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Kunduz
Kunduz
(/kʊnduːz/; Pashto: کندز‎; Dari: قندوز‎) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. Kunduz
Kunduz
has a population of about 268,893,[2] making it about the 6th-largest city of Afghanistan, while Kunduz District
Kunduz District
has a population of 304,600.[1] Located in the historical Tokharistan
Tokharistan
region of Bactria, Kunduz
Kunduz
is linked by highways with Kabul
Kabul
to the south, Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
to the west, and Fayzabad, Badakhshan
Fayzabad, Badakhshan
to the east. Kunduz
Kunduz
is also linked with Qurghonteppa
Qurghonteppa
and Dushanbe
Dushanbe
in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to the north via the Afghan border town and port of Sherkhan Bandar, which is 55 km (34 mi) away. The land use of the city (within the municipal boundary) is largely agricultural (65.8% of total area). Residential land comprises nearly half of the 'built-up' land area (48.3%) with 29,877 dwellings.[3] Institutional land comprises 17.9% of built-up land use, given that the airport is located within the municipal boundary.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Demography 5 Administration 6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Etymology[edit] Kunduz
Kunduz
is also sometimes spelled as Kundûz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. The name of the city is derived from Persian compound, kuhan/quhan diz, "old/ancient fort" or from Turkic konak/konut ("residence, palace, court, housing, established dwelling area, city, town, village"), from Proto-Turkic *kon-, "to settle down/to perch." Alternative derivations also include Turkic kündüz ("day, daylight"), from Proto-Turkic kün, "day/sun". Interestingly, until the 1960s, the city served as the capital to the now-defunct province of Qataqan, itself meaning "Old/Ancient city" (from Turkic kata ("old/ancient') and Eastern Iranian (Sogdian) kand or Common Turkic kent, "fort", "town"). History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

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Kabul
Kabul
Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

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Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

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Modern

Mughals 1501–1738

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Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

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Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

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Further information: History of Afghanistan Kunduz
Kunduz
is the site of the ancient city of Drapsaka. It was a great center of Buddhist learning and very prosperous during the 3rd century AD. The city used to be called Walwalij[4] (or Varvarliz) and the name Kuhandiz began to be used from the Timurid time. In the 18th and 19th centuries it was the capital of a rather large eponymous, sometimes independent, sometimes autonomous Uzbek-Tajik khanate that in 1820s encompassed land from Balkh
Balkh
to the Pamir Mountains. It was part of The Great Game
The Great Game
between the British and Russians. This khanate was finally destroyed by Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1859. Between one hundred and two-hundred thousand Tajiks
Tajiks
and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
fled the conquest of their homeland by Russian Red Army and settled in northern Afghanistan.[5] In the early 20th century, under the governance of Sher Khan Nasher, Kunduz
Kunduz
became one of the wealthiest Afghan provinces. This was mainly due to Nasher's founding of the Spinzar Cotton Company, which continues to exist in post-war Afghanistan. Kunduz
Kunduz
is the most important agricultural province which produces wheat, rice, millet, and other products and obtained the nickname of "the hive of the country." Kunduz
Kunduz
is the centre for the north east provinces, and was captured by the Taliban
Taliban
in 1997. It was the last major city held by the Taliban before its fall to US-backed Afghan Northern Alliance
Afghan Northern Alliance
forces on November 26, 2001. The city is strategically important because it is the only way connecting Takhar province
Takhar province
and Badakhshan provinces,[citation needed] which play a critical role in the existing government. During the summer of 2015, the Taliban
Taliban
and Afghan forces battled for control of the city. Tens of thousands of inhabitants were displaced internally by the fighting.[6][7][8] On 28 September 2015 the Taliban flag was again raised in the city center and the Taliban
Taliban
managed to capture the city prison and free many prisoners.[9][10] The Afghan Armed Forces counter-attacked and managed to re-capture the city in 15 days. The Taliban
Taliban
announced that, after achieving their objectives, they have withdrawn from the city's center. Zabiullah Mujahid, a Taliban
Taliban
spokesperson, said that their main object in leaving the city is to avoid civilian casualties from air raids.[11] Geography[edit] Climate[edit]

A valley near Kunduz

Kunduz
Kunduz
has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation
Precipitation
is generally low except from January to April, with summers almost always rainless.

Climate data for Kunduz

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 25.0 (77) 32.8 (91) 38.9 (102) 42.2 (108) 46.2 (115.2) 45.3 (113.5) 44.2 (111.6) 39.2 (102.6) 39.4 (102.9) 28.4 (83.1) 21.6 (70.9) 46.2 (115.2)

Average high °C (°F) 6.3 (43.3) 9.5 (49.1) 15.8 (60.4) 23.0 (73.4) 29.8 (85.6) 37.3 (99.1) 39.0 (102.2) 36.9 (98.4) 31.8 (89.2) 24.5 (76.1) 16.0 (60.8) 9.7 (49.5) 23.3 (73.93)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.4 (50.7) 17.2 (63) 22.9 (73.2) 29.3 (84.7) 31.3 (88.3) 29.2 (84.6) 23.9 (75) 16.9 (62.4) 9.5 (49.1) 4.4 (39.9) 16.75 (62.14)

Average low °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) -0.0 (32) 5.7 (42.3) 11.6 (52.9) 15.7 (60.3) 20.9 (69.6) 23.3 (73.9) 21.5 (70.7) 16.3 (61.3) 10.6 (51.1) 4.1 (39.4) 0.0 (32) 10.61 (51.1)

Record low °C (°F) −22.7 (−8.9) −23.1 (−9.6) −11.8 (10.8) −2.1 (28.2) 4.2 (39.6) 12.5 (54.5) 15.7 (60.3) 12.6 (54.7) 3.5 (38.3) −2.0 (28.4) −9.8 (14.4) −20 (−4) −23.1 (−9.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.0 (1.732) 56.5 (2.224) 76.7 (3.02) 54.4 (2.142) 29.8 (1.173) 0.1 (0.004) 1.3 (0.051) 0.3 (0.012) 0.1 (0.004) 7.3 (0.287) 23.7 (0.933) 28.4 (1.118) 322.6 (12.7)

Average rainy days 5 6 11 10 9 1 1 0 0 3 5 6 57

Average snowy days 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 14

Average relative humidity (%) 80 75 75 71 54 31 28 29 32 44 63 76 54.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.4 114.6 158.9 201.0 276.5 332.1 340.2 315.5 289.7 221.8 169.4 229.5 2,763.6

Source: NOAA (1958-1983) [12]

Demography[edit]

Ethnolinguistic groups of Afghanistan

Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan The city of Kunduz
Kunduz
has a population of about 268,893,[2] while Kunduz District has a population of 304,600.[1] Ethnic Pashtuns
Pashtuns
make up the largest percent followed by Uzbeks, Tajiks, Arabs and a few others.[5][13][14] The Kunduz
Kunduz
Arabs speak Persian and Pashto, Afghanistan's two official languages, rather than Arabic. However, they claim a strong Arab identity, based on their tribes that originated in Arabia. This may in fact point to the 7th and 8th centuries migration to this and other Central Asian locales of many Arab tribes from Arabia
Arabia
in the wake of the Islamic conquests of the region. There are other such Arabs to the north and west, between Kholm, Mazar-i-Sharif
Mazar-i-Sharif
and Shibarghan, as well as in eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in Jalalabad.[15] Administration[edit] Kunduz
Kunduz
city is divided into 8 Police Districts ('Nahias') with a total land area of 11,206 hectares.[2] Kunduz Province
Kunduz Province
is divided into six districts: Khan Abad, Ali Abad, Char Dara, Dashti Archi, Qala-e-Zal and Imam Sahib, plus Kunduz
Kunduz
City. Kunduz
Kunduz
has nine representatives in the lower house and two in the upper house and has a provincial council. The most influential leader of Kunduz
Kunduz
was Arif Khan, who was a governor of Kunduz Province
Kunduz Province
and was shot dead in the city of Peshawar, Pakistan in the year 2000. Soon after the incident his brother Haji Omar Khan took his responsibility and was appointed as the Governor of Kunduz
Kunduz
(2000–01). In the Karzai administration, Haji Omar Khan was elected to be a representative of Kunduz Province
Kunduz Province
in the Lower House (Wolasi Jirga) and at a time serve as an advisor minister to President Hamid Karzai. Notable people[edit]

Spinzar Cotton Company founders, Ghulam Sarwar Nashir, Nazik Mir Khan Zakhel, and Raees Munawar Khan seen as the founding fathers of the province. Gholam Nabi Nasher Khan (1926–2010), parliamentarian Sayed Noorullah Murad (Afghan politician, member of federal cabinet, military commander & scholar) Imam Saheb district. Javed Ahmadi (1992–), player in the current Afghanistan
Afghanistan
national cricket team Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi
Abdul Rauf Ibrahimi
is current Afghan National Parliament Speaker.

See also[edit]

List of cities in Afghanistan Farhad Darya Sayed Noorullah Murad (Afghan politician, member of federal cabinet, military commander & scholar) Imam Saheb district. Arif Khan 2009 Kunduz
Kunduz
airstrike, (2015) Kunduz
Kunduz
hospital airstrike, Kunduz
Kunduz
Trauma Centre Kunduz
Kunduz
Airport Kunduz
Kunduz
University Battle of Kunduz Kunduz
Kunduz
Province

References[edit]

^ a b c "Settled Population of Kunduz
Kunduz
province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-12.  ^ a b c "The State of Afghan Cities 2015". Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ a b "The State of Afghan Cities 2015, Volume 2". Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ "Asien-Afrika-Institut". uni-hamburg.de. Archived from the original on 2012-05-09.  ^ a b Wörmer, Nils (2012). "The Networks of Kunduz: A History of Conflict and Their Actors, from 1992 to 2001" (PDF). Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Analysts Network. p. 8. Retrieved 2014-01-12.  ^ "Afghans counter Taliban
Taliban
offensive in northern Kunduz
Kunduz
province". BBC News.  ^ " Taliban
Taliban
and Afghan Government Dispute Status of Kunduz". New York Times. 21 June 2015.  ^ "Afghanistan: Taliban
Taliban
advance on key northern city". The Sydney Morning Herald.  ^ " Taliban
Taliban
'seize half' of Afghanistan's Kunduz
Kunduz
city". www.bbc.com. BBC. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.  ^ "Afghan Taliban
Taliban
seize northern city center in major attack". Reuters. 2015-09-28. Retrieved 2015-09-28.  ^ http://bbc.com/news/world-asia-34520318 ^ " Kunduz
Kunduz
Climate Normals 1958-1983". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 25, 2012.  ^ " Kunduz
Kunduz
Province" (PDF). Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-12.  ^ "2003 National Geographic Population Map" (PDF). Thomas Gouttierre, Center For Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Studies, University of Nebraska
University of Nebraska
at Omaha; Matthew S. Baker, Stratfor. National Geographic Society. 2003. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  ^ Barfield, T.J. (1981), The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: Pastoral Nomadism in Transition, University of Texas Press, ISBN 9780292710665 

Further reading[edit]

Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization. Thomas J. Barfield, The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan: Pastoral Nomadism in Transition. 1982.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kunduz.

Kunduz Province
Kunduz Province
by Naval Postgraduate School Welcome to Kunduz, Allauddin

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Fourteen largest cities in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by population

Kabul Kandahar Herat Mazari Sharif Jalalabad Kunduz Lashkargah Taloqan Puli Khumri Khost Ghazni Sheberghan Sari Pol Farah

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 152543

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