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KUAIJI COMMANDERY (Chinese : t 會稽郡, s 会稽郡, p Kuàijī Jùn), formerly romanized as K‘UAI-CHI COMMANDERY, was a former commandery of China
China
in the area of Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
. When first established, its capital was at Wu (present-day Suzhou
Suzhou
), which became known as "Kuaiji" from this role. The initial territory ran from the south bank of the Yangtze
Yangtze
through most of modern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to an indeterminate border among the free people of Minyue . Wu and Wuxing commanderies were later formed between the Yangtze
Yangtze
and the north shore of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay; the administration of the remainder of Kuaiji Commandery was then removed to the site of the former Yue capital in modern Shaoxing
Shaoxing
's Yuecheng District , which also became known as Kuaiji from this role. By the Tang , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was also separated and Kuaiji ran from a little north of the Zhe River
Zhe River
in the west to Ningbo in the east.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Counties

* 4 Officials

* 4.1 Governors * 4.2 Princes * 4.3 Dukes

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The commandery was named for Mount Kuaiji
Mount Kuaiji
, a site long important to the area's native Yue people and connected in Chinese legend
Chinese legend
with Yu the Great , whose putative gravesite was visited by Shi Huangdi in his tours of the Qin Empire
Qin Empire
. There are various folk etymologies of the Chinese characters, but they probably represent a transcription of a native proto-Wu placename.

HISTORY

The commandery was first formed by Shi Huangdi of the Qin to consolidate control over the lands of miscellaneous Baiyue
Baiyue
peoples southeast of Chu captured in 222 BC. The initial capital was at Wu (present-day Suzhou
Suzhou
) through the Qin and Han dynasties and it was also known as "Kuaiji" from this role. In 209 BC, its governor Yin Tong initiated a plot to rebel against the collapsing Qin but was assassinated and replaced by his conspirators Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu . They employed Kuaiji as a base for their own rebellion, which restored a puppet king to Chu before Xiang Yu\'s defeat by Han .

During the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
, an army from Kuaiji Commandery under Han Anguo moved against the Min (Fujianese ) in 135 BC. In AD 38, a major plague outbreak assaulted the area. Amid various local cults and practices, the governor Diwu Lun suppressed unauthorized sacrifices, particularly the sacrifice of cattle , as injurious to the area's economic strength.

By the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, the capital was restored to its pre-imperial position in present-day Shaoxing
Shaoxing
. The commandery was conquered by Sun Ce of Wu in 196 and he made its capital his base, assuming the title of governor himself. The area was later troubled by the bandits Lü He (呂合) and Qin Lang (秦狼), who were put down by Jiang Qin ; bandits under Pan Lin (潘臨) were put down by Lu Xun . During the period, Yuyao
Yuyao
suffered a plague outbreak but its administrator Zhu Huan 's deft handling of the situation was credited with an influx of immigrants.

The era of Sun Quan
Sun Quan
saw migrations from the north and the opening of the Shanyue area and the Zhedong and Jiangnan canals. Textile production expanded, using imported cotton from Shu . Celadon pottery, later developed under the Jin , became more common. The primary centers of industrial production (specifically, ceramics ) were at Kuaiji ( Shaoxing
Shaoxing
), Yuyao
Yuyao
(within Ningbo
Ningbo
), and Shangyu , with secondary centers at Yinxian , Ningbo
Ningbo
proper, Fenghua , Linhai
Linhai
, Xiaoshan , Yuhang
Yuhang
(present-day Hangzhou
Hangzhou
), and Huzhou
Huzhou
. Kuaiji also had a copper mine which produced mirrors . Trade missions reached Taiwan , Fun\'an (south Vietnam ), and Manchuria
Manchuria
.

The removal of the Jin dynasty to Nanjing
Nanjing
in 317 sparked economic growth in the region known at the time as San Wu ("The Three Wus") from the commanderies of Wu , Wuxing , and Kuaiji (which had formerly been located in Wu).

During the Southern Dynasties
Southern Dynasties
period, Kuaiji Commandery was the scene of an abortive rebellion by the retired general Wang Jingze (王敬則) against Emperor Ming of Qi in 498. The emperor was able to forestall the involvement of Emperor Gao's grandson Xiao Zike (蕭子恪), marquess of Nankang , by threatening a mass poisoning of his family and General Wang was killed in battle.

It was the capital commandery of Eastern Yangzhou and the richest commandery in the empire during the 6th century.

During the Sui , the Grand Canal reached Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in Kuaiji Commandery, which accordingly grew in importance. By the Tang , a separate commandery was established for Hangzhou
Hangzhou
out of Kuaiji's territory north of the Zhe River
Zhe River
. Emperor Yang of the Sui ordered a palace to be constructed in Kuaiji in 616.

COUNTIES

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* Shanyin County (山陰縣), within present-day Shaoxing
Shaoxing
* Wushang County (烏傷縣), around present-day Yiwu
Yiwu
* Yuyao
Yuyao
County (餘姚縣), within present-day Ningbo
Ningbo
* Juzhang County (句章縣), within present-day Ningbo
Ningbo
* Xuancheng County (宣城縣)

OFFICIALS

Control of the territory was held by officials known in Chinese as taishou (太守, tàishǒu), "governor " or "grand administrator".

Under the Kingdom of Wu and during the Jin dynasty , a number of royals bore the title "PRINCE OF KUAIJI" (t 會稽王, s 会稽王, Kuàijīwáng), notionally elevating the territory to the status of a minor kingdom. In the case of the Jin dynasty , it was a status beneath that of the Prince of Langye but the 6-year-old Sima Yu requested a demotion to it when the greater title precluded him from mourning for his mother. The title was granted on an ad hoc basis and, as it implied no actual administrative control, ran concurrently with the governors.

In a similar fashion, some nobles were created "DUKE OF KUAIJI" (t 會稽公, s 会稽公, Kuàijīgōng).

GOVERNORS

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* . . . * Yin Tong , –209 BC * Xiang Liang , 209–208 BC * . . . * Diwu Lun (第五倫), c. AD 53–62 * . . . * Wang Lang , –AD 196 * Sun Ce , 196–200 * Sun Quan
Sun Quan
, king of Wu , 200– * . . . * Chunyu Shi (淳于式) * . . . * Wu Can , 222– * . . . * Yu Chen (庾琛), 3rd century, father of Empress Mingmu and General Yu of the Jin * . . . * Xie Xuan , –388 * . . . * Liu Dan (劉誕), Prince of Sui, c. 452, brother of Emperor Xiaowu of Song * . . . * Liu Zifang (劉子房), Prince of Xunyang, –466, son of Emperor Xiaowu * . . . * Xiao Dalian (蕭大連), Duke of Lincheng, c. 549 * . . .

PRINCES

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* Sun Xiu , c. 252–c. 258 * Sun Liang , 258–260 * . . . * Sima Yu , 326–371 * Sima Daozi , the Wenxiao Prince of Kuaiji, 392–403 * . . . * Chen Zhuang (陳莊), 586–

DUKES

This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it .

* Sun Xiu , c. 270– * Sima Chi , 311–313 * Helian Chang , 428–430

SEE ALSO

* Yue Prefecture (Zhejiang)
Yue Prefecture (Zhejiang)

REFERENCES

* ^ Less often, as KUAIJI PREFECTURE or K‘UAI-CHI PREFECTURE. * ^ The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places, p. 234. Britannica Educational Publishing. * ^ A B Liu Taotao text-transform: lowercase;">BCE—220 CE, p. 165. * ^ Dien, Albert. Six Dynasties Civilization, pp. 237 ff. Yale University Press (New Haven ), 2007. Accessed 23 July 2014. * ^ Dien, p. 265. * ^ Dien, p. 120.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* James M. Hargett's "會稽: Guaiji? Guiji? Huiji? Kuaiji? Some Remarks on an Ancient Chinese Place-Name" (Sino-Platonic Papers № 234)

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