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KSHATRIYA (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
kśatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu
Hindu
society. The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term kśatriya is used in the context of Vedic
Vedic
society wherein members organised themselves into four classes: brahmin , KSHATRIYA, vaishya and shudra . Traditionally, the kshatriya constituted the ruling and military elite. Their role was to protect society by fighting in wartime and governing in peacetime.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 1.1 Early Rigvedic tribal chiefdom * 1.2 Later Vedic
Vedic
period

* 2 Symbols * 3 Lineage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading

ORIGINS

EARLY RIGVEDIC TRIBAL CHIEFDOM

The administrative machinery in the Rig Vedic
Vedic
period functioned with a tribal chief called Rajan whose position was not hereditary. The king was elected in a tribal assembly, which included women, called Samiti. The Rajan protected the tribe and cattle; was assisted by a priest; and did not maintain a standing army, though in the later period the rulership appears to have risen as a class. The concept of fourfold varna system was non-existent.

LATER VEDIC PERIOD

The hymn Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
to the Rigveda
Rigveda
describes the mythical history of the four varna. Some scholars consider the Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
to be a late interpolation into the Rigveda
Rigveda
based on the neological character of the composition, as compared to the more archaic style of the vedic literature. Since not all Indians was fully regulated under the varna in the vedic society, the Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
was supposedly composed in order to secure vedic sanction for the heredity caste scheme. An alternate explanation is that the word 'Shudra' does not occur anywhere else in the Rig-veda except the Purusha Sukta, leading some scholars to believe the Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
was a composition of the later Rig-vedic period itself to denote, legitimise and sanctify an oppressive and exploitative class structure that had already come into existence then.

Although the Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
uses the term rajanya, not kshatriya, it is considered the first instance in the Vedic
Vedic
texts that now remained where four social classes are mentioned for the first time together. Usage of the term Rajanya possibly indicates the 'kinsmen of the rajan' (i.e., kinsmen of the ruler) had emerged as a distinct social group then, such that by the end of the vedic period, the term rajanya was replaced by kshatriya; where rajanya stresses kinship with the rajan and kshatriya denotes power over a specific domain. The term rajanya unlike the word kshatriya essentially denoted the status within a lineage. Whereas kshatra, means "ruling; one of the ruling order". Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
was born into a kshatriya family.

Jaiswal points out the term Brahman
Brahman
rarely occurs in the Rig-veda with the exception of the Purusha Sukta
Purusha Sukta
and may not have been used for the priestly class. Based on the authority of Panini, Patanjali, Katyayana and the Mahabharata, Jayaswal believes that Rajanya was the name of a political people and that the Rajanyas were, therefore, a democracy (with an elected ruler). Some examples were the Andhaka and Vrsni Rajanyas who followed the system of elected rulers. Ram Sharan Sharma details how the central chief was elected by various clan chiefs or lineage chiefs with increasing polarisation between the rajanya (aristocracy helping the ruler) and the vis (peasants) leading to a distinction between the chiefs as a separate class (raja, rajanya, kshatra, kshatriya) on one hand and vis (clan peasantry) on the other hand.

The term kshatriya comes from kshatra and implies temporal authority and power which was based less on being a successful leader in battle and more on the tangible power of laying claim to sovereignty over a territory, and symbolising ownership over clan lands. This later gave rise to the idea of kingship.

In the period of the Brahmanas (800 BCE to 700 BCE) there was ambiguity in the position of the varna. In the Panchavimsha Brahmana (13,4,7), the Rajanya are placed first, followed by Brahmana
Brahmana
then Vaishya. In Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
13.8.3.11, the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
are placed second. In Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
1.1.4.12 the order is—Brahmana, Vaishya, Rajanya, Shudra. The order of the brahmanical tradition—Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra—became fixed from the time of dharmasutras (450 BCE to 100 BCE). The kshatriya were often considered pre-eminent in Buddhist circles. Even among Hindu societies they were sometimes at rivalry with the Brahmins, but they generally acknowledged the superiority of the priestly class.

SYMBOLS

In rituals, the nyagrodha ( Ficus indica or India fig or banyan tree) danda, or staff, is assigned to the kshatriya class, along with a mantra, intended to impart physical vitality or 'ojas'.

LINEAGE

The Vedas
Vedas
do not mention kshatriya (or verma) of any vansha (lineage). The lineages of the Itihasa
Itihasa
- Purana
Purana
tradition are: Suryavanshi (solar line); and Chandravanshi (lunar line).

There are other lineages, such as the Agnivanshi , in which an eponymous ancestor rises out of Agni
Agni
(fire), and Nagavanshi (snake-born), claiming descent from the Nāgas . The Nagavanshi, not attested in the Itihasa- Purana
Purana
tradition, were Naga tribes whose origin can be found in scriptures. There existed Nagavanshi
Nagavanshi
rulers, such as the Chotanagpur Maharaja, originally said to be of Munda origin. The clan holds snakes to be sacred and had marital relations with Rajput
Rajput
for many centuries.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KSHATRIYA .

* Indian caste system
Indian caste system
* Forward castes * Sanskritisation

REFERENCES

* ^ Bujor Avari (2007). India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from c. 7000 BC to AD 1200, p. 74 * ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (2005). India's ancient past. the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. pp. 110–112. ISBN 9780195667141 . * ^ David Kean (2007). Caste-based Discrimination in International Human Rights Law, p. 26. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. * ^ Jayantanuja Bandyopadhyaya (2007). Class and Religion in Ancient India, pp. 37–47. Anthem Press. * ^ A B C D E Kumkum Roy (2011). Insights and Interventions: Essays in Honour of Uma Chakravarti, p. 148. Primus Books. * ^ Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley ; Dorothy Rivers Turner (January 2006) . A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. (Accompanied by three supplementary volumes: indexes, compiled by Dorothy Rivers Turner: 1969. – Phonetic analysis: 1971. – Addenda et corrigenda: 1985. ed.). London: Oxford University Press,. pp. 189–190. Retrieved 23 October 2011. * ^ Radhakrishna Choudhary (1964). The Vrātyas in Ancient India, Volume 38 of Chowkhamba Sanskrit
Sanskrit
studies, p. 125. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Series Office. * ^ Ram Sharan Sharma (1991). Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India, p. 172. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. * ^ Reddy (2005). General Studies History 4 Upsc. Tata McGraw-Hill Education,. pp. 78,79,33,80,27,123. ISBN 9780070604476 . * ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, p. 202. Pearson Education India. * ^ A B Jeanne Auboyer (1965). Daily Life in Ancient India. Phoenix Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 1-84212-591-5 . * ^ Brian K. Smith. Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual, and Religion, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe, 1998 * ^ A B C D Indian History: Ancient and medieval, p. 22. Volume 1 of Indian History, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Pvt. Ltd, 2003. * ^ Omacanda Hāṇḍā. Naga Cults and Traditions in the Western Himalaya, p. 251.

FURTHER READING

* Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. History and Culture of Indian People, The Vedic
Vedic
Age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996. pp. 313–314

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