KUMHRAR or KUMRAHAR is the name of an area of
Patna , where remains
of the ancient city of
Pataliputra were excavated. It is located 5 km
Patna Railway Station.
Archaeological remains of the
Mauryan period (322–185 BCE) have
been discovered here, this include the ruins of a hypostyle
80-pillared hall The excavation finding here dates back to 600 BCE,
and marks the ancient capital of
Ajatshatru , Chandragupta and Ashoka
, and collectively the relics range from four continuous periods from
600 BCE to 600 CE.
* 1 Assembly Hall of 80-pillars
* 2 Other structures
* 3 See also
* 4 Further reading
* 5 References
* 6 External links
ASSEMBLY HALL OF 80-PILLARS
Following the excavation of nearby
Bulandi Bagh by
L.A. Waddell in
1895, American archaeologist
David Brainard Spooner excavated in
Kumhrar one pillar of polished stone, and a very large
number of fragments. The excavators were able to trace 72 'pits' of
ash and rubble on the site which marked the position in which other
pillars must once have stood. During the subsequent excavation, done
by K P Jaiswal, 1951-1955, eight more such pits were found, giving the
hall its present name – "Assembly hall of 80 pillars".
The pillars are arranged in 8 rows of 10 pillars each. The pillars
are separated with each other by a distance of 4.57 meters. Each
pillar is made of fine sandstone from
Chunar , and was 9.75 meters in
height, of which 2.74 meters were below the surface for grounding.
Since no other stone works were recovered, it is thought that the
pillars sustained a wooden roof, and that there were no surrounding
walls, making it an open-air hall. South of the pillared hall, seven
wooden platforms were excavated, which are thought to have supported a
staircase going into the canal to welcome guests. Plan of the
80-columns pillared hall.
All the ruins are attributed to the
Mauryan period, though historians
vary regarding the use of the 80-pillar hall, some suggest that it was
in this hall that
Third Buddhist Council
Third Buddhist Council was held, in 250 BCE, at
Ashokarama in Patiliputta (
Pataliputra ), under the reign of Mauryan
Ashoka (r. 273-232 BCE). The pillared hall seems to have been
located about 350 meters south of the wooden palisades of the city of
Pataliputra (discovered in the area of
Bulandi Bagh ), and was
standing by the banks of the former
Son river , and therefore cannot
have been the
Mauryan palace, but probably only "a pleasure hall
outside the city walls". Single remaining column of the
80-column hall (this pillar was the 3rd pillar of the 6th row on the
map). Portion of pillar, found in Pataliputra.
Spooner initially thought that the pillars that were not found had
sunk into the ground, but later research by Indian archaeologist
Altekar showed that instead they had been removed by locals and reused
for construction purposes. Altekar also thought that the compound was
an isolated structure ouside the city of Pataliputra, with not much
around it, and that it had been burnt down during the time of the
Mauryan ruins at the
Kumhrar site of Pataliputra. The unique pillar
that was found can be seen in the middle of the photograph.
Ruins of the pillared hall at the
Kumhrar site of Pataliputra.
Wooden platforms just south of the hall, thought to have supported a
staircase to the canal.
Bulandi Bagh respective to ancient
Pataliputra and modern Patna.
Plan of the Gupta level at
Kumhrar (originally on top of the
Mauryan 80-pillared hall)
ANAND BIHAR: The foundations of the brick
Buddhist monastery were
excavated, apart from wooden beams and clay figures, which are now
kept for public display in the surrounding park.
AROGYA VIHAR: Also found during the excavations, are the presence of
an Arogya Vihar headed by
Dhanvantari , an early Indian medical
practitioner, considered the source of
DURAKHI DEVI TEMPLE – Excavations in 1890s, by
Laurence Waddell ,
revealed a detached piece of a carved stone railing of a stupa , with
female figures on both the sides, giving it the name, 'Durukhi' or
'Durukhiya' (double faced) Devi, a specimen of Shunga art 2-1st
century BCE. The figures are shown grabbing and breaking branches of
trees, are Shalabhanjikas (the breaker of branches), the young women
under a fertility ritual. These images were later brought to their
present location, at Naya Tola (Kankarbagh), a kilometer west to the
site, where they are presently worshipped in a temple-like structure;
a replica of these figures has also been kept in
Patna Museum .
Kumhrar is going to have a metro station under the
Agam Kuan (Ashoka's Hell chambers)
Bulandi Bagh (location of the city palisade, and the Pataliputra
* Altekar, A. S. Coins in Kumrahar and Bulandibag (Pataliputra)
Excavations in 1912-13. (1951)
* ^ "Destinations :: Patna". Archived from the original on
* ^ Devise plan to save
Kumhrar site:HC The Times of
India , 1
* ^ A B C Experts\' meet to preserve
Kumhrar The Times of
26 December 2006
* ^ A B C Ancient city of
Patna Official website.
* ^ Museum notice on the location of the remains
* ^ A B Fortified Cities of Ancient India: A Comparative Study,
p.11 p.40-43 Dieter Schlingloff, Anthem Press, 2014
* ^ A. S. Altekar and V. Mishra, Report on Kumrahar Excavations
1951-1955 (Patna, 1963), pp. 14-15.
* ^ Metro Route Archived 2013-11-05 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ An overview of archaeological importance of
Archaeology , Govt. of Bihar