Fullarton & Co., Glasgow, 1832. ^ J. T. Walker, The Legend of Mar Qardagh: Narrative and Christian Heroism in Late Antique Iraq
Iraq
(368 pages), University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24578-4, 2006, pp. 26, 52, 108. ^ T. A. Sinclair, "Eastern Turkey, an Architectural and Archaeological Survey", Vol. 3, Pindar Press, ISBN 978-1-904597-76-6, 1989, page 337. ^ Mouawad, R. J. (1992). "The Kurds
Kurds
and Their Christian
Christian
Neighbors: The Case of Orthodox Syriacs". Parole de l'Orient. XVII: 127–141.  ^ Maria T. O'Shea, Trapped between the map and reality: geography and perceptions of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
, 258 pp., Routledge, 2004. (see p.68) ^ I. Gershevitch, The Cambridge history of Iran: The Saljuq and Mongol periods, Vol.5, 762 pp., Cambridge University Press, 1968. (see p.237 for "Rawwadids") ^ "Sharafnama: History of the Kurdish Nation". Mazdapublishers.com. Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ For a list of these entities see Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and its native Provincial subdivisions Archived 18 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Matt'eos Urhayec'i, (in Armenian)Ժամանակագրություն (Chronicle), ed. by M. Melik-Adamyan et al., Erevan, 1991. (p.156) ^ G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran
Iran
and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp.1–58, 2009. (see p.19) ^ A.S. Mat'evosyan, Colophons of the Armenian Manuscripts, Erevan, 1988. (p.307) ^ G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran
Iran
and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp.1–58, 2009. (p.20) ^ Zehiroglu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorlugu" 2016 (ISBN 978-605-4567-52-2) ; p.169 ^ G. Asatrian, Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds, Iran
Iran
and the Caucasus, Vol.13, pp.1–58, 2009. (see p.20) ^ Özoğlu, Hakan (2004). Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State. State University of New York Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-7914-5993-4.  ^ Özoğlu, Hakan (2004). Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State. State University of New York Press. p. 34. ISBN 0-7914-5993-4.  ^ C. Dahlman, "The Political Geography of Kurdistan", Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol.43, No.4, pp.271–299, 2002. ^ C. Dahlman, The Political Geography of Kurdistan, Eurasian Geography and Economics, Vol.43, No.4, p. 274. ^ "The map presented by the Kurdish League Delegation, March 1945". Akakurdistan.com. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
may be divided, a Kurdish state could become a reality by 2030: U.S. Intelligence report". ekurd.net.  ^ a b "The Rise of ISIS, a Golden Opportunity for Iraq's Kurds". aucegypt.edu. June 27, 2014.  ^ a b " Turkey
Turkey
Ready To Accept Kurdish State in Northern Iraq". International Business Times UK.  ^ M.M. Gunter, The Kurds
Kurds
and the future of Turkey, 184 pp., Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. (see p.6) ^ G. Chaliand, A people without a country: the Kurds
Kurds
and Kurdistan, 259 pp., Interlink Books, 1993. (see p.250) ^ Joost Jongerden,The settlement issue in Turkey
Turkey
and the Kurds: an analysis of spatial policies, modernity and war, 354 pp., BRILL Publishers, 2007. (see p.37) ^ " Turkey
Turkey
- Linguistic and Ethnic Groups".  ^ Bartkus, Viva Ona, The Dynamic of Secession, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 90-91. ^ Çelik, Yasemin (1999). Contemporary Turkish foreign policy (1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-275-96590-7.  ^ a b Baser, Bahar (2015). Diasporas and Homeland Conflicts: A Comparative Perspective. Ashgate Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 1-4724-2562-6.  ^ Toumani, Meline. Minority Rules, New York Times, 17 February 2008 ^ Aslan, Senem (2014). Nation Building in Turkey
Turkey
and Morocco. Cambridge University Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-107-05460-5.  ^ Kurd, The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas, 2005 ^ "[2], NY Times, 28 September 2007 ^ Martin van Bruinessen, "Kurdistan." The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, 2nd edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press, 2001. ^ Ibrahim, Ferhad (2000). The Kurdisch conflict in Turkey : obstacles and chances for peace and democracy. Münster : New York, N.Y.: Lit ; St. Martin's press. p. 182. ISBN 3-8258-4744-6.  ^ Gunes, Cengiz (2013). The Kurdish National Movement in Turkey: From Protest to Resistance. Routledge. p. 130. ISBN 1-136-58798-5.  ^ Olson, Robert (1996). The Kurdish nationalist movement in the 1990s : its impact on Turkey
Turkey
and the Middle East. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky. p. 16. ISBN 0-8131-0896-9.  ^ Shaker, Nadeen. "After Being Banned for Almost a Century, Turkey's Kurds
Kurds
Are Clamoring to Learn Their Own Language". Muftah.  ^ "Kurdish rebels kill Turkey
Turkey
troops", BBC News, 8 May 2007 ^ "Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com.  ^ See * David Phillips (World Post column) "President Masoud Barzani of Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
has pledged protection for Syrian Kurds
Kurds
from al-Nusra, a terrorist organization, which issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Kurdish women and children"

David Phillips (World Post column) "Al-Nusra Front, Syria's Al-Qaeda affiliate, issued a fatwa condoning the killing of Kurdish women and children" ITNsource.com "A fatwa (edict) has been issued permitting the shedding of the blood of the Kurds
Kurds
and they called from the mosque loudspeakers that the shedding of the Kurdish blood is halal"

^ "Some 30,000 Syrians flee to Iraq's Kurdistan
Kurdistan
region, more expected". UNHCR. 20 Aug 2013.  ^ Martin Chulov (19 Aug 2013). "Syrian Kurds
Kurds
continue to flee to Iraq in their thousands". The Guardian.  ^ "Syrian Kurds
Kurds
Flee To Iraq
Iraq
By The Thousands". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 20 Aug 2013.  ^ Kim Sengupta (12 May 2015). " Turkey
Turkey
and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria". The Independent.  ^ Reuters Staff (26 January 2017). " Turkey
Turkey
sees Nusra Front as terrorist group, acts accordingly: source". Reuters. Retrieved 26 September 2017.  ^ "Basic Information". Czech-Kurdish Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2017-12-14.  ^ Mehrdad R. Izady, The Kurds: A Concise Handbook, 1992, Taylor & Francis, Washington, D.C., "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ "Photos of Kurdish Jews
Kurdish Jews
in Israel". Saradistribution.com. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ Kurdistan, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Islam[page needed] ^ Myrie, Clive (2007-10-26). "Middle East Kurds
Kurds
show coded support for PKK". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ A Dictionary of Scripture Geography, p 57, by John Miles, 486 pages, Published 1846, Original from Harvard University ^ Al-Sheikhly, O.F.; and Nader, I.A. (2013). The Status of the Iraq Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq. IUCN Otter Spec. Group Bull. 30(1). ^ "Iraq's Marshes Show Progress toward Recovery". Wildlife Extra. Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ John Bulloch and Harvey Morris, No Friends but the Mountains: The Tragic History of the Kurds, ISBN 0-19-508075-0 ^ "Iraqi Kurds: "No Friend but the Mountains"". The Huffington Post.  ^ a b "Economy: Water". The Encyclopædia of Kurdistan. Retrieved 2017-12-14.  ^ westernzagros.com Archived 9 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Exxon's Kurdistan". Zawya. 2012-03-04. Archived from the original on 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2012-12-31.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
says expects Exxon to finish West Qurna Sale by December". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-12-31.  ^ "Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
open 40 new oil sites to foreign investors". Iraq Updates. 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2011-05-13.  ^ " Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Oil and Gas Activity Map" (PDF). Western Zagros. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-31.  ^ Official statements on the oil and gas sector in the Kurdistan region Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine., Kurdistan Development Corporation. ^ "First Shipment of Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Crude Arrives in Turkey". BrightWire. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. 

Further reading

Besikci, Ismail. Selected Writings [about] Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and Turkish Colonialism. London: Published jointly by Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee and Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Information Centre, 1991. 44 p. Without ISBN King, Diane E. Kurdistan
Kurdistan
on the Global Stage: Kinship, Land, and Community in Iraq
Iraq
(Rutgers University Press; 2014) 267 pages; Scholarly study of traditional social networks, such as patron-client relations, as well as technologically mediated communication, in a study of gender, kinship, and social life in Iraqi Kurdistan. Öcalan, Abdullah, Interviews and Speeches [about the Kurdish cause]. London: Published jointly by Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee and Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Information Centre, 1991. 46 p. Without ISBN Reed, Fred A. Anatolia
Anatolia
Junction: a Journey into Hidden Turkey. Burnaby, B.C.: Talonbooks [sic], 1999. 320 p., ill. with b&w photos. N.B.: Includes a significant coverage of the Turkish sector of historic Kurdistan, the Kurds, and their resistance movement. ISBN 0-88922-426-9

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Kūrdistān.

Media related to Kurdistan
Kurdistan
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

Kurdish organisations

 Turkey

Communist Party of Kurdistan
Communist Party of Kurdistan
(KKP) Democracy Party (DEP) Democratic People's Party (DEHAP) Democratic Society Party
Democratic Society Party
(DTP) Democratic Regions Party
Democratic Regions Party
(DBP) Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) Kurdistan Islamic Movement (HİK) Kurdish Hizbollah Islamic Party of Kurdistan
Islamic Party of Kurdistan
(PİK) Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Communities of Women (KJK) Kurdistan Communities Union
Kurdistan Communities Union
(KCK) Kurdistan Democratic Party/North
Kurdistan Democratic Party/North
(KDP/Bakur) Kurdistan Workers' Party
Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) People's Defence Forces
People's Defence Forces
(HPG) Free Women's Units
Free Women's Units
(YJA-STAR) National Liberation Front of Kurdistan
National Liberation Front of Kurdistan
(ERNK) Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) People's Democracy Party
People's Democracy Party
(HADEP) People's Labor Party (HEP) Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party of Kurdistan
(PŞK) Rights and Freedoms Party
Rights and Freedoms Party
(HAK-PAR) Society for the Rise of Kurdistan Xoybûn (CSK) Workers Vanguard Party of Kurdistan (PPKK) Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) Patriotic Revolutionary Youth Movement (YDG-H) Civil Protection Units
Civil Protection Units
(YPS) Civil Protection Units-Women
Civil Protection Units-Women
(YPS-Jin)

 Syria

Democratic Union Party (PYD) Kurdish National Council
Kurdish National Council
(KNC-ENKS) Kurdish Supreme Committee Kurdistan Democratic Party
Kurdistan Democratic Party
of Syria
Syria
(KDP-S) Kurdish Democratic Political Union Liwa Ahfad Saladin People's Protection Units
People's Protection Units
(YPG) Women's Protection Units
Women's Protection Units
(YPJ) Jabhat al-Akrad Movement for a Democratic Society

 Iraq

Action Party for the Independence of Kurdistan Democratic National Union of Kurdistan (YNDK) Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan (DPAK) Gorran Kurdistan Islamic Group
Kurdistan Islamic Group
(IGK) Kurdistan Islamic Movement (IMK) Kurdish Tribal Association Communist Party of Kurdistan
Communist Party of Kurdistan
– Iraq Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Conservative Party Kurdistan Democratic Party
Kurdistan Democratic Party
(KDP) Kurdistan Democratic Party
Kurdistan Democratic Party
– Progressive Front Kurdistan Democratic Solution Party
Kurdistan Democratic Solution Party
(PÇDK) Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU) Kurdistan
Kurdistan
List Kurdistan
Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party
Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party
(KSDP) Kurdistan Toilers' Party (KZP) Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
(PUK) Peshmerga Êzîdxan Protection Force
Êzîdxan Protection Force
(HPŞ) Service and Reform List Shursh Sinjar Resistance Units
Sinjar Resistance Units
(YBŞ) Êzîdxan Women's Units Asayîşa Êzîdxanê The Green Party of Kurdistan

 Iran

Komala Komalah (CPI) Kurdistan Democratic Party
Kurdistan Democratic Party
of Iran
Iran
(KDP-I) Kurdistan Democratic Party
Kurdistan Democratic Party
(KDP) Kurdistan Freedom Party (PAK) Kurdistan Free Life Party
Kurdistan Free Life Party
(PJAK) Khabat Kurdish United Front
Kurdish United Front
(KUP) Iranian Call and Reform Organization

 Lebanon

Kurdish Democratic Party Razkari Party

Diaspora

European Kurdish Democratic Societies Congress (KCD-E) Kurdish Heritage Foundation of America Kurdish Student Academic Association (KSAF)

Kurdistan Kurds Iraqi Kurdistan Rojava Kurdish nationalism List of Kurdish dynasties and countries

v t e

Irredentism

Africa

Congo Comoros Madagascar Mauritania Mauritius Morocco

Free Zone

Somalia South Africa

Asia

Armenia

Artsakh

Azerbaijan Cambodia China

Nine-Dash Line

Georgia Kashmir Kurdistan

Iraqi Kurdistan Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan Syrian Kurdistan

Korea

Tsushima

India Indonesia Iran

Iranian peoples

Iraq

Kuwait Assyrian homeland

Israel Japan Lebanon Mongolia Nepal Philippines Syria

Hatay

Timor Turkey

Cyprus Turkic peoples

Yemen

Europe

Albania

Kosovo Macedonia

Austria Bulgaria Belarus Croatia

Bosnia

Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France

Wallonia

Germany

Germanic

Greece

Cyprus

Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy

Corsica Dalmatia Istria Malta Nice Savoy Switzerland

Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania

Moldova

Russia

East Slavic peoples Crimea

Serbia

Kosovo Republika Srpska

Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Americas

Argentina Bolivia Canada Guatemala Mexico United States Suriname Venezuela

Oceania

Australia Nelsonia Papua New Guinea Samoa Vanuatu

Related concepts: Border changes
Border changes
· Partitionism · Reunification · Revanchism
Revanchism
· Rump state

v t e

Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

Africa

  Afrikaners   Amazigh (Berberia)   Barotseland   Batwaland  Haratin   Ogaden   Ogoni   Oromia   Rehoboth   Somaliland   Southern Cameroons   Venda   Zanzibar

North America

  District of Columbia

South America

  Mapuche

Asia

  Aceh   Ahwazi (Arabistan)   Assyria   Iranian Azerbaijan   East Balochistan   West Balochistan   Chin   Chittagong Hill Tracts   Degar-Montagnards    Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
(Balawaristan)   Hmong  Igorot (Cordillera)   Inner Mongolia   Khmer Krom   Kurdistan   South Moluccas   Moro   Nagaland   Sindh   Taiwan   Talysh-Mughan   Tibet   Iraqi Turkmens   East Turkestan   West Papua

Europe

  Abkhazia   Brittany   Circassia   Hungarians in Transilvania   Kosovo   Lezgiland   Crimean Tatars   Savoy   Trieste

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 242075403 LCCN: sh85073466 GND: 4033793-5 SUDOC: 027367533 BNF: cb119424577 (data) HDS: 41672 NDL: 0056

.