_KRISTALLNACHT_ (German pronunciation: ; lit. "Crystal Night") or
_REICHSKRISTALLNACHT_ , also referred to as the NIGHT OF BROKEN
GLASS, _REICHSPOGROMNACHT_ or simply _POGROMNACHT_ (_ listen ),
and NOVEMBERPOGROME_ (_ listen ), was a pogrom against Jews
Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA
paramilitary forces and German civilians. The German authorities
looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht_ comes from
the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows
of Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues were smashed.
Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have
varied. Early reports estimated that 91 Jewish people were murdered
during the attacks. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by
historians such as
Richard J. Evans puts the number much higher. When
deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are
included, the death toll climbs into the hundreds. Additionally,
30,000 Jewish men were arrested and incarcerated in concentration
Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the attackers
demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Over 1,000 synagogues were
burned (95 in Vienna alone) and over 7,000 Jewish businesses were
either destroyed or damaged.
Martin Gilbert writes that no event in
the history of German
Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely
reported as it was happening, and the accounts from the foreign
journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world.
The Times _ wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon
blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings
and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent
people, which disgraced that country yesterday."
The attacks have been blamed on the assassination of the
Ernst vom Rath by
Herschel Grynszpan , a German-born
Polish Jew living in Paris. _Kristallnacht_ was followed by additional
economic and political persecution of Jews, and it is viewed by
historians as part of
Nazi Germany's broader racial policy , and the
beginning of the
Final Solution and
The Holocaust .
* 1 Background
* 1.1 Early
* 1.2 Expulsion of Polish
Jews in Germany
* 1.3 Shooting of vom Rath
* 2.1 Death of vom Rath
* 2.2 Riots
* 3 Aftermath
* 4 Responses to _Kristallnacht_
* 4.1 From the Germans
* 4.2 From the global community
* 5 _Kristallnacht_ as a turning point
* 6 Modern references
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 External links
Further information: History of the
Austria , History of the
Jews in Germany , and
EARLY NAZI PERSECUTIONS
In the 1920s, most German
Jews were fully integrated into German
society as German citizens. They served in the German army and navy
and contributed to every field of German business , science and
culture. Conditions for the
Jews began to change after the
Adolf Hitler (the Austrian-born leader of the National
Socialist German Workers\' Party ) as
Chancellor of Germany on 30
January 1933, and the Enabling Act (23 March 1933) assumption of power
by Hitler after the
Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933. From its
inception, Hitler's régime moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish
Nazi propaganda singled out the 500,000
Jews in Germany,
who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, as an enemy
within who were responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World
War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s
hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression . Beginning in
1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws
restricting the rights of German
Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full
citizenship and to gain education, including the _Law for the
Restoration of the Professional Civil Service _ of 7 April 1933, which
Jews to work in the civil service. The subsequent 1935
Nuremberg Laws stripped German
Jews of their citizenship and forbade
Jews to marry non-Jewish Germans.
These laws resulted in the exclusion of
Jews from German social and
political life. Many sought asylum abroad; hundreds of thousands
emigrated, but as
Chaim Weizmann wrote in 1936, "The world seemed to
be divided into two parts—those places where the
Jews could not live
and those where they could not enter." The international Évian
Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and Gypsy
immigration to other countries. By the time the conference took place,
more than 250,000
Jews had fled Germany and
Austria , which had been
annexed by Germany in March 1938; more than 300,000 German and
Jews continued to seek refuge and asylum from oppression. As
the number of
Jews and Gypsies wanting to leave increased, the
restrictions against them grew, with many countries tightening their
rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a new radical phase
in anti-Semitic activity". Some historians believe that the Nazi
government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence
Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation;
there is evidence of this planning dating to 1937. In a 1997
interview, the German historian
Hans Mommsen claimed that a major
motive for the pogrom was the desire of the _Gauleiters _ of the NSDAP
to seize Jewish property and businesses . Mommsen stated:
The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact
Franz Xaver Schwarz , the party treasurer, kept the local and
regional organizations of the party short of money. In the fall of
1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's
ambition, especially since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as _Reich_
minister for economics. This, however, was only one aspect of the
origin of the November 1938 pogrom. The Polish government threatened
to extradite all
Jews who were Polish citizens, but would stay in
Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side.
The immediate reaction by the
Gestapo was to push the Polish
Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed
due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers. The loss of
prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort
of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's
attempt against the diplomat
Ernst vom Rath came into being and led to
the November pogrom. The background of the pogrom was signified by a
sharp cleavage of interests between the different agencies of party
and state. While the
Nazi party was interested in improving its
financial strength on the regional and local level by taking over
Hermann Göring , in charge of the Four-Year Plan,
hoped to acquire access to foreign currency in order to pay for the
import of urgently-needed raw material. Heydrich and Himmler were
interested in fostering Jewish emigration".
Zionist leadership in the British Mandate of Palestine wrote in
February 1938 that according to "a very reliable private source—one
which can be traced back to the highest echelons of the SS
leadership", there was "an intention to carry out a genuine and
dramatic pogrom in Germany on a large scale in the near future".
EXPULSION OF POLISH JEWS IN GERMANY
Jews expelled from Germany in late October 1938
In August 1938 the German authorities announced that residence
permits for foreigners were being cancelled and would have to be
renewed. This included German-born
Jews of foreign origin. Poland
stated that it would not accept
Jews of Polish origin after the end of
October. In the so-called "Polenaktion", more than 12,000 Polish-born
Jews, among them the philosopher and theologian Rabbi Abraham Joshua
Heschel , and future literary critic
Marcel Reich-Ranicki , were
expelled from Germany on 28 October 1938, on Hitler's orders. They
were ordered to leave their homes in a single night, and were allowed
only one suitcase per person to carry their belongings. As the Jews
were taken away, their remaining possessions were seized as loot both
Nazi authorities and by their neighbors.
The deportees were taken from their homes to railway stations and
were put on trains to the Polish border, where Polish border guards
sent them back over the river into Germany. This stalemate continued
for days in the pouring rain, with the
Jews marching without food or
shelter between the borders. Four thousand were granted entry into
Poland , but the remaining 8,000 were forced to stay at the border.
They waited there in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. A
British newspaper told its readers that hundreds "are reported to be
lying about, penniless and deserted, in little villages along the
frontier near where they had been driven out by the
Gestapo and left."
Conditions in the refugee camps "were so bad that some actually tried
to escape back into Germany and were shot", recalled a British woman
who was sent to help those who had been expelled.
SHOOTING OF VOM RATH
Herschel Grynszpan , 7 November 1938
Ernst vom Rath
Among those expelled was the family of Sendel and Riva Grynszpan,
Jews who had emigrated to Germany in 1911 and settled in
Hanover , Germany. At the trial of
Adolf Eichmann in 1961, Sendel
Grynszpan recounted the events of their deportation from
the night of 27 October 1938: "Then they took us in police trucks, in
prisoners' lorries, about 20 men in each truck, and they took us to
the railway station. The streets were full of people shouting: _'Juden
raus! Auf nach Palästina!'_" ("
Jews out, out to Palestine!"). Their
seventeen-year-old son Herschel was living in Paris with an uncle.
Herschel received a postcard from his family from the Polish border,
describing the family's expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we
realised this was going to be the end ... We haven't a penny. Could
you send us something?" He received the postcard on 3 November 1938.
On the morning of Monday, 7 November 1938, he purchased a revolver
and a box of bullets, then went to the German embassy and asked to see
an embassy official. After he was taken to the office of Ernst vom
Rath , Grynszpan fired five bullets at Vom Rath, two of which hit him
in the abdomen. Vom Rath was a professional diplomat with the Foreign
Office who expressed anti-
Nazi sympathies, largely based on the Nazis'
treatment of the Jews, and was under
Gestapo investigation for being
politically unreliable. Grynszpan made no attempt to escape the
French police and freely confessed to the shooting. In his pocket, he
carried a postcard to his parents with the message, "May God forgive
me ... I must protest so that the whole world hears my protest, and
that I will do."
The next day, the German government retaliated, barring Jewish
children from German state elementary schools, indefinitely suspending
Jewish cultural activities, and putting a halt to the publication of
Jewish newspapers and magazines, including the three national German
Jewish newspapers. A newspaper in Britain described the last move,
which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to
disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which
hold it together." Their rights as citizens had been stripped.
DEATH OF VOM RATH
Telegram sent by Reinhard Heydrich, 9 November 1938
Ernst vom Rath died of his wounds on 9 November. Word of his death
reached Hitler that evening while he was with several key members of
Nazi party at a dinner commemorating the 1923
Beer Hall Putsch .
After intense discussions, Hitler left the assembly abruptly without
giving his usual address. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
delivered the speech, in his place, and said that "the
decided that... demonstrations should not be prepared or organized by
the party, but insofar as they erupt spontaneously, they are not to be
hampered." The chief party judge
Walter Buch later stated that the
message was clear; with these words Goebbels had commanded the party
leaders to organize a pogrom.
Some leading party officials disagreed with Goebbels' actions,
fearing the diplomatic crisis it would provoke. Heinrich Himmler
wrote, "I suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity
which are responsible for starting this operation now, in a
particularly difficult diplomatic situation." The Israeli historian
Saul Friedländer believes that Goebbels had personal reasons for
wanting to bring about _Kristallnacht_. Goebbels had recently suffered
humiliation for the ineffectiveness of his propaganda campaign during
the Sudeten crisis , and was in some disgrace over an affair with a
Lída Baarová . Goebbels needed a chance to improve
his standing in the eyes of Hitler. At 01:20 am on 10 November 1938,
Reinhard Heydrich sent an urgent secret telegram to the
Sicherheitspolizei _ (Security Police; SiPo) and the _Sturmabteilung
_ (SA), containing instructions regarding the riots. This included
guidelines for the protection of foreigners and non-Jewish businesses
and property. Police were instructed not to interfere with the riots
unless the guidelines were violated. Police were also instructed to
seize Jewish archives from synagogues and community offices, and to
arrest and detain "healthy male Jews, who are not too old", for
eventual transfer to (labor) concentration camps .
_ Kristallnacht_, shop damage in
The storefronts of about 7,500 Jewish stores and businesses were
shattered, hence the appellation _Kristallnacht_ (Crystal Night).
Jewish homes were ransacked all throughout Germany. Although violence
Jews had not been condoned by the authorities, there were
Jews being beaten or assaulted.
About 200 synagogues , many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish
shops, and 29 department stores were damaged, and in many cases
destroyed. More than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to
concentration camps ; primarily Dachau , Buchenwald , and
The synagogues, some centuries old, were also victims of considerable
violence and vandalism, with the tactics the Stormtroops practised on
these and other sacred sites described as "approaching the ghoulish"
United States Consul in Leipzig. Tombstones were uprooted and
graves violated. Fires were lit, and prayer books, scrolls, artwork
and philosophy texts were thrown upon them, and precious buildings
were either burned or smashed until unrecognisable. Eric Lucas recalls
the destruction of the synagogue that a tiny Jewish community had
constructed in a small village only twelve years earlier:
It did not take long before the first heavy grey stones came tumbling
down, and the children of the village amused themselves as they flung
stones into the many coloured windows. When the first rays of a cold
and pale November sun penetrated the heavy dark clouds, the little
synagogue was but a heap of stone, broken glass and smashed-up
After this, the Jewish community was fined 10 billion reichsmarks. In
addition, it cost 40 million marks to repair the windows.
The _Daily Telegraph_ correspondent,
Hugh Greene , wrote of events in
Mob law ruled in Berlin throughout the afternoon and evening and
hordes of hooligans indulged in an orgy of destruction. I have seen
several anti-Jewish outbreaks in Germany during the last five years,
but never anything as nauseating as this. Racial hatred and hysteria
seemed to have taken complete hold of otherwise decent people. I saw
fashionably dressed women clapping their hands and screaming with
glee, while respectable middle-class mothers held up their babies to
see the "fun".
Many Berliners were however deeply ashamed of the pogrom, and some
took great personal risks to offer help. The son of a US consular
official heard the janitor of his block cry:
'They must have emptied the insane asylums and penitentiaries to find
people who'd do things like that!'
Tucson News TV channel briefly reported on a 2008 remembrance meeting
at a local Jewish congregation. According to eyewitness Esther Harris:
_They ripped up the belongings, the books, knocked over furniture,
Gerhard Weinberg is quoted as saying:
_Houses of worship burned down, vandalized, in every community in the
country where people either participate or watch._
_ A ruined synagogue in
Munich after Kristallnacht_ _ A
ruined synagogue in
Eisenach after Kristallnacht_ Play media
Home movie from Vienna taken likely just after
Kristallnacht in 1938.
Göring, who was in favor of expropriating the
Jews rather than
destroying Jewish property as had happened in the pogrom, complained
directly to _Sicherheitspolizei_ Chief Heydrich immediately after the
events: "I'd rather you had done in two-hundred
Jews than destroy so
many valuable assets!" (_"Mir wäre lieber gewesen, ihr hättet 200
Juden erschlagen und hättet nicht solche Werte vernichtet!"_).
Göring met with other members of the
Nazi leadership on 12 November
to plan the next steps after the riot, setting the stage for formal
government action. In the transcript of the meeting, Göring said,
I have received a letter written on the
Führer 's orders requesting
that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, coordinated and
solved one way or another... I should not want to leave any doubt,
gentlemen, as to the aim of today's meeting. We have not come together
merely to talk again, but to make decisions, and I implore competent
agencies to take all measures for the elimination of the Jew from the
German economy, and to submit them to me.
The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews
continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were
ransacked. They were forced to pay _Judenvermögensabgabe_, a
collective fine of one billion marks for the murder of vom Rath (equal
to roughly $US 5.5 billion in today’s currency), which was levied by
the compulsory acquisition of 20% of all Jewish property by the state.
Six million Reichsmarks of insurance payments for property damage due
to the Jewish community were to be paid to the government instead as
"damages to the German Nation".
The number of emigrating
Jews surged, as those who were able left the
country. In the ten months following _Kristallnacht_, more than
Jews emigrated from the Reich. The majority went to other
European countries, the US and Palestine, and at least 14,000 made it
to Shanghai ,
China . As part of government policy, the Nazis seized
houses, shops, and other property the émigrés left behind. Many of
the destroyed remains of Jewish property plundered during
Kristallnacht were dumped near
Brandenburg . In October 2008, this
dumpsite was discovered by
Yaron Svoray , an investigative journalist.
The site, the size of four
Association football fields, contained an
extensive array of personal and ceremonial items looted during the
riots against Jewish property and places of worship on the night of 9
November 1938. It is believed the goods were brought by rail to the
outskirts of the village and dumped on designated land. Among the
items found were glass bottles engraved with the
Star of David
Star of David ,
mezuzot , painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in
synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika.
RESPONSES TO _KRISTALLNACHT_
FROM THE GERMANS
The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to _Kristallnacht_ was varied.
Many spectators gathered on the scenes, most of them in silence. The
local fire departments confined themselves to preventing the flames
from spreading to neighbouring buildings. In Berlin, police Lieutenant
Otto Bellgardt barred SA troopers from setting the New
fire, earning his superior officer a verbal reprimand from the
commissioner. The British historian
Martin Gilbert believes that
Jews resented the round up", his opinion being supported by
German witness Dr. Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing "people crying
while watching from behind their curtains". The extent of the damage
was so great that many Germans are said to have expressed their
disapproval of it, and to have described it as senseless.
In an article released for publication on the evening of 11 November,
Goebbels ascribed the events of _Kristallnacht_ to the "healthy
instincts" of the German people. He went on to explain: "The German
people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted
or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race."
Less than 24 hours after the
Adolf Hitler made a one
hour long speech in front of a group of journalists where he managed
to completely ignore the recent events on everyone's mind. According
to Eugene Davidson the reason for this was that Hitler wished to avoid
being directly connected to an event that he was aware that many of
those present condemned, regardless of Goebbels's unconvincing
Kristallnacht was caused by popular wrath. Goebbels
met the foreign press in the afternoon of the 11th of November and
said that the burning of synagogues and damage to Jewish owned
property had been “spontaneous manifestations of indignation against
the murder of Herr Vom Rath by the young Jew Grynsban ”
In 1938, just after Kristallnacht, the psychologist Muller-Claudius
interviewed 41 randomly selected
Nazi Party members on their attitudes
towards racial persecution. Of the interviewed party-members 63%
expressed extreme indignation against it, while only 5% expressed
approval of racial persecution, the rest being noncommittal. A study
conducted in 1933 had then shown that 33% of
Nazi Party members held
no racial prejudice while 13% supported persecution. Sarah Ann Gordon
sees two possible reasons for this difference. First, by 1938 large
numbers of Germans had joined the
Nazi Party for pragmatic reasons
rather than ideology thus diluting the percentage of rabid
antisemites; second, the
Kristallnacht could have caused party members
Antisemitism that had been acceptable to them in abstract
terms but which they could not support when they saw it concretely
enacted. During the
Gauleiter and deputy
Gauleiters had refused orders to enact the Kristallnacht, and many
leaders of the SA and of the
Hitler Youth also openly refused party
orders, while expressing disgust. Some Nazis helped
Jews during the
As it was aware that the German public did not support the
Kristallnacht, the propaganda ministry directed the German press to
portray opponents of racial persecution as disloyal. The press was
also under orders to downplay the Kristallnacht, describing general
events at local level only, with prohibition against depictions of
individual events. In 1939 this was extended to a prohibition on
reporting any anti-Jewish measures.
The vast majority of the German public disapproved of the
Kristallnacht as for example evidenced by the torrent of reports
attesting to this by diplomats in Germany.
The US ambassador to Germany reported:
In view of this being a totalitarian state a surprising
characteristic of the situation here is the intensity and scope among
German citizens of condemnation of the recent happenings against Jews.
To the consternation of the Nazis the
Kristallnacht affected public
opinion counter to their desires, the peak of opposition against the
Nazi racial policies was reached just then, when according to almost
all accounts the vast majority of Germans rejected the violence
perpetrated against the Jews. Verbal complaints grew rapidly in
numbers, and for example the Duesseldorf branch of the Gestapo
reported a sharp decline in anti-Semitic attitudes among the
There are many indications of Protestant and Catholic disapproval of
racial persecution; for example the Catholic church had already
distributed Pastoral letters critical of
Nazi racial ideology, and the
Nazi regime expected to encounter organised resistance from it
following Kristallnacht. The Catholic leadership however, just as the
various Protestant churches, refrained from responding with organised
action. While individual Catholics and Protestants took action, the
churches as a whole chose silence publicly. Nevertheless, individuals
continued to show courage, for example a
Parson paid the medical bills
of a Jewish cancer patient and was sentenced to a large fine and
several months in prison in 1941, and a Catholic nun was sentenced to
death in 1945 for helping Jews. A Protestant parson spoke out in 1943
and was sent to
Dachau concentration camp where he died after a few
Nazi Party member and bishop of the Evangelical
Lutheran Church in Thuringia , leading member of the
Christians , one of the schismatic factions of German Protestantism,
published a compendium of
Martin Luther 's writings shortly after the
_Kristallnacht_; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and
the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On 10
November 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in
Germany." The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of
the greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against
Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that Luther's 1543 pamphlet,
Jews and Their Lies _ was a "blueprint" for the
_Kristallnacht_. _ The front page of
The New York Times _ of 11
November 1938 refers to the attacks occurring "under the direction of
Nazi party members," but also said that Goebbels
called a stop to it.
FROM THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY
After 1945 some synagogues were restored. This one in Berlin
features a plaque, reading "Never forget", a common expression around
_Kristallnacht_ sparked international outrage. It discredited
Nazi movements in
North America , leading to an
eventual decline in their support. Many newspapers condemned
_Kristallnacht_, with some of them comparing it to the murderous
pogroms incited by Imperial Russia during the 1880s. The United States
recalled its ambassador (but it did not break off diplomatic
relations) while other governments severed diplomatic relations with
Germany in protest. The British government approved the
Kindertransport program for refugee children. As such, _Kristallnacht_
also marked a turning point in relations between
Nazi Germany and the
rest of the world. The brutality of the pogrom, and the Nazi
government's deliberate policy of encouraging the violence once it had
begun, laid bare the repressive nature and widespread anti-Semitism
entrenched in Germany, and turned world opinion sharply against the
Nazi regime, with some politicians calling for war. The private
protest against the Germans following _Kristallnacht_ was held on 6
December 1938. William Cooper , an Aboriginal Australian, led a
delegation of the
Australian Aboriginal League on a march through
Melbourne to the German Consulate to deliver a petition which
condemned the "cruel persecution of the Jewish people by the Nazi
government of Germany". German officials refused to accept the
After the Kristallnacht,
Salvador Allende , Gabriel González Videla
Marmaduke Grove ,
Florencio Durán and other members of the Congress
of Chile sent a telegram to
Adolf Hitler denouncing the persecution of
Jews. A more personal response, in 1939, was the oratorio _A Child of
Our Time _ by the English composer
Michael Tippett .
_KRISTALLNACHT_ AS A TURNING POINT
_Kristallnacht_ changed the nature of the persecution from economic,
political, and social to physical with beatings, incarceration, and
murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of the
Holocaust . In the words of historian Max Rein in 1988, "Kristallnacht
came...and everything was changed."
While November 1938 predated the overt articulation of "the Final
Solution ", it foreshadowed the genocide to come. Around the time of
_Kristallnacht_, the SS newspaper _
Das Schwarze Korps _ called for a
"destruction by swords and flames." At a conference on the day after
Hermann Göring said: "The Jewish problem will reach its
solution if, in any time soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our
border—then it is obvious that we will have to manage a final
account with the Jews."
Many decades later, association with the _Kristallnacht_ anniversary
was cited as the main reason against choosing 9 November
_(Schicksalstag)_ , the day the
Berlin Wall came down in 1989, as the
new German national holiday ; a different day was chosen (3 October
German reunification ). The avant-garde guitarist
Gary Lucas 's
1988 composition "Verklärte Kristallnacht", which juxtaposes what
would become the Israeli national anthem ten years after
Hatikvah ", with phrases from the German national
Deutschland Über Alles " amid wild electronic shrieks and
noise, is intended to be a sonic representation of the horrors of
_Kristallnacht_. It was premiered at the 1988
Berlin Jazz Festival and
received rave reviews. (The title is a reference to Arnold Schoenberg
's 1899 work "
Verklärte Nacht " that presaged his pioneering work on
atonal music ; Schoenberg was an Austrian Jew who would move to the
United States to escape the Nazis).
_Kristallnacht_ was the inspiration for the 1993 album _Kristallnacht
_ by the composer
John Zorn . The German power metal band Masterplan
's debut album, _Masterplan _ (2003), features an anti-
entitled "Crystal Night" as the fourth track. The German band BAP
published a song titled "Kristallnaach" in their
Cologne dialect ,
dealing with the emotions engendered by the _Kristallnacht_.
_Kristallnacht_ was the inspiration for the 1988 composition _Mayn
Yngele _ by the composer
Frederic Rzewski , of which he says: "I began
writing this piece in November, 1988, on the 50th anniversary of the
Kristallnacht ... My piece is a reflection on that vanished part of
Jewish tradition which so strongly colors, by its absence, the culture
of our time".
* Israel\'s Department Store
November 9 in German history
* ^ "'German Mobs' Vengeance on Jews", _
The Daily Telegraph _, 11
November 1938, cited in Gilbert, Martin . _Kristallnacht: Prelude to
Destruction_. Harper Collins, 2006, p. 42.
* ^ The
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's _"Holocaust
Encyclopedia"_ is a more definitive reference that is similar to this
* ^ _A_ _B_ "World War II: Before the War", _The Atlantic_, 19 June
2011. "Windows of shops owned by
Jews which were broken during a
coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as
_Kristallnacht_, on Nov. 10, 1938. The
Nazi authorities turned a blind
eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with
hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows.
Some sources estimate that ninety-one
Jews were killed, and 30,000
Jewish men were arrested and taken to concentration camps."
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gilbert, pp. 13–14.
* ^ Berenbaum, Michael ">
* ^ Schwab, Gerald (1990). _The Day the Holocaust Began: The
Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan_. Praeger. p. 14. ...vom Rath joined the
Nazi party) on July 14, 1932, well before Hitler's ascent to
* ^ _A_ _B_ Multiple (1998). "Kristallnacht". _The Hutchinson
Encyclopedia_. Hutchinson Encyclopedias (18th ed.). London: Helicon.
p. 1,199. ISBN 1-85833-951-0 .
* ^ Goldstein, Joseph (1995). _Jewish History in Modern Times_.
Sussex Academic Press . pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-898723-06-6 .
* ^ Trueman, Chris. "
Nazi Germany – dictatorship". Retrieved 12
* ^ "Hitler\'s Enabling Act". Retrieved 2008-03-12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gilbert, p. 23.
* ^ Cooper, R.M. (1992). _Refugee Scholars:Conversations with Tess
Simpson_. Leeds. p. 31.
* ^ "The Holocaust". Retrieved 12 March 2008.
* ^ _Manchester Guardian_, 23 May 1936, cited in A.J. Sherman,
_Island Refuge, Britain and the Refugees from the Third Reich,
1933–1939_, (London, Elek Books Ltd, 1973), p. 112, also in _The
Evian Conference — Hitler\'s Green Light for Genocide_, by Annette
* ^ Johnson, Eric. _The
Nazi Terror: Gestapo,
Jews and Ordinary
Germans_. United States: Basic Books, 1999, p. 117.
* ^ Friedländer, Saul. _
Nazi Germany and The Jews_, volume 1: _The
Years of Persecution 1933–1939_, London: Phoenix, 1997, p. 270
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mommsen, Hans (12 December 1997). "Interview with Hans
Mommsen" (PDF). Yad Vashem. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
* ^ Georg Landauer to Martin Rosenbluth, 8 February 1938, cited in
Friedländer, loc. cit.
* ^ "Expelled Jews\' Dark Outlook". _Newspaper article_. London:
The Times. 1 November 1938. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
* ^ "Recollections of Rosalind Herzfled," _Jewish Chronicle,_ 28
September 1979, p. 80; cited in Gilbert, _The Holocaust—The Jewish
Tragedy_, London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, 1986.
* ^ Hannah Arendt, _Eichmann in Jerusalem_, p. 228.
* ^ German State Archives,
Potsdam , quoted in Rita Thalmann and
Emmanuel Feinermann, _Crystal night, 9–10 November 1938_, pp. 33,
* ^ William L. Shirer, _The Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich_, p.
* ^ "Nazis Planning Revenge on Jews", _News Chronicle_, 9 November
* ^ Friedländer, op.cit., p. 268.
Walter Buch to Goring, 13.2.1939, Michaelis and Schraepler,
Ursachen, Vol.12, p. 582 as cited in Friedländer, p. 271.
* ^ Graml, Anti-Semitism, p. 13 cited in Friedländer, op.cit., p
* ^ "Heydrich\'s secret instructions regarding the riots in
November 1938", (
Simon Wiesenthal Center )
* ^ GermanNotes,
http://www.germannotes.com/hist_ww2_kristallnacht.shtml, retrieved 26
* ^ "The deportation of Regensburg
Jews to Dachau concentration
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 57659)
* ^ Lucas, Eric. "The sovereigns", Kibbutz Kfar Blum (Palestine),
1945, p. 171 cited in Gilbert, op.cit., p 67.
Raul Hilberg . _The Destruction of the European Jews_, Third
Edition, (Yale Univ. Press, 2003, c1961), Ch.3.
* ^ Carleton Greene, Hugh. _Daily Telegraph_, 11 November 1938
cited in "The Road to World War II" Archived 30 September 2007 at the
Wayback Machine ., Western New England College.
* ^ "The Road to World War II" Archived 30 September 2007 at the
Wayback Machine ., Western New England College.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Kristallnacht Remembered". www.kold.com. Retrieved
* ^ Döscher, Hans-Jürgen (2000). _"Reichskristallnacht" – Die
Novemberpogrome 1938_ ("'Reichskristallnacht': The November pogroms of
1938"), Econ, 2000, ISBN 3-612-26753-1 , p. 131
* ^ Conot, Robert. _Justice at Nuremberg_, New York, NY: Harper and
Row, 1983, pp. 164–72.
* ^ "JudenVermoegersabgabe" (The Center for Holocaust and Genocide
* ^ Jewish emigration from Germany (USHMM)
* ^ Connolly, Kate (22 October 2008). "
unearthed near Berlin". _The Guardian_. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
* ^ Scheer, Regina (1993). "Im Revier 16 (In precinct No. 16)". Die
Hackeschen Höfe. Geschichte und Geschichten einer Lebenswelt in der
Mitte Berlins (Gesellschaft Hackesche Höfe e.V. (ed.), pp. 78 ed.).
Berlin: Argon. ISBN 3-87024-254-X .
* ^ Gilbert, op. cit., p. 70
* ^ Dr. Arthur Flehinger, "Flames of Fury", _Jewish Chronicle_, 9
November 1979, p. 27, cited in Gilbert, loc. cit.
* ^ "New Campaign Against Jews", _The Argus_, 11 November 1938
* ^ _Daily Telegraph_, 12 November 1938. Cited in Gilbert, Martin.
_Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction_. Harper Collins, 2006, p. 142.
* ^ Eugene Davidson. The Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. Columbia:
University of Missouri Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8262-1045-6 . p. 325
* ^ Guardian archive image of Goebbels foreign press conference:
retrieved 12th March 2017
* ^ Gordon , p. 263–264
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gordon , p. 266
* ^ Gordon , p. 159
* ^ Gordon , p. 156
* ^ Gordon , p. 157
* ^ Gordon , p. 175–179
* ^ Gordon , p. 176
* ^ Gordon , p. 180, 207
* ^ Gordon , p. 175–179, 215
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Gordon , p. 251, 252, 258, 259
* ^ Bernd Nellessen, "Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und
Judenverfolgung", in Büttner (ed) Die Deutschen und die
Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen's
Hitler's Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997).
Diarmaid MacCulloch , _Reformation: Europe\'s House Divided,
1490-1700 _. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2004, pp. 666–67.
* ^ Miskin, Maayana (8 February 2010). "
Yad Vashem to Honor
Israel National News. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
* ^ "
Telegram protesting against the persecution of
Germany" (PDF) (in Spanish). El Clarín de Chile's.
* ^ Lewis, Geraint (May 2010). "Tippett, Sir Michael Kemp". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (online edition). Retrieved 29 April
2012. (subscription required)
* ^ Krefeld, Stadt (1988). _Ehemalige Krefelder Juden berichten
uber ihre Erlebnisse in der sogenannten Reichskristallnacht_.
Krefelder Juden in Amerika. 3. Cited in Johnson, Eric. Krefeld Stadt
Archiv: Basic Books. p. 117.
* ^ Seth Rogovoy (20 April 2001). "Gary Lucas: Action guitarist".
Berkshire Eagle . Retrieved 20 May 2008. A knowing reference to Arnold
Schoenberg's "Verklarte Nacht", the piece ironically juxtaposed the
Israeli national anthem, "Hatikvah," with phrases from "Deutschland
Uber Alles," amid wild electronic shrieks and noise. The next day the
papers ran a picture of Lucas with the triumphant headline, "It is
* ^ "BAP Songtexte (German)". Archived from the original on 23 May
2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
* ^ "Mayn Yingele (Rzewski, Frederic)". Retrieved 25 January 2016.
Books in English
* Browning, Christopher R. (2003). _Collected Memories: Holocaust
History and Postwar Testimony_. George L. Mosse Series in Modern
European Cultural and Intellectual History. Madison: University of
Wisconsin Press . ISBN 0-299-18984-8 .
* Mayer, Kurt (2009). _My Personal Brush with History_. Tacoma: Kurt
Mayer, Confluence Books. ISBN 978-0-578-03911-4 .
* Friedlander, Saul (1998). _
Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1:
The Years of Persecution 1933–1939_. New York, NY: Perennial. ISBN
* Gilbert, Martin (1986). _The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy_.
London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-216305-5 .
* Gordon, Sarah Ann (1984). _Hitler, Germans, and the Jewish
Question_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-10162-0 .
* Johnson, Eric J. (1999). _
Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and
Ordinary Germans_. New York:
Basic Books . ISBN 0-465-04906-0 .
* Mosse, George L. (1978). _Toward the Final Solution: A History of
European Racism_. New York: Howard Fertig. ISBN 0-86527-941-1 .
* Mosse, George L. (2000). _Confronting History: A Memoir_. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16580-9 .
* Mosse, George L. (2003). _
Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and
Social Life in the Third Reich_. Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press . ISBN 0-299-19304-7 .
* Mosse, George L. (1999). _The Crisis of German Ideology:
Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich_. New York: Howard Fertig.
ISBN 0-86527-426-6 .
* Schwab, Gerald (1990). _The day the Holocaust began: the odyssey
of Herschel Grynszpan_. New York: Praeger . ISBN 0-275-93576-0 .
* Shirer, William L. (1990). _The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
_. New York:
Simon & Schuster . ISBN 0-671-72868-7 .
* Yahil, Leni (1990). _The Holocaust: the fate of European Jewry,
1932–1945_. Oxford :
Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-504523-8 .
* Dawidowicz, Lucy (1986). _The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945_.
UK: Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-34532-2 .
* Steinweis, Alan E. (2009). _
Kristallnacht 1938_. Harvard
University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03623-9 .
Books in German
* Christian Faludi: Die „Juni-Aktion" 1938. Eine Dokumentation zur
Radikalisierung der Judenverfolgung. Campus, Frankfurt a. M./New York
2013, ISBN 978-3-593-39823-5
* Hans-Dieter Arntz. "Reichskristallnacht". Der Novemberpogrom 1938
auf dem Lande – Gerichtsakten und Zeugenaussagen am Beispiel der
Eifel und Voreifel, Helios-Verlag, Aachen 2008, ISBN 978-3-938208-69-4
* Döscher, Hans-Jürgen (1988). _Reichskristallnacht: Die
Novemberpogrome 1938_ (in German). Ullstein. ISBN 978-3-550-07495-0 .
* Richter, Hans Peter: "Friedrich" Puffin Books 1970
* Kaul, Friedrich Karl; Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (1965). _Der Fall
des Herschel Grynszpan_ (in German). Berlin: Akademie-Verl. _ISBN
Unknown. ASIN B0014NJ88M. Available at Oxford Journals (PDF)_
* Korb, Alexander (2007). _Reaktionen der deutschen Bevölkerung auf
die Novemberpogrome im Spiegel amtlicher Berichte_ (in German).
Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag . ISBN 978-3-8364-4823-9 .
* Lauber, Heinz (1981). _Judenpogrom: "Reichskristallnacht" November
1938 in Grossdeutschland : Daten, Fakten, Dokumente, Quellentexte,
Thesen und Bewertungen (Aktuelles Taschenbuch)_ (in German). Bleicher.
ISBN 3-88350-005-4 .
* Pätzold, Kurt; Runge, Irene (1988). _Kristallnacht: Zum Pogrom
1938 (Geschichte)_ (in German). Köln: Pahl-Rugenstein. ISBN
* Pehle, Walter H. (1988). _Der Judenpogrom 1938: Von der
"Reichskristallnacht" zum Völkermord_ (in German). Frankfurt am Main:
Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-596-24386-6 .
* Schultheis, Herbert (1985). _Die Reichskristallnacht in
Deutschland nach Augenzeugenberichten (Bad Neustadter Beiträge zur
Geschichte und Heimatkunde Frankens)_ (in German). Bad Neustadt a. d.
Saale: Rotter Druck und Verlag. ISBN 3-9800482-3-3 .
* Wroe, David (21 October 2008). "Hitler \'led henchmen\' in
Kristallnacht riots". _Daily Telegraph_.
* Segev, Tom (31 October 2008). "Hitler gave the order". _Haaretz_.
Archived from the original on 8 December 2008.
* Rabbi Eliahu Ellis; Rabbi Shmuel Silinsky. "Kristallnacht".
_Holocaust studies_. Aish.com. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
* "Germany commemorates
Nazi era \'Kristallnacht\'". CNN.com.
1998-11-09. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved
* "What Was Kristallnacht?". _THHP Short Essays_. The Holocaust
History Project. 2003-11-28. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
Kristallnacht "Night of Crystal" – "Night of Broken Glass"".
_Holocaust Prelude_. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team.
2006–2007. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
* Frieda Miller; Vancouver Holocaust Education Center (2008-02-25).
"Kristallnacht". _From Aryanization to Cultural Loss: The Destruction
of the Jewish Fashion Industry in Germany and Austria_. Center for
Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota. Archived from
the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
* "Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany 29th July to 8th August 1946". _The
Trial of German Major War Criminals Volume 20_. The Nizkor Project.
2006. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
* Allida Black; June Hopkins; et al. (2003). "The Eleanor Roosevelt
Papers – Kristallnacht". _Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt; Eleanor
Roosevelt National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York_. US National
Park Service archive (nps.gov). Retrieved 2008-05-20.
* "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938".
_Holocaust Encyclopedia_. US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved
* "Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms". _Online exhibitions,
special topics_. US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
Yad Vashem (2004). "Kristallnacht". _Yad Vashem's Photo Archives_.
The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived
from the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to KRISTALLNACHT _.
* Events Leading Up to