Kristallnacht (German pronunciation: [kʁɪsˈtalnaχt]) or the
Night of Broken Glass, also called the November
Pogrom(s), was a pogrom against
Jews carried out
by SA paramilitary forces and civilians throughout
Nazi Germany on
9–10 November 1938. The German authorities looked on without
intervening. The name
Kristallnacht ("Crystal Night") comes
from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the
windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings and synagogues were smashed.
Jewish homes, hospitals and schools were ransacked as the attackers
demolished buildings with sledgehammers. The rioters
destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany,
Austria and the
Sudetenland. Over 7,000 Jewish businesses were damaged or
destroyed, and 30,000 Jewish men were arrested
and incarcerated in concentration camps. The British
Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German
Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening,
and the accounts from foreign journalists working in Germany sent
shockwaves around the world.
The Times of London observed
on 11 November 1938: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening
Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and
beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people,
which disgraced that country yesterday."
The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of the
Nazi German diplomat
Ernst vom Rath
Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan,
a 17-year-old German-born Polish
Jew living in Paris. Estimates of
fatalities caused by the attacks have varied. Early reports estimated
Jews had been murdered.[a] Modern analysis of German
scholarly sources puts the figure much higher; when deaths from
post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the
death toll climbs into the hundreds.
Kristallnacht as a prelude to the
Final Solution and
the murder of six million
Jews during the Holocaust.
1.1 Early Nazi persecutions
1.2 Expulsion of Polish
Jews in Germany
1.3 Shooting of vom Rath
2.1 Death of vom Rath
4 Responses to Kristallnacht
4.1 From the Germans
4.2 From the global community
Kristallnacht as a turning point
6 Modern references
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Further information: History of the
Jews in Austria, History of the
Jews in Germany, and Nuremberg Laws
Early Nazi persecutions
In the 1920s, most German
Jews were fully integrated into German
society as German citizens. They served in the German army and navy
and contributed to every field of German business, science and
culture. Conditions for the
Jews began to change after the
Adolf Hitler (the Austrian-born leader of the National
Socialist German Workers' Party) as
Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany on 30
January 1933, and the Enabling Act (23 March 1933) assumption of power
by Hitler after the
Reichstag fire of 27 February
1933. From its inception, Hitler's régime
moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish policies. Nazi propaganda
singled out the 500,000
Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86%
of the overall population, as an enemy within who were responsible for
Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent
economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street
Crash Great Depression. Beginning in 1933, the German
government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights
Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain
education, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional
Civil Service of 7 April 1933, which forbade
Jews to work in the civil
service. The subsequent 1935
Nuremberg Laws stripped
Jews of their citizenship and forbade
Jews to marry non-Jewish
These laws resulted in the exclusion of
Jews from German social and
political life. Many sought asylum abroad; hundreds of
thousands emigrated, but as
Chaim Weizmann wrote in 1936, "The world
seemed to be divided into two parts—those places where the Jews
could not live and those where they could not enter." The
Évian Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of
Jewish and Gypsy immigration to other countries. By the time the
conference took place, more than 250,000
Jews had fled Germany and
Austria, which had been annexed by Germany in March 1938; more than
300,000 German and Austrian
Jews continued to seek refuge and asylum
from oppression. As the number of
Jews and Gypsies wanting to leave
increased, the restrictions against them grew, with many countries
tightening their rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a
new radical phase in anti-Semitic activity". Some
historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a
planned outbreak of violence against the
Jews and were waiting for an
appropriate provocation; there is evidence of this planning dating to
1937. In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans
Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of
the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and
businesses. Mommsen stated:
The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact
that Franz Xaver Schwarz, the party treasurer, kept the local and
regional organizations of the party short of money. In the fall of
1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's
ambition, especially since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as Reich
minister for economics. This, however, was only one aspect of the
origin of the November 1938 pogrom. The Polish government threatened
to extradite all
Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in
Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side.
The immediate reaction by the
Gestapo was to push the Polish
Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed
due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers. The loss of
prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort
of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's
attempt against the diplomat
Ernst vom Rath
Ernst vom Rath came into being and led to
the November pogrom. The background of the pogrom was signified by a
sharp cleavage of interests between the different agencies of party
and state. While the Nazi party was interested in improving its
financial strength on the regional and local level by taking over
Jewish property, Hermann Göring, in charge of the Four-Year Plan,
hoped to acquire access to foreign currency in order to pay for the
import of urgently-needed raw material. Heydrich and Himmler were
interested in fostering Jewish emigration.
Zionist leadership in the British Mandate of Palestine wrote in
February 1938 that according to "a very reliable private source—one
which can be traced back to the highest echelons of the SS
leadership", there was "an intention to carry out a genuine and
dramatic pogrom in Germany on a large scale in the near
Expulsion of Polish
Jews in Germany
Jews expelled from Germany in late October 1938
In August 1938 the German authorities announced that residence permits
for foreigners were being canceled and would have to be
renewed. This included German-born
Poland stated that it would renounce citizenship
rights of Polish
Jews living abroad for at least five years after the
end of October, effectively making them stateless. In the
so-called "Polenaktion", more than 12,000 Polish Jews, among them the
philosopher and theologian Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, and future
Marcel Reich-Ranicki were expelled from Germany on 28
October 1938, on Hitler's orders. They were ordered to leave their
homes in a single night and were allowed only one suitcase per person
to carry their belongings. As the
Jews were taken away, their
remaining possessions were seized as loot both by the Nazi authorities
and by their neighbors.
The deportees were taken from their homes to railway stations and were
put on trains to the Polish border, where Polish border guards sent
them back into Germany. This stalemate continued for days in the
pouring rain, with the
Jews marching without food or shelter between
the borders. Four thousand were granted entry into Poland, but the
remaining 8,000 were forced to stay at the border. They waited there
in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. A British newspaper
told its readers that hundreds "are reported to be lying about,
penniless and deserted, in little villages along the frontier near
where they had been driven out by the
Gestapo and left."
Conditions in the refugee camps "were so bad that some actually tried
to escape back into Germany and were shot", recalled a British woman
who was sent to help those who had been expelled.
Shooting of vom Rath
Herschel Grynszpan, 7 November 1938
Ernst vom Rath
Among those expelled was the family of Sendel and Riva Grynszpan,
Jews who had emigrated to Germany in 1911 and settled in
Hanover, Germany. At the trial of
Adolf Eichmann in 1961, Sendel
Grynszpan recounted the events of their deportation from
the night of 27 October 1938: "Then they took us in police trucks, in
prisoners' lorries, about 20 men in each truck, and they took us to
the railway station. The streets were full of people shouting:
'Juden Raus! Auf Nach Palästina!'" ("
Jews out, out to
Palestine!"). Their seventeen-year-old son Herschel was
living in Paris with an uncle. Herschel received a
postcard from his family from the Polish border, describing the
family's expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we realized this
was going to be the end ... We haven't a penny. Could you send us
something?" He received the postcard on 3 November 1938.
On the morning of Monday, 7 November 1938, he purchased a revolver and
a box of bullets, then went to the German embassy and asked to see an
embassy official. After he was taken to the office of Ernst vom Rath,
Grynszpan fired five bullets at Vom Rath, two of which hit him in the
abdomen. Vom Rath was a professional diplomat with the Foreign Office
who expressed anti-Nazi sympathies, largely based on the Nazis'
treatment of the Jews, and was under
Gestapo investigation for being
politically unreliable. Grynszpan made no attempt to
escape the French police and freely confessed to the shooting. In his
pocket, he carried a postcard to his parents with the message, "May
God forgive me ... I must protest so that the whole world hears my
protest, and that I will do." It is widely assumed that the
assassination was politically motivated, but historian Hans-Jürgen
Döscher says the shooting may have been the result of a homosexual
love affair gone wrong. Grynszpan and vom Rath had become intimate
after they met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit, which was a popular meeting
place for gay men at the time.
The next day, the German government retaliated, barring Jewish
children from German state elementary schools, indefinitely suspending
Jewish cultural activities, and putting a halt to the publication of
Jewish newspapers and magazines, including the three national German
Jewish newspapers. A newspaper in Britain described the last move,
which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to
disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which
hold it together." Their rights as citizens had been
stripped. One of the first legal measures issued was an
order by Heinrich Himmler, commander of all German police, forbidding
Jews to possess any weapons whatsoever and imposing a penalty of
twenty years confinement in a concentration camp upon every
in possession of a weapon hereafter.
Death of vom Rath
Telegram sent by Reinhard Heydrich, 10 November 1938
Ernst Vom Rath died of his wounds on 9 November. Word of his death
reached Hitler that evening while he was with several key members of
the Nazi party at a dinner commemorating the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch.
After intense discussions, Hitler left the assembly abruptly without
giving his usual address. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
delivered the speech, in his place, and said that "the
decided that... demonstrations should not be prepared or organized by
the party, but insofar as they erupt spontaneously, they are not to be
hampered." The chief party judge
Walter Buch later stated
that the message was clear; with these words, Goebbels had commanded
the party leaders to organize a pogrom.
Some leading party officials disagreed with Goebbels' actions, fearing
the diplomatic crisis it would provoke.
Heinrich Himmler wrote, "I
suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity which is
responsible for starting this operation now, in a particularly
difficult diplomatic situation." The Israeli historian
Saul Friedländer believes that Goebbels had personal reasons for
wanting to bring about Kristallnacht. Goebbels had recently suffered
humiliation for the ineffectiveness of his propaganda campaign during
the Sudeten crisis, and was in some disgrace over an affair with a
Czech actress, Lída Baarová. Goebbels needed a chance to improve his
standing in the eyes of Hitler. At 01:20 am on 10 November 1938,
Reinhard Heydrich sent an urgent secret telegram to the
Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; SiPo) and the Sturmabteilung
(SA), containing instructions regarding the riots. This included
guidelines for the protection of foreigners and non-Jewish businesses
and property. Police were instructed not to interfere with the riots
unless the guidelines were violated. Police were also instructed to
seize Jewish archives from synagogues and community offices, and to
arrest and detain "healthy male Jews, who are not too old", for
eventual transfer to (labor) concentration camps.
Kristallnacht, shop damage in Magdeburg
The SA and
Hitler Youth shattered the windows of about 7,500 Jewish
stores and businesses, hence the appellation
Night), and looted their goods. Jewish homes
were ransacked all throughout Germany. Although violence against Jews
had not been explicitly condoned by the authorities, there were cases
Jews being beaten or assaulted. Following the violence, police
departments recorded a large number of suicides and rapes.
The rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria, and
the Sudetenland. Over 1400 synagogues and prayer
rooms, many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish
shops, and 29 department stores were damaged, and in many cases
destroyed. More than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to
concentration camps; primarily Dachau, Buchenwald, and
The synagogues, some centuries old, were also victims of considerable
violence and vandalism, with the tactics the Stormtroops practiced on
these and other sacred sites described as "approaching the ghoulish"
United States Consul in Leipzig. Tombstones were uprooted and
graves violated. Fires were lit, and prayer books, scrolls, artwork
and philosophy texts were thrown upon them, and precious buildings
were either burned or smashed until unrecognizable. Eric Lucas recalls
the destruction of the synagogue that a tiny Jewish community had
constructed in a small village only twelve years earlier:
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did not take long before the first heavy grey stones came tumbling
down, and the children of the village amused themselves as they flung
stones into the many colored windows. When the first rays of a cold
and pale November sun penetrated the heavy dark clouds, the little
synagogue was but a heap of stone, broken glass and smashed-up
After this, the Jewish community was fined 1 billion Reichsmarks
(equivalent to 4 billion 2009 €). In addition, it cost
40 million marks to repair the windows.
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph correspondent, Hugh Greene, wrote of events in
Mob law ruled in Berlin throughout the afternoon and evening and
hordes of hooligans indulged in an orgy of destruction. I have seen
several anti-Jewish outbreaks in Germany during the last five years,
but never anything as nauseating as this. Racial hatred and hysteria
seemed to have taken complete hold of otherwise decent people. I saw
fashionably dressed women clapping their hands and screaming with
glee, while respectable middle-class mothers held up their babies to
see the "fun".
Jews are being forced to walk with the star of David during the
Many Berliners were however deeply ashamed of the pogrom, and some
took great personal risks to offer help. The son of a US consular
official heard the janitor of his block cry: "They must have emptied
the insane asylums and penitentiaries to find people who'd do things
Tucson News TV channel briefly reported on a 2008 remembrance meeting
at a local Jewish congregation. According to eyewitness Esther Harris:
"They ripped up the belongings, the books, knocked over furniture,
shouted obscenities". Historian
Gerhard Weinberg is quoted
Houses of worship burned down, vandalized, in every community in the
country where people either participate or watch.
A ruined synagogue in
Munich after Kristallnacht
A ruined synagogue in
Eisenach after Kristallnacht
Former German kaiser
Wilhelm II commented "For the first time, I am
ashamed to be German.
Göring, who was in favor of expropriating the
Jews rather than
destroying Jewish property as had happened in the pogrom, complained
Sicherheitspolizei Chief Heydrich immediately after the
events: "I'd rather you had done in two-hundred
Jews than destroy so
many valuable assets!" ("Mir wäre lieber gewesen, ihr hättet 200
Juden erschlagen und hättet nicht solche Werte
vernichtet!"). Göring met with other members of the Nazi
leadership on 12 November to plan the next steps after the riot,
setting the stage for formal government action. In the transcript of
the meeting, Göring said,
I have received a letter written on the Führer's orders requesting
that the Jewish question be now, once and for all, coordinated and
solved one way or another... I should not want to leave any doubt,
gentlemen, as to the aim of today's meeting. We have not come together
merely to talk again, but to make decisions, and I implore competent
agencies to take all measures for the elimination of the
Jew from the
German economy, and to submit them to me.
The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews
continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were
ransacked. They were forced to pay Judenvermögensabgabe, a collective
fine of one billion marks for the murder of vom Rath (equal to roughly
$US 5.5 billion in today's currency), which was levied by the
compulsory acquisition of 20% of all Jewish property by the state. Six
million Reichsmarks of insurance payments for property damage due to
the Jewish community were to be paid to the government instead as
"damages to the German Nation".
The number of emigrating
Jews surged, as those who were able left the
country. In the ten months following Kristallnacht, more than 115,000
Jews emigrated from the Reich. The majority went to other
European countries, the US and Palestine, and at least 14,000 made it
to Shanghai, China. As part of government policy, the Nazis seized
houses, shops, and other property the émigrés left behind. Many of
the destroyed remains of Jewish property plundered during
Kristallnacht were dumped near Brandenburg. In October 2008, this
dumpsite was discovered by Yaron Svoray, an investigative journalist.
The site, the size of four
Association football fields, contained an
extensive array of personal and ceremonial items looted during the
riots against Jewish property and places of worship on the night of 9
November 1938. It is believed the goods were brought by rail to the
outskirts of the village and dumped on designated land. Among the
items found were glass bottles engraved with the Star of David,
mezuzot, painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in
synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika.
Responses to Kristallnacht
From the Germans
The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to
Kristallnacht was varied. Many
spectators gathered on the scenes, most of them in silence. The local
fire departments confined themselves to prevent the flames from
spreading to neighboring buildings. In Berlin, police Lieutenant Otto
Bellgardt barred SA troopers from setting the New
Synagogue on fire,
earning his superior officer a verbal reprimand from the
Portrait of Paul Ehrlich, damaged on Kristallnacht, then restored by
a German neighbor
The British historian
Martin Gilbert believes that "many non-Jews
resented the round-up", his opinion being supported by
German witness Dr. Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing "people crying
while watching from behind their curtains".
Rolf Dessauers recalls how a neighbor came forward and restored a
Paul Ehrlich that had been "slashed to ribbons" by the
Sturmabteilung. "He wanted it to be known that not all Germans
The extent of the damage done on
Kristallnacht was so great that many
Germans are said to have expressed their disapproval of it, and to
have described it as senseless.
In an article released for publication on the evening of 11 November,
Goebbels ascribed the events of
Kristallnacht to the "healthy
instincts" of the German people. He went on to explain: "The German
people are anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights
restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish
race." Less than 24 hours after the
Hitler made a one-hour long speech in front of a group of journalists
where he managed to completely ignore the recent events on everyone's
mind. According to Eugene Davidson the reason for this was that Hitler
wished to avoid being directly connected to an event that he was aware
that many of those present condemned, regardless of Goebbels's
unconvincing explanation that
Kristallnacht was caused by popular
wrath. Goebbels met the foreign press in the afternoon of
11 November and said that the burning of synagogues and damage to
Jewish owned property had been "spontaneous manifestations of
indignation against the murder of Herr Vom Rath by the young Jew
In 1938, just after Kristallnacht, the psychologist Michael
Müller-Claudius interviewed 41 randomly selected
Nazi Party members
on their attitudes towards racial persecution. Of the interviewed
party-members 63% expressed extreme indignation against it, while only
5% expressed approval of racial persecution, the rest being
noncommittal. A study conducted in 1933 had then shown
that 33% of
Nazi Party members held no racial prejudice while 13%
supported persecution. Sarah Ann Gordon sees two possible reasons for
this difference. First, by 1938 large numbers of Germans had joined
Nazi Party for pragmatic reasons rather than ideology thus
diluting the percentage of rabid antisemites; second, the
Kristallnacht could have caused party members to reject Antisemitism
that had been acceptable to them in abstract terms but which they
could not support when they saw it concretely enacted.
During the Kristallnacht, several
Gauleiter and deputy Gauleiters had
refused orders to enact the Kristallnacht, and many leaders of the SA
and of the
Hitler Youth also openly refused party orders, while
expressing disgust. Some Nazis helped
Jews during the
As it was aware that the German public did not support the
Kristallnacht, the propaganda ministry directed the German press to
portray opponents of racial persecution as disloyal. The
press was also under orders to downplay the Kristallnacht, describing
general events at the local level only, with the prohibition against
depictions of individual events. In 1939 this was extended
to a prohibition on reporting any anti-Jewish measures.
The U.S. ambassador to Germany reported:
In view of this being a totalitarian state a surprising characteristic
of the situation here is the intensity and scope among German citizens
of condemnation of the recent happenings against Jews.
To the consternation of the Nazis, the
Kristallnacht affected public
opinion counter to their desires, the peak of opposition against the
Nazi racial policies was reached just then, when according to almost
all accounts the vast majority of Germans rejected the violence
perpetrated against the Jews. Verbal complaints grew
rapidly in numbers, and for example, the Duesseldorf branch of the
Gestapo reported a sharp decline in anti-Semitic attitudes among the
There are many indications of Protestant and Catholic disapproval of
racial persecution; for example, anti-Nazi Protestants adopted the
Barmen Declaration in 1934, and the Catholic church had already
distributed Pastoral letters critical of Nazi racial ideology, and the
Nazi regime expected to encounter organised resistance from it
following Kristallnacht. The Catholic leadership however,
just as the various Protestant churches, refrained from responding
with organised action. While individual Catholics and
Protestants took action, the churches as a whole chose silence
publicly. Nevertheless, individuals continued to show
courage, for example, a
Parson paid the medical bills of a Jewish
cancer patient and was sentenced to a large fine and several months in
prison in 1941, Reformed Church pastor Paul Schneider placed a Nazi
sympathizer under church discipline and he was subsequently sent to
Buchenwald where he was murdered. A Catholic nun was sentenced to
death in 1945 for helping Jews. A Protestant parson spoke
out in 1943 and was sent to
Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp where he died
after a few days.
Nazi Party member and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran
Church in Thuringia, leading member of the Nazi German Christians, one
of the schismatic factions of German Protestantism, published a
compendium of Martin Luther's writings shortly after the
Kristallnacht; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and the
coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On 10 November
1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany."
The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of the
greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against the
Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that Luther's 1543
pamphlet, On the
Jews and Their Lies was a "blueprint" for the
The front page of
The New York Times
The New York Times of 11 November 1938 refers to
the attacks occurring "under the direction of Stormtroopers and Nazi
party members," but also said that Goebbels called a stop to it.
From the global community
After 1945 some synagogues were restored. This one in Berlin
features a plaque, reading "Never forget", a common expression around
Kristallnacht sparked international outrage. It discredited pro-Nazi
Europe and North America, leading to an eventual decline
in their support. Many newspapers condemned Kristallnacht, with some
of them comparing it to the murderous pogroms incited by Imperial
Russia during the 1880s. The
United States recalled its ambassador
(but it did not break off diplomatic relations) while other
governments severed diplomatic relations with Germany in protest. The
British government approved the
Kindertransport program for refugee
children. As such,
Kristallnacht also marked a turning point in
Nazi Germany and the rest of the world. The
brutality of the pogrom, and the Nazi government's deliberate policy
of encouraging the violence once it had begun, laid bare the
repressive nature and widespread anti-Semitism entrenched in Germany.
World opinion thus turned sharply against the Nazi regime, with some
politicians calling for war. The private protest against the Germans
Kristallnacht was held on 6 December 1938. William Cooper,
an Aboriginal Australian, led a delegation of the Australian
Aboriginal League on a march through Melbourne to the German Consulate
to deliver a petition which condemned the "cruel persecution of the
Jewish people by the Nazi government of Germany". German officials
refused to accept the tendered document.
After the Kristallnacht, Salvador Allende, Gabriel González Videla,
Florencio Durán and other members of the Congress of
Chile sent a telegram to
Adolf Hitler denouncing the persecution of
A more personal response, in 1939, was the oratorio A Child of Our
Time by the English composer Michael Tippett.
Kristallnacht as a turning point
Kristallnacht changed the nature of the Nazi persecution of
economic, political, and social to physical with beatings,
incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the
beginning of the Holocaust. In this view, it is described not only as
a pogrom but also a critical stage within a process where each step
becomes the seed of the next. An account cited that
Hitler's green light for
Kristallnacht was made with the belief that
it would help him realize his ambition of getting rid of the
Germany. Prior to this large-scale and organized violence
against the Jews, the Nazi's primary objective was to eject them from
Germany, leaving their wealth behind. In the words of
historian Max Rein in 1988, "
Kristallnacht came...and everything was
While November 1938 predated the overt articulation of "the Final
Solution", it foreshadowed the genocide to come. Around the time of
Kristallnacht, the SS newspaper
Das Schwarze Korps
Das Schwarze Korps called for a
"destruction by swords and flames." At a conference on the day after
Hermann Göring said: "The Jewish problem will reach its
solution if, in anytime soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our
border—then it is obvious that we will have to manage a final
account with the Jews."
Kristallnacht was also
instrumental in changing global opinion. In the United States, for
instance, it was this specific incident that came to symbolize Nazism
and was the reason the Nazis became associated with evil.
Many decades later, association with the
Kristallnacht anniversary was
cited as the main reason against choosing 9 November (Schicksalstag),
the day the
Berlin Wall came down in 1989, as the new German national
holiday; a different day was chosen (3 October 1990, German
The avant-garde guitarist Gary Lucas's 1988 composition "Verklärte
Kristallnacht", which juxtaposes what would become the Israeli
national anthem ten years after Kristallnacht, "Hatikvah", with
phrases from the German national anthem "Deutschland Über Alles" amid
wild electronic shrieks and noise, is intended to be a sonic
representation of the horrors of Kristallnacht. It was premiered at
Berlin Jazz Festival
Berlin Jazz Festival and received rave reviews. (The title is
a reference to Arnold Schoenberg's 1899 work "Verklärte Nacht" that
presaged his pioneering work on atonal music; Schoenberg was an
Jew who would move to the
United States to escape the
Vice president of the
United States Al Gore in 1989, 30 years ago,
predicted global temperature increases of "five degrees Celsius in our
lifetimes," and compared these events to Kristallnacht.
Kristallnacht was the inspiration for the 1993 album
the composer John Zorn. The German power metal band Masterplan's debut
album, Masterplan (2003), features an anti-Nazi song entitled "Crystal
Night" as the fourth track. The German band BAP published a song
titled "Kristallnaach" in their
Cologne dialect, dealing with the
emotions engendered by the Kristallnacht.
Kristallnacht was the inspiration for the 1988 composition Mayn Yngele
by the composer Frederic Rzewski, of which he says: "I began writing
this piece in November 1988, on the 50th anniversary of the
Kristallnacht ... My piece is a reflection on that vanished part of
Jewish tradition which so strongly colors, by its absence, the culture
of our time".
Kristallnacht was invoked as a reference point on July 16, 2018 by a
former Watergate Prosecutor, Jill Wine-Banks, during an MSNBC segment.
Her argument was that President Trump's joint press conference with
Russian President Vladimir Putin was a performance that would live in
infamy much like the attack on Pearl Harbor and
Kristallnacht has been referenced both explicitly and implicitly in
countless cases of vandalism of Jewish property including the toppling
of gravestones in a Jewish cemetery in suburban St. Louis,
Missouri, and the two 2017 vandalisms of the New England
Holocaust Memorial, as the memorial's founder Steve Ross discusses in
his book, From Broken Glass: My Story of Finding Hope in Hitler's
Death Camps to Inspire a New Generation. The Sri Lankan
Mangala Samaraweera also used the term to describe
the violence in 2019 against Muslims by Sinhalese
Israel Department Store
November 9 in German history
^ "Windows of shops owned by
Jews which were broken during a
coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as
Kristallnacht, on November 10, 1938. Nazi authorities turned a blind
eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with
hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows.
Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken to
^ Berenbaum, Michael (20 December 2018). "Kristallnacht".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. Retrieved 1
July 2019. Kristallnacht, (German: “Crystal Night”), also called
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^ "The November
Pogrom (Kristallnacht)". www.holocaust.org.uk. The
National Holocaust Centre and Museum. Retrieved 1 July 2019. The
Pogrom also has another name, Kristallnacht, which means
“Crystal Night”. This Night of Crystal refers to the Night of
^ "'German Mobs' Vengeance on Jews", The Daily Telegraph, 11 November
1938, cited in Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to
Destruction. New York: Harper Collins. p. 42.
^ a b Gilbert 2006, pp. 13–14
^ a b c d "Kristallnacht". www.ushmm.org. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
^ Berenbaum, Michael & Kramer, Arnold (2005). The World Must Know.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 49.
^ Gilbert 2006, pp. 30–33
^ a b Taylor, Alan (19 June 2011). "World War II: Before the War". The
^ "A Black Day for Germany", The Times, 11 November 1938, cited in
Gilbert 2006, p. 41.
^ Schwab, Gerald (1990). The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of
Herschel Grynszpan. Praeger. p. 14. ISBN 9780275935764.
...vom Rath joined the NSDAP (Nazi party) on July 14, 1932, well
before Hitler's ascent to power
^ a b Multiple (1998). "Kristallnacht". The Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
Hutchinson Encyclopedias (18th ed.). London: Helicon. p. 1,199.
^ Goldstein, Joseph (1995). Jewish History in Modern Times. Sussex
Academic Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-898723-06-6.
^ Trueman, Chris. "
Nazi Germany – dictatorship". Retrieved 12 March
^ "Hitler's Enabling Act". Retrieved 12 March 2008.
^ a b c Gilbert 2006, p. 23
^ Cooper, R.M. (1992). Refugee Scholars: Conversations with Tess
Simpson. Leeds. p. 31.
^ "The Holocaust". Retrieved 12 March 2008.
^ Manchester Guardian, 23 May 1936, cited in A.J. Sherman, Island
Refuge, Britain and the Refugees from the Third Reich, 1933–1939,
(London, Elek Books Ltd, 1973), p. 112, also in The Evian Conference
— Hitler's Green Light for
Genocide Archived 27 August 2013 at the
Wayback Machine, by Annette Shaw
^ Johnson, Eric. The Nazi Terror: Gestapo,
Jews and Ordinary Germans.
United States: Basic Books, 1999, p. 117.
^ Friedländer, Saul.
Nazi Germany and The Jews, volume 1: The Years
of Persecution 1933–1939, London: Phoenix, 1997, p. 270
^ a b Mommsen, Hans (12 December 1997). "Interview with Hans Mommsen"
(PDF). Yad Vashem. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
Georg Landauer to Martin Rosenbluth, 8 February 1938, cited in
Friedländer, loc. cit.
^ ""Polenaktion" und Pogrome 1938 – "Jetzt rast der Volkszorn.
Der Spiegel (in German). 29 October 2018.
^ "Expelled Jews' Dark Outlook". Newspaper article. London: The Times.
1 November 1938. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
^ "Recollections of Rosalind Herzfeld," Jewish Chronicle, 28 September
1979, p. 80; cited in Gilbert, The Holocaust—The Jewish Tragedy,
London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, 1986.
^ Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem, p. 228.
^ German State Archives, Potsdam, quoted in Rita Thalmann and Emmanuel
Feinermann, Crystal night, 9–10 November 1938, pp. 33, 42.
^ William L. Shirer, The Rise And Fall of the Third Reich, p. 430.
^ Did gay affair provide a catalyst for Kristallnacht? by Kate
Connolly, The Guardian, 30 October 2001, "On November 7, 1938,
Herschel Grynszpan, a Jew, walked into the German embassy in Paris and
shot Ernst vom Rath, a German diplomat. Nazi propagandists condemned
the shooting as a terrorist attack to further the cause of the Jewish
'world revolution' and launched the series of attacks known as
Kristallnacht. Vom Rath and Grynszpan met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit bar,
a popular haunt for gay men in the autumn of 1938 and became
^ "Nazis Planning Revenge on Jews", News Chronicle, 9 November 1938
^ "Nazis Smash, Loot and Burn Jewish Shops and Temples Until Goebbels
Calls Halt", New York Times, 11 November 1938
^ Friedländer, op.cit., p. 113.
Walter Buch to Goring, 13.2.1939, Michaelis and Schraepler,
Ursachen, Vol.12, p. 582 as cited in Friedländer, p. 271.
^ Graml, Anti-Semitism, p. 13 cited in Friedländer, op.cit., p 272
^ "Heydrich's secret instructions regarding the riots in November
1938", (Simon Wiesenthal Center)
^ GermanNotes, "
Kristallnacht - Night of Broken Glass". Archived from
the original on 19 April 2005. Retrieved 6 March 2009., retrieved 26
^ "Die "Kristallnacht"-Lüge - Die Ereignisse vom 9./10. November 1938
| ZbE". www.zukunft-braucht-erinnerung.de.
^ "The deportation of Regensburg
Jews to Dachau concentration camp"
Yad Vashem Photo Archives 57659)
^ Lucas, Eric. "The sovereigns", Kibbutz Kfar Blum (Palestine), 1945,
p. 171 cited in Gilbert, op.cit., p 67.
^ Raul Hilberg. The Destruction of the European Jews, Third Edition,
(Yale Univ. Press, 2003, c1961), Ch.3.
^ Carleton Greene, Hugh. Daily Telegraph, 11 November 1938 cited in
"The Road to World War II" Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback
Machine, Western New England College.
^ "The Road to World War II" Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback
Machine, Western New England College.
^ a b "
Kristallnacht Remembered". www.kold.com. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
^ Our German Cousins: Anglo-German Relations in the 19th and 20th
Centuries (1974) by John Mander, p. 219
^ Döscher, Hans-Jürgen (2000). "Reichskristallnacht" – Die
Novemberpogrome 1938 ("'Reichskristallnacht': The November pogroms of
1938"), Econ, 2000, ISBN 3-612-26753-1, p. 131
^ Conot, Robert. Justice at Nuremberg, New York, NY: Harper and Row,
1983, pp. 164–72.
^ "JudenVermoegersabgabe" (The Center for Holocaust and Genocide
^ Jewish emigration from Germany Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback
^ Connolly, Kate (22 October 2008). "
Kristallnacht remnants unearthed
near Berlin". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
^ Scheer, Regina (1993). "I'm Revier 16 (In precinct No. 16)". Die
Hackeschen Höfe. Geschichte und Geschichten Feiner Lebenswelt in der
Mitte Berlins (Gesellschaft Hackesche Höfe e.V. (ed.), pp. 78 ed.).
Berlin: Argon. ISBN 3-87024-254-X.
^ Gilbert, op. cit., p. 70
^ Dr. Arthur Flehinger, "Flames of Fury", Jewish Chronicle, 9 November
1979, p. 27, cited in Gilbert, loc. cit.
^ Rinde, Meir (2017). "A History of Violence". Distillations.
Vol. 3 no. 2. pp. 6–9. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
^ "NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST JEWS NAZI OUTBREAKS". 11 November 1938.
p. 1 – via Trove.
^ Daily Telegraph, 12 November 1938. Cited in Gilbert, Martin.
Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. Harper Collins, 2006, p. 142.
^ Eugene Davidson. The Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. Columbia: University
of Missouri Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8262-1045-6. p. 325
^ Guardian archive image of Goebbels foreign press conference:
retrieved 12 March 2017
^ Müller-Claudius, Michael (1948). Der Antisemitismus und das
deutsche Verhangnis. Frankfurt: J. Knecht. pp. 76–77,
^ Gordon 1984, pp. 263–264.
^ a b Gordon 1984, p. 266.
^ Gordon 1984, p. 159.
^ Gordon 1984, p. 156.
^ Gordon 1984, p. 157.
^ Gordon 1984, p. 176.
^ Gordon 1984, pp. 180, 207.
^ Gordon 1984, pp. 175–179, 215.
^ a b c d e Gordon 1984, pp. 251, 252, 258, 259.
^ Bernd Nellessen, "Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und
Judenverfolgung", in Büttner (ed) Die Deutschen und die
Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen's
Hitler's Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997).
^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490-1700.
New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2004, pp. 666–67.
^ Miskin, Maayana (8 February 2010). "
Yad Vashem to Honor Aborigine".
Israel National News. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
Telegram protesting against the persecution of
Jews in Germany"
(PDF) (in Spanish). El Clarín de Chile's.
^ Lewis, Geraint (May 2010). "Tippett, Sir Michael Kemp". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (online edition).
doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/69100. Retrieved 29 April 2012. (subscription
^ a b c Steinweis, Alan E. (2009).
Kristallnacht 1938. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780674036239.
^ Krefeld, Stadt (1988). Ehemalige Krefelder Juden berichten uber ihre
Erlebnisse in der sogenannten Reichskristallnacht. Krefelder Juden in
Amerika. 3. Cited in Johnson, Eric. Krefeld Stadt Archiv: Basic Books.
^ Alexander, Jeffrey (2009). Remembering the Holocaust: A Debate.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780195326222.
^ Seth Rogovoy (20 April 2001). "Gary Lucas: Action guitarist".
Berkshire Eagle. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved
20 May 2008. A knowing reference to Arnold Schoenberg's "Verklarte
Nacht", the piece ironically juxtaposed the Israeli national anthem,
"Hatikvah," with phrases from "Deutschland Uber Alles," amid wild
electronic shrieks and noise. The next day the papers ran a picture of
Lucas with the triumphant headline, "It is Lucas!"
^ ALBERT GORE (19 March 1989). "An Ecological Kristallnacht. Listen".
The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2019. Scientists now predect
our current course will raise world temperatures five degrees Celsius
in our lifetimes
^ "BAP Songtexte (German)". Archived from the original on 23 May 2008.
Retrieved 16 May 2008.
^ "Mayn Yingele (Rzewski, Frederic)". Retrieved 25 January 2016.
^ "MSNBC hot take: Trump's Putin presser just like 'Pearl Harbor or
Kristallnacht'". Herman Cain. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
^ "St. Louis Jewish cemetery rededicated after gravestones toppled by
vandals - Diaspora - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com.
^ Reporter, Adam Vaccaro-. "Holocaust Memorial in Boston damaged for
second time this summer - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com.
^ "Finance minister slams Judenboykott,
against Muslims in Sri Lanka". www.economynext.com. 24 May 2019.
Retrieved 10 June 2019.
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Books in English
Browning, Christopher R. (2003). Collected Memories: Holocaust History
and Postwar Testimony. George L. Mosse Series in Modern European
Cultural and Intellectual History. Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press. ISBN 0-299-18984-8.
Mayer, Kurt (2009). My Personal Brush with History. Tacoma: Kurt
Mayer, Confluence Books. ISBN 978-0-578-03911-4.
Friedlander, Saul (1998).
Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The
Years of Persecution 1933–1939. New York, NY: Perennial.
Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy. London:
Collins. ISBN 0-00-216305-5.
Gordon, Sarah Ann (1984). Hitler, Germans, and the Jewish Question.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-10162-0.
Johnson, Eric J. (1999). Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary
Germans. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04906-0.
Mosse, George L. (1978). Toward the Final Solution: A History of
European Racism. New York: Howard Fertig. ISBN 0-86527-941-1.
Mosse, George L. (2000). Confronting History: A Memoir. Madison:
University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16580-9.
Mosse, George L. (2003). Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural and
Social Life in the Third Reich. Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press. ISBN 0-299-19304-7.
Mosse, George L. (1999). The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual
Origins of the Third Reich. New York: Howard Fertig.
Schwab, Gerald (1990). The day the Holocaust began: the odyssey of
Herschel Grynszpan. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-93576-0.
Shirer, William L. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New
York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-72868-7.
Yahil, Leni (1990). The Holocaust: the fate of European Jewry,
1932–1945. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press.
Dawidowicz, Lucy (1986). The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945. UK:
Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-34532-2.
Steinweis, Alan E. (2009).
Kristallnacht 1938. Harvard University
Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03623-9.
Books in German
Christian Faludi: Die "Juni-Aktion" 1938. Eine Dokumentation zur
Radikalisierung der Judenverfolgung. Campus, Frankfurt a. M./New York
2013, ISBN 978-3-593-39823-5
Hans-Dieter Arntz. "Reichskristallnacht". Der Novemberpogrom 1938 auf
dem Lande – Gerichtsakten und Zeugenaussagen am Beispiel der Eifel
und Voreifel, Helios-Verlag, Aachen 2008, ISBN 978-3-938208-69-4
Döscher, Hans-Jürgen (1988). Reichskristallnacht: Die
Novemberpogrome 1938 (in German). Ullstein.
Richter, Hans Peter: "Friedrich" Puffin Books 1970
Kaul, Friedrich Karl; Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (1965). Der Fall des
Herschel Grynszpan (in German). Berlin: Akademie-Verl. ISBN Unknown.
ASIN B0014NJ88M. Available at Oxford Journals (PDF)
Korb, Alexander (2007). Reaktionen der deutschen Bevölkerung auf die
Novemberpogrome im Spiegel amtlicher Berichte (in German).
Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8364-4823-9.
Lauber, Heinz (1981). Judenpogrom: "Reichskristallnacht" November 1938
in Grossdeutschland : Daten, Fakten, Dokumente, Quellentexte,
Thesen und Bewertungen (Aktuelles Taschenbuch) (in German). Bleicher.
Pätzold, Kurt; Runge, Irene (1988). Kristallnacht: Zum
(Geschichte) (in German). Köln: Pahl-Rugenstein.
Pehle, Walter H. (1988). Der Judenpogrom 1938: Von der
"Reichskristallnacht" zum Völkermord (in German). Frankfurt am Main:
Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-596-24386-6.
Schultheis, Herbert (1985). Die Reichskristallnacht in Deutschland
nach Augenzeugenberichten (Bad Neustadter Beiträge zur Geschichte und
Heimatkunde Frankens) (in German). Bad Neustadt a. d. Saale: Rotter
Druck und Verlag. ISBN 3-9800482-3-3.
Wroe, David (21 October 2008). "Hitler 'led henchmen' in Kristallnacht
riots". Daily Telegraph.
Segev, Tom (31 October 2008). "Hitler gave the order". Haaretz.
Archived from the original on 8 December 2008.
Rabbi Eliahu Ellis; Rabbi Shmuel Silinsky. "Kristallnacht". Holocaust
studies. Aish.com. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
"Germany commemorates Nazi era 'Kristallnacht'". CNN.com. 9 November
1998. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 20 May
"What Was Kristallnacht?". THHP Short Essays.
The Holocaust History
Project. 28 November 2003. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008.
Retrieved 20 May 2008.
Kristallnacht "Night of Crystal" – "Night of Broken Glass"".
Holocaust Prelude. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team.
2006–2007. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
Frieda S. Miller; Vancouver Holocaust Education Center (25 February
2008). "Kristallnacht". From Aryanization to Cultural Loss: The
Destruction of the Jewish Fashion Industry in Germany and Austria.
Center for Holocaust &
Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota.
Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
"Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany 29th July to 8th August 1946". The
Trial of German Major War Criminals Volume 20. The Nizkor Project.
2006. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
Allida Black; June Hopkins; et al. (2003). "The Eleanor Roosevelt
Papers – Kristallnacht". Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt; Eleanor
Roosevelt National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York. US National
Park Service archive (nps.gov). Retrieved 20 May 2008.
"Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938". Holocaust
Encyclopedia. US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
"Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms". Online exhibitions,
special topics. US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the
original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
Yad Vashem (2004). "Kristallnacht". Yad Vashem's Photo Archives. The
Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. Archived from
the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kristallnacht.
Events Leading Up to
Kristallnacht – What led to the Night of Broken
Glass?, by The Center for Holocaust and Humanity Education
Antisemitism Interview with Susan Warsinger from the United
States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Synagogues Memorial institute in Jerusalem
It Came From Within... 71 Years Since
Kristallnacht – Online
exhibition from Yad Vashem, including survivor testimonies, archival
footage, photos, and stories
"At 7:00 in the morning I was a student, and at 5:00, I was a
criminal" – Interview with Miriam Ron, Witness to the Events of
Witness Speech, Kristallnacht, by George Spooner, Holocaust survivor,
at Grace United Methodist Church, St. Louis, Missouri, 29 October
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Lviv pogroms (1941)
Jedwabne pogrom (1941)
Ponary massacre (1941)
Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre (1941)
Odessa massacre (1941)
Kaunas massacre (1941)
Rumbula massacre (1941)
The Holocaust (1941–1945)
Dünamünde Action (1942)
Dzyatlava massacre (1942)
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1943)
Kielce cemetery massacre
Kielce cemetery massacre (1943)
Aktion Erntefest (1943)
Ardeatine massacre (1944)
Sărmașu massacre (1944)
Kremnička and Nemecká massacres
Kremnička and Nemecká massacres (1944–1945)
Topoľčany pogrom (1945)
Kraków pogrom (1945)
Kolbasov pogrom (1945)
Tripolitania pogrom (1945)
Cairo pogrom (1945)
Kielce pogrom (1946)
Kunmadaras pogrom (1946)
Miskolc pogrom (1946)
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre (1947)
Aden pogrom (1947)
Aleppo pogrom (1947)
Manama pogrom (1947)
Tripoli pogrom (1948)
The Djerada (1948)
Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1948)
Cairo bombings (1948)
Kfar Etzion massacre
Kfar Etzion massacre (1948)
Menarsha synagogue attack (1949)
Night of the Murdered Poets (1952)
Scorpion Pass massacre (1954)
Shafrir synagogue shooting (1956)
Purge of Polish
Avivim school bus massacre (1970)
Munich massacre (1972)
Lod Airport massacre
Lod Airport massacre (1972)
Ma'alot massacre (1974)
Kiryat Shmona massacre
Kiryat Shmona massacre (1974)
Ben Yehuda Street bombing (1975)
Coastal Road massacre
Coastal Road massacre (1978)
Nahariya massacre (1979)
Paris synagogue bombing (1980)
Antwerp summer camp attack (1980)
Antwerp bombing (1981)
Vienna synagogue attack (1981)
Goldenberg restaurant massacre (1982)
Ras Burqa massacre
Ras Burqa massacre (1985)
Purim stabbing (1989)
Cairo bus attack (1990)
Crown Heights riot
Crown Heights riot (1991)
AMIA bombing (1994)
Dizengoff Street bus bombing
Dizengoff Street bus bombing (1994)
Beit Lid massacre (1995)
Purim massacre (1996)
Island of Peace massacre
Island of Peace massacre (1997)
Mahane Yehuda Market massacre (1997)
Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting (1999)
Dolphinarium discotheque massacre
Dolphinarium discotheque massacre (2001)
Sbarro massacre (2001)
Ghriba synagogue bombing
Ghriba synagogue bombing (2002)
Bat Mitzvah massacre
Bat Mitzvah massacre (2002)
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre (2002)
Passover massacre (2002)
Matza restaurant bombing (2002)
Hebrew University massacre (2002)
Rishon LeZion bombing (2002)
Matzuva attack (2002)
Istanbul bombings (2003)
Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre
Tel Aviv Central Bus Station massacre (2003)
Davidka Square bus bombing
Davidka Square bus bombing (2003)
Café Hillel bombing
Café Hillel bombing (2003)
Maxim restaurant massacre (2003)
Shmuel HaNavi massacre (2003)
Haifa bus massacre (2003)
Beersheba bus bombings
Beersheba bus bombings (2004)
Ashdod Port bombings (2004)
Seattle Jewish Federation shooting (2006)
Tel Aviv shawarma bombing (2006)
Mercaz HaRav massacre
Mercaz HaRav massacre (2008)
Itamar attack (2011)
Burgas bus bombing (2012)
Toulouse and Montauban shootings
Toulouse and Montauban shootings (2012)
Jerusalem synagogue massacre (2014)
Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting
Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting (2014)
Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting
Jewish Museum of Belgium shooting (2014)
Kosher market siege (2015)
Tel Aviv synagogue stabbing (2015)
Tel Aviv shooting (2016)
Halamish massacre (2017)
Pittsburgh synagogue shooting
Pittsburgh synagogue shooting (2018)
Poway synagogue shooting
Poway synagogue shooting (2019)