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c. 30–32 million[1] See Statistics by country

Languages

Kurdish and Zazaki–Gorani In their different forms: Sorani, Kurmanji, Pehlewani, Zazaki, Gorani

Religion

Mostly Sunni
Sunni
Muslim, but also Shia Muslim
Shia Muslim
and Sufism
Sufism
with minorities of deism, agnosticism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism

Related ethnic groups

Medes

Part of a series on Kurdish history and Kurdish culture

People

List of Kurds

Population

Homeland

Kurdistan Turkey
Turkey
(Northern Kurdistan) Iran
Iran
(Eastern Kurdistan) Iraq
Iraq
(Southern Kurdistan) Syria
Syria
(Western Kurdistan)

Diaspora

Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Canada France Georgia Germany Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Lebanon Netherlands New Zealand Pakistan Russia Sweden Turkmenistan United Kingdom United States

History

History of the Kurds

Culture

Kurdish culture Clothing Cuisine Celebrations Dance Flag Historical sites Language Folklore Literature Music Kurdish philosophers

Ancient history

Karduchian dynasties

Corduene Zabdicene Cyrtians Moxoene

Kayusids

Medieval history

Shahrizor Sadakiyans Mir Jafar Dasni Aishanids Daisam Shaddadids Rawadids Hasanwayhids Annazids Marwanids Hadhabani Hazaraspids Ayyubids Zands Badlis Ardalan Badinan Soran Mokryan Baban

Modern history

Simko Shikak revolt Koçgiri Rebellion Ararat rebellion Dersim Rebellion Kingdom of Kurdistan Kurdish Republic of Ararat Republic of Mahabad Al-Anfal campaign Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan
(KRG) Iranian Kurdistan Turkish Kurdistan Syrian Kurdistan Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq Kurds
Kurds
in Iran Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey Kurds
Kurds
in Syria

Languages

Kurmanci Sorani Zazaki Pehlewani Gorani

Religion

Islam Christianity Judaism Yarsanism Yazdânism Yazidism Zoroastrianism

v t e

The Kurdish people
Kurdish people
live in the historical Kurdistan
Kurdistan
region, which today is split between Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria.[2] The estimated population is 35 million. A rough estimate by the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
has Kurdish populations of 14.5 million in Turkey, 6 million in Iran, about 5 to 6 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to close to 28 million Kurds
Kurds
in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
and adjacent regions.[3] Recent emigration has resulted in a Kurdish diaspora
Kurdish diaspora
of about 1.5 million people, about half of them in Germany. A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus
and Central Asia, displaced there mostly in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right.[4] This group's population was estimated at close to 0.4 million in 1990.[5]

Contents

1 Kurdistan

1.1 Turkey 1.2 Iran 1.3 Iraq 1.4 Syria

2 Transcaucasus

2.1 Armenia 2.2 Georgia

3 Diaspora

3.1 Russia 3.2 Lebanon 3.3 European Union 3.4 North America 3.5 Oceania 3.6 Japan

4 Statistics by country

4.1 Autochthonous community 4.2 Transcaucasus 4.3 Europe 4.4 Middle East 4.5 Asia 4.6 Americas and Oceania

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography

Kurdistan[edit] Further information: Kurdistan The Kurds
Kurds
are often dubbed "the largest ethnic group without a state", a statement has been labelled as misleading by some Kurdologists because it glosses over the significant cultural, social, religious, political and ideological differences between Kurdish groups.[6][7][8] The bulk of Kurdish groups in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
are Sunni
Sunni
(mosty of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school), but there are significant minorities adhering to Shia Islam
Islam
(especially Alevis), Yazidism, Yarsanism, Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism. Turkey[edit] Main articles: Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey
Turkey
and Kurds
Kurds
of Central Anatolia

Kurdish girl in Mardin Province

According to a report by Turkish agency KONDA, in 2006, out of the total population of 73 million people in Turkey
Turkey
there were 11.4 million Kurds
Kurds
and Zazas
Zazas
living in Turkey
Turkey
(close to 15.68% of the total population).[9] The Turkish newspaper Milliyet
Milliyet
reported in 2008 that the Kurdish population
Kurdish population
in Turkey
Turkey
is 12.6 million; although this also includes 3 million Zazas.[10] According to the World Factbook, Kurdish people make up 18% of Turkey's population (about 14 million, out of 77.8 million people).[11] Kurdish sources put the figure at 10[12] to 15 million Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey.[13] Kurds
Kurds
mostly live in Northern Kurdistan, in Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia. But large Kurdish populations can be found in western Turkey due to internal migration. According to Rüstem Erkan, Istanbul
Istanbul
is the province with the largest Kurdish population
Kurdish population
in Turkey.[14] Iran[edit] Main articles: Kurds
Kurds
in Iran
Iran
and Kurds
Kurds
of Khorasan

Kurdish family in Iran

From the 7 million Iranian Kurds, majority who are Sunni.[15] Shia Kurds
Kurds
inhabit Kermanshah Province, except for those parts where people are Jaff, and Ilam Province
Ilam Province
Province; as well as some parts of Kurdistan, Hamadan and Zanjan provinces. The Kurds
Kurds
of Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran
Iran
are also adherents of Shia Islam. During the Shia revolution in Iran
Iran
the major Kurdish political parties were unsuccessful in absorbing Shia Kurds, who at that period had no interest in autonomy.[16][17][18] However, since the 1990s Kurdish nationalism has seeped into the Shia Kurdish area partly due to outrage against government's violent suppression of Kurds
Kurds
farther north.[19] Iraq[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq Kurds
Kurds
constitute approximately 17% of Iraq's population. They are the majority in at least three provinces in northern Iraq
Iraq
which are together known as Iraqi Kurdistan. Kurds
Kurds
also have a presence in Kirkuk, Mosul, Khanaqin, and Baghdad. Around 300,000 Kurds
Kurds
live in the Iraqi capital Baghdad, 50,000 in the city of Mosul
Mosul
and around 100,000 elsewhere in southern Iraq.[20] Kurds
Kurds
led by Mustafa Barzani
Mustafa Barzani
were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from 1960 to 1975. In March 1970, Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years.[21] However, at the same time, the Iraqi regime started an Arabization program in the oil-rich regions of Kirkuk
Kirkuk
and Khanaqin.[22] The peace agreement did not last long, and in 1974, the Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds. Moreover, in March 1975, Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
signed the Algiers Accord, according to which Iran
Iran
cut supplies to Iraqi Kurds. Iraq
Iraq
started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk.[23] Between 1975 and 1978, 200,000 Kurds
Kurds
were deported to other parts of Iraq.[24] Syria[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Syria Kurds
Kurds
are the largest ethnic minority in Syria
Syria
and make up nine percent of the country's population.[25] Syrian Kurds
Kurds
have faced routine discrimination and harassment by the government.[26][27] Syrian Kurdistan
Kurdistan
is an unofficial name used by some to describe the Kurdish inhabited regions of northern and northeastern Syria.[28] The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah
Hasakah
Governorate. The main cities in this region are Qamishli
Qamishli
and Hasakah. Another region with significant Kurdish population
Kurdish population
is Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab) in the northern part of Syria
Syria
near the town of Jarabulus and also the city of Afrin and its surroundings along the Turkish border. Many Kurds
Kurds
seek political autonomy for the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria, similar to Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan
in Iraq, or outright independence as part of Kurdistan. The name "Western Kurdistan" (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) is also used by Kurds
Kurds
to name the Syrian Kurdish inhabited areas in relation to Kurdistan.[29][30][31] Since the Syrian civil war, Syrian government forces have abandoned many Kurdish-populated areas, leaving the Kurds
Kurds
to fill the power vacuum and govern these areas autonomously.[32] Transcaucasus[edit] Armenia[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Armenia According to the 2011 Armenian Census, 37,470 Kurds
Kurds
live in Armenia.[33] They mainly live in the western parts of Armenia. The Kurds
Kurds
of the former Soviet Union first began writing Kurdish in the Armenian alphabet in the 1920s, followed by Latin in 1927, then Cyrillic in 1945, and now in both Cyrillic and Latin. The Kurds
Kurds
in Armenia
Armenia
established a Kurdish radio broadcast from Yerevan
Yerevan
and the first Kurdish newspaper Riya Teze. There is a Kurdish Department in the Yerevan
Yerevan
State Institute of Oriental studies. The Kurds
Kurds
of Armenia were the first exiled country to have access to media such as radio, education and press in their native tongue[34] but many Kurds, from 1939 to 1959 were listed as the Azeri population or even as Armenians.[35] Georgia[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Georgia According to the 2002 Georgian Census, 20,843 Kurds
Kurds
live in Georgia[36] The Kurds
Kurds
in Georgia mainly live in the capital of Tbilisi and Rustavi.[37] According to a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees report from 1998, about 80% of the Kurdish population
Kurdish population
in Georgia are assimilated Kurds.[37] Diaspora[edit] Russia[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Russia According to the 2010 Russian Census, 63,818 Kurds
Kurds
live in Russia. Russia
Russia
has maintained warm relations with the Kurds
Kurds
for a long time, During the early 19th century, the main goal of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
was to ensure the neutrality of the Kurds, in the wars against Persia and the Ottoman Empire.[38] In the beginning of the 19th century, Kurds settled in Transcaucasia, at a time when Transcaucasia was incorporated into the Russian Empire. In the 20th century, Kurds
Kurds
were persecuted and exterminated by the Turks and Persians, a situation that led Kurds
Kurds
to move to Russia.[39] Lebanon[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Lebanon The existence of a community of at least 125,000 Kurds[40] is the product of several waves of immigrants, the first major wave was in the period of 1925-1950 when thousands of Kurds
Kurds
fled violence and poverty in Turkey.[41] Kurds
Kurds
in Lebanon
Lebanon
go back far as the twelfth century A.D. when the Ayyubids arrived there. Over the next few centuries, several other Kurdish families were sent to Lebanon
Lebanon
by a number of powers to maintain rule in those regions, others moved as a result of poverty and violence in Kurdistan. These Kurdish groups settled in and ruled many areas of Lebanon
Lebanon
for a long period of time.[42]:27 Kurds
Kurds
of Lebanon
Lebanon
settled in Lebanon
Lebanon
because of Lebanon's pluralistic society.[43] European Union[edit]

Kurdish demonstration against ISIS, Vienna, Austria, 10 October 2014

Demonstration in support of the independence of Iraqi Kurdistan
Kurdistan
at Schuman, Brussels, 25 October 2017

Main articles: Kurds
Kurds
in Germany, Kurds
Kurds
in France, Kurds
Kurds
in Sweden, Kurds
Kurds
in Finland, Kurds
Kurds
in the Netherlands, and Kurds
Kurds
in the United Kingdom The Kurdish diaspora
Kurdish diaspora
in the European Union
European Union
is most significant in Germany, France, Sweden, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands. Kurds
Kurds
from Turkey
Turkey
went to Germany
Germany
and France
France
during the 1960s as immigrant workers. Thousands of Kurdish refugees and political refugees fled from Turkey
Turkey
to Sweden
Sweden
during the 1970s and onward, and from Iraq during the 1980s and 1990s. In France, the Iranian Kurds
Kurds
make up the majority of the community.[44] However, thousands of Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
also arrived in the mid 1990s.[45] More recently, Syrian Kurds
Kurds
have been entering France illegally[46] In the United Kingdom, Kurds
Kurds
first began to immigrate between 1974-75 when the rebellion of Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
against the Iraqi government was repressed. The Iraqi government began to destroy Kurdish villages and forced many Kurds
Kurds
to move to barren land in the south.[47] These events resulted in many Kurds
Kurds
fleeing to the United Kingdom. Thus, the Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
make up a large part of the community.[44] In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini
came to power in Iran
Iran
and installed Islamic law. There was widespread political oppression and persecution of the Kurdish community. Since the late 1970s the number of people from Iran seeking asylum in Britain has remained high.[47] In 1988, Saddam Hussein launched the Anfal campaign
Anfal campaign
in the northern Iraq. This included mass executions and disappearances of the Kurdish community. The use of chemical weapons against thousands of towns and villages in the region, as well as the town of Halabja
Halabja
increased the number of Iraq
Iraq
Kurds
Kurds
entering the United Kingdom.[47] A large number of Kurds also came to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
following the 1980 military coup in Turkey.[47] More recently, immigration has been due to the continued political oppression and the repression of ethnic and religious minorities in Iraq
Iraq
and Iran.[47] Estimates of the Kurdish population in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are as high as 200-250,000.[47] In Denmark, there is a significant number of Iraqi political refugees, many of which are Kurds.[48] In Finland, most Kurds
Kurds
arrived in the 1990s as Iraqi refugees.[49] Kurds
Kurds
in Finland
Finland
have no great attachment to the Iraqi state because of their position as a persecuted minority. Thus, they feel more accepted and comfortable in Finland, many wanting to get rid of their Iraqi citizenship.[50] North America[edit] Main articles: Kurds
Kurds
in Canada
Canada
and Kurds
Kurds
in the United States In the United States, it is believed that the Kurdish population
Kurdish population
is from 15,000[51] to 20,000[52] other sources claim approximately 58,000,[53] the large majority of which come from Iran.[54] It is estimated that some 23,000 Iranian Kurds
Kurds
are living in the United States.[54] During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, about 10,000 Iraqi refugees were admitted to the United States, most of which were Kurds and Shiites
Shiites
who had assisted or were sympathisers of the U.S –led war.[55] Nashville, Tennessee
Tennessee
has the nation's largest population of Kurdish people, with an estimated 8,000–11,000. There are also Kurds in Southern California, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Dallas, Texas.[56] In Canada, the Kurdish community is 11,685[57] based on the Canadian Census 2011, among which the Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
make up the largest group of Kurds
Kurds
in Canada, exceeding the numbers of Kurds
Kurds
from Turkey, Iran
Iran
and Syria. Kurdish immigration was largely the result of the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War
Gulf War
and Syrian Civil War. Thus, many Iraqi Kurds immigrated to Canada
Canada
due to the constant wars and suppression of Kurds and Shiites
Shiites
by the Iraqi government.[58] Oceania[edit] Main articles: Kurds
Kurds
in Australia
Australia
and Kurds
Kurds
in New Zealand In Australia, Kurdish migrants first arrived in the second half of the 1960s, mainly from Turkey.[59] However, in the late 1970s families from Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
were also present in Australia.[59] Since the second half of the 1980s, the majority of Kurds
Kurds
arriving in Australia have been from Iraq
Iraq
and Iran; many of them were accepted under the Humanitarian Programme.[59] However, Kurds
Kurds
from Lebanon, Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia have also migrated to Australia. The majority live in Melbourne
Melbourne
and Sydney.[59] Japan[edit] Main article: Kurds
Kurds
in Japan The Japanese government has not granted refugee status. While 3,415 Kurds
Kurds
have so far applied for refugee status, none has yet received it.[60] Statistics by country[edit] Autochthonous community[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 Turkey 7006281972700000000♠2,819,727 (1965 census, Kurdish speakers)a 7007226918240000000♠22,691,824 (2012 statistics)[61] 7000900000000000000♠9% 7001304000000000000♠30.4% approx. 7007126400000000000♠12,640,000[62] Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey

Kurdish speakers in Turkey[62] Numbers

Zaza 1,640,000

Northern Kurdish 11,000,000

 Iran N/A N/A approx. 7006760000000000000♠7,600,000[63] Kurds
Kurds
in Iran

Kurdish speakers in Iran[63] Numbers

Central Kurdish 3,250,000

Northern Kurdish 350,000

Southern Kurdish 3,000,000

Laki 1,000,000

 Iraq N/A N/A approx. 7006764900000000000♠7,649,000[64] Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq

Kurdish speakers in Iraq[64] Numbers

Bajelani 59,000

Central Kurdish 4,000,000

Northern Kurdish 3,440,000

Southern Kurdish —

Hawrami or Macho 120,000

Sarli 20,000

Shabaki 10,000

 Syria N/A N/A approx. 7006190000000000000♠1,900,000[65]–7006220000000000000♠2,200,000[66] Kurds
Kurds
in Syria

Transcaucasus[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 Armenia 7004561270000000000♠56,127 (1989 census)[67] 7004374700000000000♠37,470 (2011 census)d 7000170000000000000♠1.7% 7000120000000000000♠1.2% — Kurds
Kurds
in Armenia

Provinces[68] (2011)

Armavir Province 17,063[69]

Aragatsotn Province 7,090[70]

Ararat Province 5,001[71]

Yerevan 3,361[72]

Kotayk Province 3,305[73]

Shirak Province 763[74]

Lori Province 663[75]

Gegharkunik Province 144

Tavush Province 44

Syunik Province 26

Vayots Dzor Province 10

 Azerbaijan 7004411930000000000♠41,193 (1926 census)[76] 7003606500000000000♠6,065 (2009 census)b 7000180000000000000♠1.8% 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 7005150000000000000♠150,000–7005180000000000000♠180,000[77][78] Kurds
Kurds
in Azerbaijan

Administrative Divisions (2009)[79]

Lachin District 1,194

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic 1,321

Samukh District 753

Khachmaz District 603

Ismailli District 498

Yevlakh District 210

Baku 185

Goranboy District 102

Qazakh District 100

Agstafa District 68

Kalbajar District 38

Goygol District 34

Ganja 31

Absheron District 27

Tartar District 27

Shaki District 26

Shamkir District 22

Oghuz District 21

Aghjabadi District 18

Lankaran District 14

Zangilan District 14

Salyan District 9

Sumqayit 9

Dashkasan District 8

Mingachevir 7

Shusha District 3

Gadabay District 1

 Georgia 7004333310000000000♠33,331 (1989 census)[80] 7004208430000000000♠20,843 (2002 census)[36] 7004137700000000000♠13,770 (2014 census)[81][82] 6999600000000000000♠0.6% 6999500000000000000♠0.5% 6999400000000000000♠0.4% — Kurds
Kurds
in Georgia

Administrative divisions (2014)[83]

Tbilisi 12,570

Kakheti 524

Kvemo Kartli 453

Adjara 81

Mtskheta-Mtianeti 74

Guria 17

Imereti 6

Shida Kartli 4

Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti 1

Samtskhe-Javakheti 1

Europe[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 Germany N/A N/A approx. 7005541000000000000♠541,000[84]—7005800000000000000♠800,000[85] Kurds
Kurds
in Germany

 France N/A N/A approx. 7005150000000000000♠150,000[86] Kurds
Kurds
in France

 Sweden N/A N/A approx. 7004836000000000000♠83,600[87]—7004840000000000000♠84,000[88] Kurds
Kurds
in Sweden

 Netherlands N/A N/A approx. 7004720000000000000♠72,000[89] Kurds
Kurds
in the Netherlands

 Russia 7004638180000000000♠63,818 (2010 census)c 5000000000000000000♠0% — Kurds
Kurds
in Russia

Federal districts (2010)[90]

Southern Federal District 20,553

Central Federal District 17,926

Volga Federal District 11,186

North Caucasian Federal District 5,669

Siberian Federal District 3,927

Ural Federal District 2,637

Northwestern Federal District 1,482

Far Eastern Federal District 234

 United Kingdom 7004498410000000000♠49,841 (2011 census)[91][92][93] 7004491860000000000♠49,186 (2011 census, Kurdish speakers)[94][95][96] 6999100000000000000♠0.1% — Kurds
Kurds
in the United Kingdom

Countries of the United Kingdom (2011)[92][93][97]

 England 47.871

 Wales 1,106

 Scotland 844

 Northern Ireland 20

 Greece N/A N/A approx. 7004220000000000000♠22,000[98] —

  Switzerland 7004146990000000000♠14,699 (2012 statistics, Kurdish speakers)[99] 7004194010000000000♠19,401 (2015 statistics, Kurdish speakers)[100] 6999200000000000000♠0.2% 6999300000000000000♠0.3% approx. 7004351000000000000♠35,100[101] —

 Denmark N/A N/A approx. 7004300000000000000♠30,000[102] —

 Austria 7003213300000000000♠2,133 (2001 census, Kurdish speakers)[103] 5000000000000000000♠0% approx. 7004230000000000000♠23,000[104] —

 Belgium N/A N/A approx. 7004220000000000000♠22,000[105] —

 Finland 7003209900000000000♠2,099 (1997 annual statistics, Kurdish speakers)[106] 7003589300000000000♠5,893 (2007 annual statistics, Kurdish speakers)[106] 7004133270000000000♠13,327 (2017 annual statistics, Kurdish speakers)[106] 5000000000000000000♠0% 6999100000000000000♠0.1% 6999200000000000000♠0.2% —

Regions (2017)[106]

Uusimaa 7,022

Southwest Finland 2,458

Pirkanmaa 769

Päijät-Häme 694

Central Finland 422

Northern Ostrobothnia 383

Ostrobothnia 330

Kymenlaakso 249

Lapland 148

North Karelia 130

Kanta-Häme 128

South Karelia 123

Satakunta 113

Kainuu 98

Pohjois-Savo 73

Etelä-Savo 64

 Åland 53

Southern Ostrobothnia 50

Central Ostrobothnia 20

 Norway 7003710000000000000♠7,100 (2013 official estimation, Kurdish speakers)[107] 6999100000000000000♠0.1% — —

 Italy N/A N/A approx. 7003350000000000000♠3,500[108] —

 Romania N/A N/A approx. 7003300000000000000♠3,000[109] —

 Ukraine 7003208800000000000♠2,088 (2001 census)[110] 7002302000000000000♠302 (2014 Crimean census)[111] 5000000000000000000♠0% —

Oblasts (2001)[110]

 Luhansk Oblast 470

 Crimea 394

 Kherson Oblast 296

 Kiev 199

 Odessa Oblast 132

 Mykolaiv Oblast 119

 Dnipropetrovsk Oblast 116

 Zaporizhia Oblast 84

 Kirovohrad Oblast 68

 Kharkiv Oblast 46

  Kiev
Kiev
Oblast 40

 Donetsk Oblast 36

 Khmelnytskyi Oblast 19

 Cherkasy Oblast 15

 Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast 11

 Vinnytsia Oblast 10

 Lviv Oblast 7

 Ternopil Oblast 7

 Chernihiv Oblast 6

 Zhytomyr Oblast 4

 Sevastopol 3

 Poltava Oblast 2

 Rivne Oblast 2

 Sumy Oblast 2

 Cyprus N/A N/A approx. 7003150000000000000♠1,500[112] —

 Spain N/A N/A approx. 7003100000000000000♠1,000[113] —

 Ireland 7002818000000000000♠818 (2016 census, Kurdish speakers)[114] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

Counties (2016)[115]

South Dublin 164

Fingal 141

Dublin
Dublin
City 102

Leitrim 89

Westmeath 56

Sligo 43

Cork City 40

Galway City 30

Limerick City
Limerick City
and Limerick County 26

Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown 26

Cork County 16

Louth 14

Kildare County 13

Longford County 9

Waterford City
Waterford City
and Waterford County 9

Kilkenny 8

Meath 7

Wicklow 5

Clare 4

Laois 3

Wexford 3

Kerry 3

Mayo 2

Donegal 2

County Offaly 1

Tipperary 1

Roscommon 1

 Malta N/A N/A approx. 7002300000000000000♠300[116] —

 Iceland N/A N/A —[117] —

 Luxembourg N/A N/A —[118] —

 Portugal N/A N/A —[119] —

 Poland 7002224000000000000♠224 (2011 census)[120] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Hungary 7002291000000000000♠291 (2001 census)[121] 7002149000000000000♠149 (2011 census)[122] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Moldova 7002129000000000000♠129 (2016 statistics)[123] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Latvia 7002107000000000000♠107 (2018 semiannual statistics)[124] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Bulgaria 7002147000000000000♠147 (2001 census)[125] 7002105000000000000♠105 (2011 census)[126] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Czech Republic 7002100000000000000♠100 (2011 census)[127] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Belarus 7001810000000000000♠81 (2009 census)[128] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7001280000000000000♠28 (2013 census)[129] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Estonia 7001230000000000000♠23 (2011 census)[130] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Serbia <7001120000000000000♠12 (2011 census)[131] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Lithuania 7000500000000000000♠5 (2001 census)[132] <7001100000000000000♠10 (2011 census)[133] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Croatia 7000800000000000000♠8 (2011 census)[134][135] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 Slovakia N/A N/A —[136] —

 Slovenia N/A N/A —[137] —

Middle East[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 Lebanon N/A N/A approx. 7005287000000000000♠287,000[40] Kurds
Kurds
in Lebanon

 Israel N/A N/A approx. 7005200000000000000♠200,000 (Jews from Kurdistan)[138] Kurds
Kurds
in Israel

 Bahrain N/A N/A approx. 7004446000000000000♠44,600[139] —

 Jordan N/A N/A approx. 7003400000000000000♠4,000[140]—7004300000000000000♠30,000[141] Kurds
Kurds
in Jordan

 Kuwait N/A N/A approx. 7003500000000000000♠5,000[142] —

 Qatar N/A N/A [143] —

 Saudi Arabia N/A N/A [144] —

 United Arab Emirates N/A N/A [143] —

Asia[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 Kazakhstan 7004447680000000000♠44,768 (2017 annual statistics)[145] 6999200000000000000♠0.2% — Kurds
Kurds
in Kazakhstan

Regions (2017)[145]

Jambyl Region 15,073

Almaty
Almaty
Region 14,648

South Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Region 9,424

Almaty 3,604

Akmola Region 614

Astana 487

North Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Region 377

Karaganda Region 361

Pavlodar Region 55

East Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Region 43

Kostanay Region 32

Atyrau Region 19

Mangystau Region 13

Kyzylorda Region 10

Aktobe Region 8

West Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Region 0

 Kyrgyzstan 7004131710000000000♠13,171 (2009 census)[146][147] 6999200000000000000♠0.2% — —

 Turkmenistan 7003609700000000000♠6,097 (1995 census)[148] 6999100000000000000♠0.1% — Kurds
Kurds
in Turkmenistan

 Afghanistan N/A N/A approx. 7003267000000000000♠2,670[149] —

 Uzbekistan 7003183900000000000♠1,839 (1989 census)[150] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

 South Korea N/A N/A approx. 7003100000000000000♠1,000[151] —

 Japan N/A N/A approx. 7002300000000000000♠300–7002400000000000000♠400[152] Kurds
Kurds
in Japan

 Pakistan N/A N/A approx. 7002240000000000000♠240[153] Kurds
Kurds
in Pakistan

 Tajikistan 7000700000000000000♠7 (2010 census)[154] 5000000000000000000♠0% — —

Americas and Oceania[edit]

Country Official figures Official figures in % Current est. Kurdish population Further information

 United States 7004153610000000000♠15,361 (2006-2010 ACS)[155] 5000000000000000000♠0% — Kurds
Kurds
in the United States

States (2006-2010)[155]

 Tennessee 2,980

 California 2,853

 Virginia 1,192

 Canada 7004163150000000000♠16,315 (2016 census)[156] 7004125150000000000♠12,515 (2016 census, Kurdish speakers)[157] 5000000000000000000♠0% — Kurds
Kurds
in Canada

Provinces and Territories (2016)[158]

 Ontario 9,210

 Alberta 2,035

 British Columbia 2,120

 Quebec 2,135

 Manitoba 310

 Nova Scotia 230

 Saskatchewan 195

 New Brunswick 75

 Australia 7004105350000000000♠10,535 (2016 census)[159] 7003618500000000000♠6,185 (2016 census, Kurdish speakers)[160] 5000000000000000000♠0% 5000000000000000000♠0% —

States and territories (2011)

 New South Wales 3,132 2,225[161]

 Victoria 1,926 953[162]

 Western Australia 664 401[163]

 Queensland 457 346[164]

 Australian Capital Territory 58 20[165]

 South Australia 728 634[166]

 Tasmania 12 0[167]

 Northern Territory 0 0[168]

 New Zealand 7002720000000000000♠720 (2013 census)[169] 7002828000000000000♠828 (2013 census, Kurdish speakers)[169] 5000000000000000000♠0% 5000000000000000000♠0% — Kurds
Kurds
in New Zealand

Notes ^a According to the Turkish 1965 census, 2,219,502 people indicated Kurdish as their mother language and 429,168 as their second best language spoken. 150,644 people indicated Zaza as their mother language and 20,413 as their second best language spoken.[170] ^b Official Azerbaijani records claim only 6,065 Kurds
Kurds
in 2009,[79][171] while Kurdish leaders estimate as much as 200,000. The problem is that the historical record of the Kurds
Kurds
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is filled with lacunae.[172] For instance, in 1979 there was according to the census no Kurds
Kurds
recorded.[173] Not only did Turkey
Turkey
and Azerbaijan pursue an identical policy against the Kurds, they even employed identical techniques like forced assimilation, manipulation of population figures, settlement of non- Kurds
Kurds
in areas predominantly Kurdish, suppression of publications and abolition of Kurdish as a medium of instruction in schools.[173] ^c In the 2010 Russian Census, 23,232 people indicated Kurdish (Курды) as their ethnicity, while 40,586 chose Yazidi (Езиды) as their ethnicity.[174] ^d In the 2011 Armenian Census, 2,131 people indicated Kurdish (Քրդեր) as their ethnicity, while 35,272 indicated Yazidi (Եզդիներ) as their ethnicity.[33] ^e 2006 Konda survey.[175]

See also[edit]

Kurdification

References[edit]

^ A rough estimate by the CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
has populations of 14.5 million in Turkey, 6 million in Iran, about 5 to 6 million in Iraq, and less than 2 million in Syria, which adds up to close to 28 million Kurds
Kurds
in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
or adjacient regions. (Estimates as of 2014; Turkey: "Kurdish 18% [of 81.6 million]", Iran: "Kurd 10% [of 80.8 million]", Iraq: "Kurdish 15%-20% [of 32.6 million]", Syria: "Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% [of 17.9 million]". About two million are documented as living in diaspora; divergent high estimates on the number of Kurds
Kurds
in Turkey
Turkey
in particular account for higher estimates on total population, e.g. Sandra Mackey, “The reckoning: Iraq
Iraq
and the legacy of Saddam”, W.W. Norton and Company, 2002, p. 350: "As much as 25% of Turkey
Turkey
is Kurdish," which would raise the population figure by about 5 million. ^ Gunter, Michael (2008). The Kurds
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Ascending. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-60370-7.  ^ Estimates as of 2014; Turkey: "Kurdish 18% [of 81.6 million]", Iran: "Kurd 10% [of 80.8 million]", Iraq: "Kurdish 15%-20% [of 32.6 million]" Syria: "Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7% [of 17.9 million]". ^ "The Kurds
Kurds
of Caucasia and Central Asia
Central Asia
have been cut off for a considerable period of time and their development in Russia
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and then in the Soviet Union has been somewhat different. In this light the Soviet Kurds
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may be considered to be an ethnic group in their own right." The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
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"Kurds". Institute of Estonia
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(180,000), Armenia
Armenia
(50,000), Georgia (40,000), Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(30,000), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(20,000), Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(10,000), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(3,000), Turkmenistan
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(50,000), Siberia (35,000), Krasnodar (20,000), Other (12,000) (total 410,000). ^ Bruinessen, Martin (2000). Kurdish Ethno-Nationalism Versus Nation-Building States: Collected Articles. Istanbul: Isis Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-975-428-177-4. OCLC 46851965.  Radu, Michael (2003). Dangerous Neighborhood: Contemporary Issues in Turkey's Foreign Relations. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7658-0166-1. OCLC 50269670.  ^ Elling, Rasmus Christian (2013). Minorities in Iran: Nationalism and Ethnicity after Khomeini. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-11584-2. OCLC 714725127.  ^ Crane, Keith; Lal, Rollie; Martini, Jeffrey (2008). Iran's Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8330-4527-0. OCLC 259715774.  ^ KONDA 2006, 18. ^ Milliyet. "Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!". Retrieved 2010-11-13.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Factbook: Turkey". Retrieved 2010-11-13.  ^ Kurdish PKK chief Murat Karayilan says will spread to Turkish cities if we were attacked by Turkey ^ [1] ^ "En Büyük Şehri, İstanbul", Time Türk, March 25, 2010. ^ http://www.unpo.org/members/7882 ^ Romano, David (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-521-85041-X.  ^ McDowall (1996). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 270. ISBN 1-85043-653-3.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=JdRwGcJg7DwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+death+and+passion&hl=en&ei=_rR0TbjJO-GJ4AaI_Z3MDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=kermanshah&f=false ^ McDowall (1996). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 278. ISBN 1-85043-653-3.  ^ "By Location". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2011-12-02.  ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds
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v t e

Kurdish diaspora
Kurdish diaspora
and regions

Traditional Kurdish areas

Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Iraq Iran Syria Turkey

Middle East

Israel

Jews

Jordan Lebanon Palestine

Asia

Japan Kazakhstan Pakistan Turkmenistan

Europe

Austria Finland France Germany Netherlands Russia Sweden United Kingdom

North America

Canada United States

Oceania

Aus

.