Kumari Kandam (Tamil: குமரிக்கண்டம்) refers
to a mythical lost continent with an ancient Tamil civilization,
located south of present-day India, in the Indian Ocean. Alternative
name and spellings include Kumarikkantam and Kumari Nadu.
In the 19th century, a section of the European and American scholars
speculated the existence of a submerged continent called Lemuria, to
explain geological and other similarities between Africa, Australia,
India and Madagascar. A section of Tamil revivalists adapted this
theory, connecting it to the Pandyan legends of lands lost to the
ocean, as described in ancient Tamil and
According to these writers, an ancient Tamil civilization existed on
Lemuria, before it was lost to the sea in a catastrophe. In the 20th
century, the Tamil writers started using the name "Kumari Kandam" to
describe this submerged continent. Although the Lemuria theory was
later rendered obsolete by the continental drift (plate tectonics)
theory, the concept remained popular among the Tamil revivalists of
the 20th century. According to them,
Kumari Kandam was the place where
the first two Tamil literary academies (sangams) were organized during
the Pandyan reign. They claimed
Kumari Kandam as the cradle of
civilization to prove the antiquity of
Tamil language and culture.
1 Etymology and names
2 Submerged lands in ancient Indian literature
3 Lemuria hypothesis in India
3.1 Popularization in Tamil Nadu
3.1.1 In curriculum
4.2 Connected with South India
4.3 Cradle of civilization
4.4 Primordial but not primitive
4.5 Lost works
6 Criticism of the concept
7 In popular culture
8 See also
Etymology and names
After the Tamil writers were introduced to the concept of Lemuria in
the 1890s, they came up with the Tamilized versions of the continent's
name (e.g. "Ilemuria"). By the early 1900s, they started using Tamil
names for the continent, to support their depiction of Lemuria as an
ancient Tamil civilization. In 1903, V.G. Suryanarayana Sastri first
used the term "Kumarinatu" (or "Kumari Nadu", meaning "Kumari
territory") in his work Tamil Mozhiyin Varalaru (History of the Tamil
language). The term
Kumari Kandam ("Kumari continent") was first used
to describe Lemuria in the 1930s.
The words "Kumari Kandam" first appear in Kanda Puranam, a
15th-century Tamil version of the Skanda Purana, written by Kachiappa
Sivacharyara (1350-1420). Although the Tamil revivalists insist
that it is a pure Tamil name, it is actually a derivative of the
Sanskrit word "Kumārika Khaṇḍa". The Andakosappadalam section
Kanda Puranam describes the following cosmological model of the
universe: There are many worlds, each having several continents, which
in turn, have several kingdoms. Paratan, the ruler of one such
kingdom, had eight sons and one daughter. He further divided his
kingdom into nine parts, and the part ruled by his daughter Kumari
came to be known as
Kumari Kandam after her.
Kumari Kandam is
described as the kingdom of the Earth. Although the Kumari Kandam
theory became popular among anti-
Kanda Puranam actually describes
Kumari Kandam as
the land where the Brahmins also reside, where
Shiva is worshipped and
Vedas are recited. The rest of the kingdoms are described as
the territory of the mlecchas.
The 20th century Tamil writers came up with various theories to
explain the etymology of "Kumari Kandam" or "Kumari Nadu". One set of
claims was centered on the purported gender egalitarianism in the
prelapsarian Tamil homeland. For example, M. Arunachalam (1944)
claimed that the land was ruled by female rulers (Kumaris). D.
Savariroyan Pillai stated that the women of the land had the right to
choose their husbands and owned all the property, because of which the
land came to be known as "Kumari Nadu" ("the land of the maiden"). Yet
another set of claims was centered on the Hindu goddess Kanya Kumari.
Kandiah Pillai, in a book for children, fashioned a new history for
the goddess, stating that the land was named after her. He claimed
that the temple at
Kanyakumari was established by those who survived
the flood that submerged Kumari Kandam. According to cultural
historian Sumathi Ramaswamy, the emphasis of the Tamil writers on the
word "Kumari" (meaning virgin or maiden) symbolizes the purity of
Tamil language and culture, before their contacts with the other
ethnic groups such as the Indo-Aryans.
The Tamil writers also came up with several other names for the lost
continent. In 1912, Somasundara Bharati first used the word
"Tamilakam" (a name for the ancient Tamil country) to cover the
concept of Lemuria, presenting it as the cradle of civilization, in
his Tamil Classics and Tamilakam. Another name used was "Pantiya
natu", after the Pandyas, regarded as the oldest of the Tamil
dynasties. Some writers used "Navalan Tivu" (or Navalam Island), the
Tamil name of Jambudvipa, to describe the submerged land.
Submerged lands in ancient Indian literature
Multiple ancient and medieval Tamil and
Sanskrit works contain
legendary accounts of lands in
South India being lost to the ocean.
The earliest explicit discussion of a katalkol ("seizure by ocean",
possibly tsunami) of Pandyan land is found in a commentary on
Iraiyanar Akapporul. This commentary, attributed to Nakkeerar, is
dated to the later centuries of the 1st millennium CE. It mentions
that the Pandyan kings, an early Tamil dynasty, established three
literary academies (Sangams): the first Sangam flourished for 4,400
years in a city called Tenmaturai (South Madurai) attended by 549
poets (including Agastya) and presided over by gods like Shiva, Kubera
and Murugan. The second Sangam lasted for 3,700 years in a city called
Kapatapuram, attended by 59 poets (including Agastya, again). The
commentary states that both the cities were "seized by the ocean",
resulting in loss of all the works created during the first two
Sangams. The third Sangam was established in Uttara (North) Madurai,
where it is said to have lasted for 1,850 years.
Nakkeerar's commentary does not mention the size of the territory lost
to the sea. The size is first mentioned in a 15th-century commentary
on Silappatikaram. The commentator Adiyarkunallar mentions that the
lost land extended from
Pahruli river in the north to the Kumari river
in the South. It was located to the south of Kanyakumari, and covered
an area of 700 kavatam (a unit of unknown measurement). It was divided
into 49 territories (natu), classified in the following seven
Elu teñku natu ("Seven coconut lands")
Elu Maturai natu ("Seven mango lands")
Elu munpalai natu ("Seven front sandy lands")
Elu pinpalai natu ("Seven back sandy lands")
Elu kunra natu ("Seven hilly lands")
Elu kunakarai natu ("Seven coastal lands")
Elu kurumpanai natu ("Seven dwarf-palm lands")
Other medieval writers, such as Ilampuranar and Perasiriyar, also make
stray references to the loss of antediluvian lands to the south of
Kanyakumari, in their commentaries on ancient texts like Tolkappiyam.
Another legend about the loss of Pandyan territory to the sea is found
in scattered verses of
Purananuru (dated between 1st century BCE and
5th century CE) and
Kaliththokai (6th-7th century CE).
According to this account, the Pandyan king compensated the loss of
his land by seizing an equivalent amount of land from the neighboring
kingdoms of Cheras and Cholas.
There are also several other ancient accounts of non-Pandyan land lost
to the sea. Many Tamil Hindu shrines have legendary accounts of
surviving the floods mentioned in Hindu mythology. These include the
prominent temples of Kanyakumari, Kanchipuram, Kumbakonam, Madurai,
Sirkazhi and Tiruvottiyur. There are also legends of temples
submerged under the sea, such as the Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram.
Puranas place the beginning of the most popular Hindu flood myth -
the legend of Manu - in South India. The Sanskrit-language Bhagavata
Purana (dated 500 BCE-1000 CE) describes its protagonist Manu (aka
Satyavrata) as the Lord of
Dravida (South India). The Matsya Purana
(dated 250–500 CE) also begins with Manu practicing tapas on Mount
Malaya of South India. Manimeghalai (dated around 6th century CE)
mentions that the ancient Chola port city of Kaverippumpattinam
(present-day Puhar) was destroyed by a flood. It states that this
flood was sent by the Hindu deity Indra, because the king forgot to
celebrate a festival dedicated to him.
None of these ancient texts or their medieval commentaries use the
name "Kumari Kandam" or "Kumari Nadu" for the land purportedly lost to
the sea. They do not state that the land lost by the sea was a whole
continent located to the south of Kanyakumari. Nor do they link the
loss of this land to the history of
Tamil people as a community.
Lemuria hypothesis in India
In 1864, the English zoologist
Philip Sclater hypothesized the
existence of a submerged land connection between India,
continental Africa. He named this submerged land Lemuria, as the
concept had its origins in his attempts to explain the presence of
lemur-like primates (strepsirrhini) on these three disconnected lands.
Before the Lemuria hypothesis was rendered obsolete by the continental
drift theory, a number of scholars supported and expanded it. The
concept was introduced to the Indian readers in an 1873 physical
geography textbook by Henry Francis Blanford. According to Blanford,
the landmass had submerged due to volcanic activity during the
Cretaceous period. In late 1870s, the Lemuria theory found its
first proponents in the present-day Tamil Nadu, when the leaders of
Theosophical Society wrote about it (see the
root race theory).
Most European and American geologists dated Lemuria's disappearance to
a period before the emergence of modern humans. Thus, according to
them, Lemuria could not have hosted an ancient civilization. However,
in 1885, the Indian Civil Service officer Charles D. Maclean published
The Manual of the Administration of the Madras Presidency, in which he
theorized Lemuria as the proto-Dravidian urheimat. In a footnote in
this work, he mentioned Ernst Haeckel's
Asia hypothesis, which
theorized that the humans originated in a land now submerged in the
Indian Ocean. Maclean added that this submerged land was the homeland
of the proto-Dravidians. He also suggested that the progenitors of the
other races must have migrated from Lemuria to other places via South
India. This theory was also cursorily discussed by other colonial
Edgar Thurston and Herbert Hope Risley, including in
the census reports of 1891 and 1901. Later, Maclean's manual came
to be cited as an authoritative work by the Tamil writers, who often
wrongly referred to him as a "scientist" and a "Doctor".
The native Tamil intellectuals first started discussing the concept of
a submerged Tamil homeland in the late 1890s. In 1898, J. Nallasami
Pillai published an article in the philosophical-literary journal
Siddhanta Deepika (aka The Truth of Light). He wrote about the theory
of a lost continent in the
Indian Ocean (i.e. Lemuria), mentioning
that the Tamil legends speak of floods which destroyed the literary
works produced during the ancient sangams. However, he also added that
this theory had "no serious historical or scientific footing".
Popularization in Tamil Nadu
In the 1920s, the Lemuria concept was popularized by the Tamil
revivalists to counter the dominance of
Indo-Aryans and Sanskrit.
Tamil revivalist writers claimed that Lemuria, prior to its deluge,
was the original Tamil homeland and birthplace of Tamil civilization.
They often misquoted or miscited the words of Western scholars to
grant credibility to their assertions. During the British era, the
loss of small patches of lands to cyclones was catalogued in several
district reports, gazetteers and other documents. The Tamil writers of
the period cited these as evidence supporting the theory about an
ancient land lost to the sea.
The books discussing the
Kumari Kandam theory were first included in
college curriculum of the present-day
Tamil Nadu in 1908.
Suryanarayana Sastri's book was prescribed for use in Madras
University's Master's degree courses in 1908-09. Over the next few
decades, other such works were also included in the curriculum of
Madras University and Annamalai University. These include Purnalingam
Pillai's A Primer of Tamil Literature (1904) and Tamil literature
(1929), Kandiah Pillai's Tamilakam (1934), and Srinivasa Pillai's
Tamil Varalaru (1927). In a 1940
Tamil language textbook for
ninth-grade students, T. V. Kalyanasundaram wrote that Lemuria of the
European scholars was Kumarinatu of the Tamil literature.
Dravidian parties came to power in the 1967 Madras State
Kumari Kandam theory was disseminated more widely
through school and college textbooks. In 1971, the Government of
Tamil Nadu established a formal committee to write the history of
Tamilakam (ancient Tamil territory). The state education minister R.
Nedunceliyan declared in the Legislative Assembly that by "history",
he meant "from the time of Lemuria that was seized by the
In 1971, the Government of
Tamil Nadu constituted a committee of
historians and litterateurs, headed by M. Varadarajan. One of the
objectives of the committee was to highlight "the great antiquity" of
the Tamils. A 1975 textbook written by this committee detailed the
Kumari Kandam theory, stating that it was supported by "the foremost
geologists, ethnologists and anthropologists". As late as the
Tamil Nadu government's history textbooks mentioned the
Kumari Kandam theory. The
Tamil language school textbooks in the
state government's "Samacheer"(uniform) syllabus still mention the
Kumari Kandam theory.
The Tamil writers characterized
Kumari Kandam as an ancient, but
highly advanced civilization located in an isolated continent in the
Indian Ocean. They also described it as the cradle of civilization
inhabited solely by the speakers of Tamil language. The following
sections describe these characteristics in detail.
Kumari Kandam is theorized as an isolated (both temporally and
geographically) land mass. Geographically, it was located in the
Indian Ocean. Temporally, it was a very ancient civilization. Many
Tamil writers do not assign any date to the submergence of Kumari
Kandam, resorting to phrases like "once upon a time" or "several
thousands of years ago". Those who do, vary greatly, ranging from
30,000 BCE to the 3rd century BCE. Several other writers state
that the land was progressively lost to the over a period of thousands
of years. In 1991, R. Mathivanan, then Chief Editor of the Tamil
Etymological Dictionary Project of the Government of Tamil Nadu,
claimed that the
Kumari Kandam civilization flourished around 50,000
BCE, and the continent submerged around 16,000 BCE. This theory was
based on the methodology recommended by his teacher Devaneya Pavanar.
The isolation resulted in the possibility of describing Kumari Kandam
as a utopian society insulated from external influences and foreign
corruption. Unlike its description in the Kanda Puranam, the Tamil
Kumari Kandam as a place free of the upper-caste
Brahmins, who had come to be identified as descendants of Indo-Aryans
during the Dravidian movement. The non-utopian practices of the 20th
century Tamil Hindu society, such as superstitions and caste-based
discrimination, were all described as corruption resulting from
A land lost to the ocean also helped the Tamil revivalists provide an
explanation for the lack of historically verifiable or scientifically
acceptable material evidence about this ancient civilization. The
earliest extant Tamil writings, which are attributed to the third
Sanskrit vocabulary, and thus could not have been the
creation of a purely Tamil civilization. Connecting the concept of
Lemuria to an ancient Tamil civilization allowed the Tamil revivalists
to portray a society completely free of Indo-Aryan influence. They
could claim that the various signs of the ancient Tamil civilization
had been lost in the deep ocean. The later dominance of
offered as another explanation for the deliberate destruction of
ancient Tamil works. In the 1950s, R. Nedunceliyan, who later
became Tamil Nadu's education minister, published a pamphlet called
Marainta Tiravitam ("Lost Dravidian land"). He insisted that the
Brahmin historians, being biased towards Sanskrit, had deliberately
kept the knowledge of the Tamil's greatness hidden from the
Connected with South India
Kumari Kandam proponents laid great emphasis on stating that the
Kanyakumari city was a part of the original Kumari Kandam. Some of
them also argued that entire Tamil Nadu, entire Indian peninsula
(south of Vindhyas) or even entire India were a part of Kumari
Kandam. This helped ensure that the modern
Tamils could be
described as both indigenous people of
South India and the direct
descendants of the people of Kumari Kandam. This, in turn, allowed
them to describe the
Tamil language and culture as the world's
During British Raj,
Kanyakumari was a part of the
most of which was merged to the newly-formed
Kerala state after the
1956 reorganization. The Tamil politicians made a concerted effort to
Kanyakumari was incorporated into the Tamil-majority
Madras State (now Tamil Nadu). Kanyakumari's purported connection with
Kumari Kandam was one of the reasons for this effort.
Cradle of civilization
According to the
Kumari Kandam proponents, the continent was submerged
when the last ice age ended and the sea levels rose. The Tamil people
then migrated to other lands, and mixed with the other groups, leading
to the formation of new races, languages and civilizations. Some also
theorize that the entire humanity is descended from the inhabitants of
Kumari Kandam. Both narratives agree on the point that the Tamil
culture is the source of all civilized culture in the world, and Tamil
is the mother language of all other languages in the world. According
to the most versions, the original culture of
Kumari Kandam survived
in Tamil Nadu.
As early as 1903, Suryanarayana Sastri, in his Tamilmoliyin Varalaru,
insisted that all the humans were descendants of the ancient Tamils
from Kumari Kandam. Such claims were repeated by several others,
M. S. Purnalingam Pillai and Maraimalai Adigal. In 1917,
Abraham Pandithar wrote that Lemuria was the cradle of human race, and
Tamil was the first language spoken by the humans. These claims were
repeated in the school and college textbooks of
Tamil Nadu throughout
the 20th century.
M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, writing in 1927, stated that Indus Valley
Civilization was established by the Tamil survivors from the flood-hit
Kumari Nadu. In the 1940s, N. S. Kandiah Pillai published maps showing
migration of the
Kumari Kandam residents to other parts of the
world. In 1953, R. Nedunceliyan, who later became the
education minister of Tamil Nadu, insisted that the civilization
South India to the Indus Valley and Sumer, and
subsequently, to "Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Spain and other
places". They presented modern Tamil as a pale remnant of the
Tamil language spoken in Kumari Kandam.
Some Tamil writers also claimed that the
Indo-Aryans were also
descendants of proto-Dravidians of Kumari Kandam. According to this
Indo-Aryans belonged to a branch which migrated to
Asia and then returned to India. Similar explanations were
used to reconcile the popular theory that proto-Dravidians migrated to
India from the Mediterranean region. A 1975 Government of Tamil Nadu
college text book stated that the Dravidians of
Kumari Kandam had
migrated to the
Mediterranean region after the submergence of their
continent; later, they migrated back to India via the Himalayan
Primordial but not primitive
The Tamil revivalists did not consider
Kumari Kandam as a primitive
society or a rural civilization. Instead, they described it as a
utopia which had reached the zenith of human achievement, and where
people lived a life devoted to learning, education, travel and
commerce. Sumanthi Ramaswamy notes that this "placemaking" of Kumari
Kandam was frequently intended as a teaching tool, meant to inspire
Tamils to pursue excellence. But this pre-occupation with
"civilization" was also a response to the British rulers' projection
of the Europeans as more civilized than the Tamils.
Suryanarayan Sastri, in 1903, described the antediluvian
expert cultivators, fine poets and far-traveling merchants, who lived
in an egalitarian and democratic society. Savariroyan Pillai, writing
a few years later, described
Kumari Kandam as a seat of learning and
culture. Sivagnana Yogi (1840-1924) stated that this ancient society
was free of any caste system. Kandiah Pillai, in a 1945 work for
children, wrote that Kumarikandam was ruled by a strong and just
emperor called Sengon, who organized the sangams. In 1981, the
Tamil Nadu funded a documentary film on Kumari Kandam.
The film, personally backed by the Chief Minister M. G. Ramachandran
and directed by P. Neelakantan, was screened at the Fifth
International Conference of Tamil Studies in Madurai. It combined the
continental drift theory with the submerged continent theory to
present Lemuria as a scientifically valid concept. It depicted
Kumari Kandam cities resplendent with mansions, gardens, arts, crafts,
music and dance.
The Tamil revivalists insisted that the first two Tamil sangams
(literary academies) were not mythical, and happened in the Kumari
Kandam era. While most Tamil revivalists did not enumerate or list the
lost Sangam works, some came up with their names, and even listed
their contents. In 1903, Suryanarayana Sastri named some of these
works as Mutunarai, Mutukuruku, Mapuranam and Putupuranam. In 1917,
Abraham Pandithar listed three of these works as the world's first
treatises of music: Naratiyam, Perunarai and Perunkuruku. He also
listed several rare musical instruments such as the thousand-stringed
lute, which had been lost to the sea.
Devaneya Pavanar printed an
entire list of the submerged books. Others listed books on a wide
range of topics, including medicine, martial arts, logic, painting,
sculpture, yoga, philosophy, music, mathematics, alchemy, magic,
architecture, poetry, and wealth. Since these works had been lost to
the sea, the
Kumari Kandam proponents insisted that no empirical proof
could be provided for their claims.
In 1902, Chidambaranar published a book called Cenkonraraiccelavu,
claiming that he had 'discovered' the manuscript from "some old cudgan
[sic] leaves". The book was presented as a lost-and-found work of the
first Sangam at Tenmadurai. The author of the poem was styled as
Mutaluli Centan Taniyur ("Chentan who lived in Taniyur before the
first deluge"). The work talked about the exploits of an antediluvian
Tamil king Sengon, who ruled the now-submerged kingdom of
Peruvalanatu, the region between the rivers Kumari and Pahruli.
According to Chidambaranar, Sengon was a native of Olinadu, which was
located south of the Equator; the king maintained several battleships
and conquered lands as far as Tibet. In 1950s, Cenkonraraiccelavu was
declared as a forgery by S. Vaiyapuri Pillai. However, this did not
stop the Tamil revivalists from invoking the text. The 1981
documentary funded by Government of
Tamil Nadu declared it as the
"world's first travelogue".
The medieval commentator Adiyarkunallar stated that the size of the
land south of Kanyakumari, lost to the sea was 700 kavatam. The modern
equivalent of kavatam is not known. In 1905, Arasan Shanmugham
Pillai wrote that this land amounted to thousands of miles.
According to Purnalingam Pillai and Suryanarayana Sastri, the number
was equivalent to 7000 miles. Others, such as Abraham Pandither,
Aiyan Aarithan, Devaneyan and Raghava Aiyangar offered estimates
ranging from 1,400 to 3,000 miles. According to U. V. Swaminatha
Iyer, only the land amounting in area to only a few villages
(equivalent to the Tamil measure of two kurram) was lost. In 1903,
Suryanarayana Sastri suggested that
Kumari Kandam extended from the
Kanyakumari in North to
Kerguelen Islands in South, and
Madagascar in the West to
Sunda Islands in the East. In 1912,
Somasundara Bharati wrote that the continent touched China, Africa,
Kanyakumari on four sides. In 1948, Maraimalai Adigal
stated that the continent stretched as far as the South Pole.
Somasundara Bharati offered an estimate of 6000–7000 miles.
The first map to visualize Lemuria as an ancient Tamil territory was
published by S. Subramania Sastri in 1916, in the journal Centamil.
This map was actually part of an article that criticized the
pseudohistorical claims about a lost continent. Sastri insisted that
the lost land mentioned in Adiyarkunallar's records was barely
equivalent to a taluka (not larger than a few hundred square miles).
The map depicted two different versions of Kumari Kandam: that of
Sastri, and that of A. Shanmugam Pillai (see above). The lost land was
depicted as a peninsula, similar to the present-day Indian
In 1927, Purnalingam Pillai published a map titled "Puranic India
before the Deluges", in which he labeled the various places of Kumari
Kandam with names drawn from ancient Tamil and
works. Pulavar Kulanthai, in his 1946 map, was first to depict cities
like Tenmaturai and Kapatapuram on the maps of Kumari Kandam. Several
maps also depicted the various mountain ranges and rivers of Kumari
Kandam. The most elaborate cartographic visualization appeared in a
1977 map by R. Mathivanan. This map showed the 49 nadus mentioned by
Adiyarkunallar, and appears in the
Tamil Nadu government's 1981
A 1981 map published by N. Mahalingam depicted the lost land as
"Submerged Tamil Nadu" in 30,000 B.C. A 1991 map, created by R.
Mathivanan, showed a land bridge connecting
Indian peninsula to
Antarctica. A few Tamil writers also depicted
Gondwanaland as Kumari
Criticism of the concept
Concept of Lemuria continues to be found in pseudo-scientific
literature. The attempts to mix the Lemuria myth with Tamil
history have attracted criticism since the late 19th century. One
of the earliest criticisms came from M Seshagiri Sastri (1897), who
described the claims of ante-diluvial sangams as "a mere fiction
originated by the prolific imagination of Tamil poets." CH Monahan
wrote a scathing review of Suryanarayana Sastri's Tamilmoliyin
Varalaru (1903), shortly after its publication, accusing the author of
"abandoning scientific research for mythology". K. N. Sivaraja
Pillai (1932) similarly stressed on the need to closely examine the
historical authenticity of Sangam works and their commentaries.
K. A. Nilakanta Sastri described the
Kumari Kandam theory as
"all bosh", stating that geological theories about events happening
millions of years ago should not be connected to the human history of
a few thousand years back. Historian N. Subrahmanian, writing in
1966, described the Lemuria myth as the most characteristic example of
"anti-history" in Tamil Nadu. He noted that these myths persisted
in the minds of
Tamil people despite modern education. According
to him, the land lost to sea, as described in the ancient Tamil
legends, was a small area comparable to a present-day district, and
submerged around 5th or 4th century BCE.
The same view is also shared by historian K. K. Pillay. He writes
... to accept this is not to accept the view that the entire Lemuria
or Gondvana continent existed in the age of the Tamil Sangam, as is
sometimes believed. Some of the writers on the
Tamil Sangam might have
held that the first Tamil Academy flourished in South
according to them lay to the south of the tip of present South India.
This view has been sought to be reinforced by the Lemurian theory. But
it is important to observe that the Lemurian continent must have
existed, if at all, long long ago. According to geologists, the
dismemberment of the Lemurian or Gondvana continent into several units
must have taken place towards the close of the Mesozoic era.
In popular culture
Kandam (2016), is a Tamil Canadian/Sri Lankan film directed by Pras
Lingam. The movie is based on the premise of the existence of the
Kumari Kandam and the prevalence of Tamil civilization in
Kumari Kandam appeared in
The Secret Saturdays
The Secret Saturdays episodes "The King of
Kumari Kandam" and "The Atlas Pin." This version is a city on the back
of a giant sea serpent with its inhabitants all fish people.
Kumari Kandam appeared on Season Two, Episode Three of the History
Channel television show, "Ancient Aliens".
Evolution of lemurs, primate from Madagascar
Legends of Mount Shasta
Mu (lost continent)
^ Theresa Bane (4 March 2014). Encyclopedia of Imaginary and Mythical
Places. McFarland. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-4766-1565-3.
^ Ramaswamy 2004, pp. 104–108
^ a b c d e Richard S. Weiss (22 January 2009). Recipes for
Immortality : Healing, Religion, and Community in South India:
Healing, Religion, and Community in South India. Oxford University
Press. pp. 89–97. ISBN 978-0-19-971500-8.
^ Ramaswamy 2004, p. 268
^ C. Brito (1884). "Curiosities of Tamil Literature". Orientalist: A
Journal of Oriental Literature, Arts, and Sciences Folklore. Trübner
& Co. pp. 98–102.
^ Ramaswamy 2004, pp. 105–106
^ a b Ramaswamy 2004, pp. 204–211
^ William P. Harman (1992). The Sacred Marriage of a Hindu Goddess.
Motilal Banarsidass. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-208-0810-2.
^ Shulman 1980, pp. 55-56.
^ a b c d Ramaswamy 2004, pp. 143–145
^ Kalittokai 104:1–4
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