The KRISHNA RIVER is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India , after the Ganga , Godavari and Brahmaputra . The river is almost 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) long. The river is also called Krishnaveni. It is a major source of irrigation for Maharashtra , Karnataka , Telangana and Andhra Pradesh .
* 1 Sources * 2 Tributaries * 3 Krishna Basin * 4 Places and temples * 5 Flora and Fauna * 6 Waterfalls * 7 Bridges * 8 Floods * 9 Interstate water sharing * 10 Dams * 11 Hydroelectric power stations * 12 Mineral deposits * 13 Pollution * 14 See also * 15 References
The Krishna river originates in the western ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres, in the state of Maharashtra in central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India. The Krishna river is around 1,300 km in length. The Krishna river's source is at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi (near Koduru) in Andhra Pradesh , on the east coast. It flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Telangana State. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna.
It causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon floods. It flows fast and furious, often reaching depths of over 75 feet (23 m). Ironically, there is a saying in Marathi: "_Shant vaahate Krishnamaai_" which means "quiet flows Krishna". This term is used to describe that a person should be as quiet as Krishna.
The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River with a drainage basin measuring 71,417 km2 (27,574 sq mi), running for about 531 km (330 mi), but the longest tributary is the Bhima River , which makes a total run of 861 km (535 mi) and has an equally large drainage area of 70,614 km2 (27,264 sq mi).
There are four rivers that join the Krishna at a confluence known as Preeti Sangam, or "Lover's Meeting Point" in the Satara District . These are Venna River , Urmodi River, Tarli River and Koyna River .
Three tributaries meet Krishna river near Sangli . These places are considered very holy. It is said that Lord Dattatreya spent some of his days at Audumber on the banks of river Krishna. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river. The Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, and visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down.
RIGHT-BANK TRIBUTARY TOWN, DISTRICT, STATE OF CONFLUENCE LEFT-BANK TRIBUTARY
Venna River Sangam Mauli, Satara, Maharashtra
Urmodi river Kashil, Satara, Maharashtra
Tarali/Kali Ganga river Umbraj, Satara, Maharashtra
Mand river Umbraj, Satara, Maharashtra
Tasawade, Satara, Maharashtra Kolamba river
Koyna River Karad, Satara, Maharashtra
Bramhanal, Sangli, Maharashtra Yerla river
Warna River Haripur, Sangli, Maharashtra
Panchganga River Narsobawadi, Sangli, Mahrashtra
Dudhaganga Yadur, Belgaum, Karnataka
Basava Sagar Reservoir
Ammapur, Kalburgi, Karnataka Doni River
Kadlur, Raichur, Karnataka Bhima River
Lower Jurala dam
Tungabhadra River Alampur, Mahaboobnagar, Telangana
Nalgonda district, Telangana Dindi River
Nagarjuna Sagar dam
Chityala, Nalgonda Haliya River
Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond dam
Wazirabad, Nalgonda, Telangana Musi River
Ibrahimpatnam, Krishna district Polavaram right bank canal
National Waterway 4 Prakasam Barrage National Waterway 4
Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 km2 (99,980 sq mi) which is nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country. This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka (113,271 km2), Telangana , Andhra Pradesh (76,252 km2) and Maharashtra (69,425 km2).
The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1,337 m (4,386 ft) just north of Mahabaleshwar , about 64 km (40 mi) from the Arabian Sea. It flows for about 1,400 km (870 mi) and outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River , Malaprabha River , Bhima River , Tungabhadra River and Musi River .
Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, which is formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats . The important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils, laterite and lateritic soils, alluvium, mixed soils, red and black soils and saline and alkaline soils.
An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km3 has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km3 is utilizable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2 (78,000 sq mi), which is 10.4% of the total cultivable area of the country. As the water availability in the Krishna river was becoming inadequate to meet the water demand, Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme in the year 2015 to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage in Andhra Pradesh. The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4 .
PLACES AND TEMPLES
This river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is also believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river. The centre of attraction is the Krishna Pushkaram fair which is held once in twelve years on the banks of the Krishna river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra , Karnataka , Telangana and Andhra Pradesh on the course of the river.
The first holy place on the river Krishna is "Dakshin Kashi Wai", known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, which is revered by the people of Maharashtra, are located on the banks of Krishna at Nrusinha Waadi and Audumbar near Sangli . Also, located on the banks of the river Krishna are the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur, goddess Durga temple in Vijayawada and Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna temple (Srisailam), Amareshwara Swamy temple ( Amaravati (state capital) ), Dattadeva temple, Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur in Telangana, Ramling temple, etc. as well as, villages such as Jihe .
FLORA AND FAUNA
Wide spread area near to the Krishna river holds the rich flora and fauna. The last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary . The sanctuary is the home to the large number of resident and migratory birds. Fishing cat, otter, Estuarine crocodile, spotted deer, sambar, black buck, snake, lizards and jackal can also be spotted in the sanctuary. The sanctuary also supports rich vegetation with plants like Rhizophora, Avicennia, and Aegiceros. The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin.
* Nagarjunsagar- Srisailam Tiger Reserve * Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary * Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary * Ghataprabha Bird Sanctuary * Gudavi Bird Sanctuary * Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary * Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary * Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary * Chandoli National Park * Kudremukh National Park * Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park * Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park * Mrugavani National Park * Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary * Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary * Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary * Daroji Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Bellary
Manikyadhara Falls is located in Chikkamagaluru Taluk of Karnataka. It is formed by the water flowing from the slopes of Mullayanagiri peak which is the highest peak between the Himalayas and the Nilgiris . Barkana Falls is located in Agumbe hills which receives second highest average annual rainfall (7,624.3 mm) in India. The following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin
The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below.
* Krishna Bridge, Wai, Maharashtra – This bridge, which is located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one of the oldest bridges that were built by the British in India. It spans the Krishna over nine _kamans_ (arches) and is made of black rock. The bridge serves as a flood mark (when the water rises to the level of the road on the bridge) for the "Waikar" people. * Irwin Bridge, Sangli – This is one of the oldest, historic and largest bridges over the Krishna that were built by the British. The Irwin Bridge, which is built of reddish stone, has two passages where one can climb down to the river in the middle of its span to view the water. * Kudachi - Ugar Railway bridge built by the British in 1891. * B. Soundatti Bridge, Raibag – This is also one of the oldest bridges built during the British rule. This bridge connects Maharashtra to Karnataka state. * Tangadagi Bridge, This is one of oldest bridge that connects the Bijapur and Bagalkot Districts of Karnataka. God Neelambika Temple is there at the bank of Krishna River.
In October 2009, heavy floods occurred, isolating 350 villages and leaving millions homeless, which is believed to be first occurrence in 1000 years. The flood resulted in heavy damage to Kurnool, Mahabubnagar, Guntur, Krishna and Nalagonda Districts. The entire city of Kurnool was immersed in approximately 10 ft (3 m) water for nearly 3 days.
Water inflow of 1,110,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s) was recorded at the Prakasam Barriage, which surpassed the previous record of 1,080,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s) recorded in the year 1903.
INTERSTATE WATER SHARING
Main article: Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal
At present, the award of Bachawat tribunal dated 31 May 1976 is applicable for sharing the water available in the river among the riparian states. The Brijesh Kumar tribunal award given on 29 November 2013 is challenged by Andhra Pradesh in the Supreme Court and the case pending since then. Newly created Telangana state also approached Supreme Court demanding a fresh tribunal hearing to secure its water needs on equitable basis .
There are many dams constructed across the Krishna river.
* Dhom Dam * Hippagiri barrage * Almatti Dam * Narayanpur Dam * Srisailam Dam * Jurala Dam * Nagarjuna Sagar Dam * Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond * Pulichinthala Dam * Prakasam Barrage * Amar Dam * Kanur Dam
HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATIONS
Krishna river is one of the rivers whose water energy is harnessed to a large extent by various hydro electric power stations in India. The following is the list of hydro electric power stations excluding small and medium installations. Almatti Dam with its right bank power house
Hydroelectric power stations on Krishna river NAME OF THE PROJECT RATED POWER (IN MW ) COMMENTS
Thokarwadi Dam 72
Almatti Dam 290
Bhadra Dam 39
Tungabhadra Dam 127
Jurala Hydroelectric Project 240
Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond 50
Pulichinthala Dam 120
Krishna close to its origin at Menawali , near Wai , Satara district, Maharashtra.18th century, Maratha statesman, Nana Fadnavis built the Ghat and a palace here.This location has been used in many Hindi movies. See also: List of mines in India
Krishna river basin is endowed with rich mineral deposits such as oil -webkit-column-width: 20em; column-width: 20em;">
Most of the years, the river water is not joining the sea due to full utilisation of water mainly in agriculture. The river receives the waste from the large number of cities and the river basin population has increased to 80 million enhancing pollution load many folds into the river. Adequate average and minimum continuous environmental flows to the sea are not taking place in most of the years constricting salt export and leading to formation of saline and sodic alkaline soils in the lower reaches of the river basin. High alkalinity water is discharged from the ash dump areas of many coal fired power stations into the river which further increases the alkalinity of the river water whose water is naturally of high alkalinity since the river basin is draining vast area of basalt rock formations. The following are the few coal fired power stations located in the river basin
Thermal power stations in Krishna river basin NAME OF POWER STATION RATED POWER (IN MW )
Vijayawada Thermal Power Station 1,760
_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KRISHNA RIVER _.
_ Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica_ article _KISTNA (RIVER) _.
* ^ Krishna at GEOnet Names Server * ^ Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, R.D.; Sharma, K.D. (2005-09-10). "Water Resources of India" (PDF). _Current Science_. Bangalore: Current Science Association. 89 (5): 794–811. Retrieved 2013-10-13. * ^ "Map of Krishna River basin" (PDF). Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ Srisailam project manual * ^ "Lower Krishna basin watershed map" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2016. * ^ " Krishna basin status report, March 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ IWMI Research Report 83. "Spatial variation in water supply and demand across river basins of India" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2015. * ^ "Flooding along the Krishna River: Natural Hazards". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Retrieved 11 October 2009. * ^ "Agony of Floods: Flood Induced Water Conflicts in lndia " (PDF). Retrieved 8 February 2016. * ^ "Managing historic flood in the Krishna river basin in the year 2009". Retrieved 11 October 2015. * ^ Hindu daily dated. "Court: do not publish KWDT-II decision". Retrieved 5 November 2012. * ^ "T-State wants tribunal to adjudicate water disputes". Retrieved 12 July 2014. * ^ (Dam, Barrage, Weir, Anicut, Lift) "Headworks (Dam, Barrage, Weir, Anicut, Lift)" Check url= value (help ). Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ "Power Houses in Krishna Basin". Retrieved 27 March 2015. * ^ "Do not kill a river". Retrieved 20 April 2016. * ^ J. Keller, A. Keller and G. Davids. "River basin development phases and implications of closure" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2012. * ^ "IWMI Research report nos # 1, 3, 14, 56, 72, 83, 107, 111, 121, 123, 125 etc.". Retrieved 25 August 2015. * ^ Oregon State University, USA. "Managing irrigation water quality" (PDF). Retrieved 28 August 2012. * ^ " Alkalinity and salinity bane of soil in T state". Retrieved 23 October 2015. * ^ Chemical weathering in the Krishna Basin and Western Ghats of the Deccan Traps, India
21. Refer 'theertha prabhanda'(sanskrit).
* v * t * e
* Amarja * Bhadra * Bhima * Dandavati * Dindi * Gayatri * Ghataprabha * Handri * Indrayani * Koyna * Kundali * Malaprabha * Mula-Mutha * Munneru * Musi * Nira * Paleru * Panchganga * Pavana * Tunga * Tungabhadra * Varada * Vedavathi * Venna
DAMS AND BARRAGES
* Almatti Dam * Bhadra dam * Budameru Diversion Channel * Dhom Dam * Dindi * Ghataprabha * Joorala * Koil Sagar * Koyna Dam * Nagarjuna Sagar Dam * Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond * Narayanpur Dam * Osman Sagar * Prakasam Barrage * Pulichintala * Raja Lakhamagowda * Rajolibanda Dam * Srisailam Dam * Sunkesula * Tungabhadra Dam * Wyra
HYDRO POWER STATIONS
* Bagalkot * Belgaum * Bellary * Bidar * Bijapur * Chikmagalur * Chitradurga * Dakshina Kannada * Davanagere * Dharwad * Gadag * Gulbarga * Haveri * Koppal * Raichur * Shimoga * Tumkur * Udupi * Uttara Kannada
* Hyderabad * Karimnagar * Khammam * Mahboobnagar * Medak * Nalgonda * Ranga Reddy * Warangal
ORES AND MINERALS
* Coal * Dolomite * Gold * Granite * Iron ore * Limestone
* Bellary Thermal Power station * Cement plants * Jindal steel, Bellary * Kudgi Super Thermal Power Project * Kudremukh Iron * Raichur Thermal Power Station * Solapur Super Thermal Power Station * Vijayawada Thermal Power Station * Yermarus Thermal Power Station
* NH4 * NH4A * NH5 * NH7 * NH9 * NH13 * NH14 * NH18 * NH48 * NH63 * NH202 * NH204 * NH206 * NH218 * NH221 * NH234
Pollution concerns, River basin's sustainable productivity border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
* Algal bloom in reservoirs * High-alkalinity of river water * Cyanide pollution from gold mines * No effective flood control plan * Alkali salts / high pH ash water run off from coal fired power stations * Inadequate salt export to sea leading to formation of saline/ alkali soils * Excessive exploitation of river water causing insufficient environmental flows * Coastal land erosion due to inadequate water reaching the Sea. * Excessive silting of reservoirs due to deforestation and mining activities. * Poor reservoirs management in terms of irrigation water supply, power generation border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
OTHER RIVER BASINS
* Godavari * Penna
LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES
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* Adan * Banganga * Bhima * Bindusara * Dahisar * Daman Ganga * Darna * Dnyanganga * Girna * Godavari * Gomai * Indravati * Indrayani * Kadva * Karha * Kolar * Koyna * Krishna * Kundali * Kundalika * Mithi * Mula * Mula-Mutha * Mutha * Narmada * Nira * Oshiwara * Painganga * Panchganga * Panzara * Patalganga * Pavana * Poisar * Pranahita * Purna (Tapti tributary) * Purna ( Godavari tributary) * Savitri * Shahanur * Shivana * Sindphana * Tansa * Tapti * Tasso * Ulhas * Vaan * Vashishti * Wainganga * Wardha
* Kune * Pandavgad
* Gorewada * Khindsi * Lonar crater * Rankala * Salim Ali * Shivaji /Shivsagar * Talao Pali * Upvan * Venna * Talwat * Hidkal * Bhigwan * Mahakali * Sandhur
* Bhushi * Jayakwadi * Khadakwasla * Kolkewadi * Koyna * Mulshi * Nilwande * Panshet * Susri * Temghar * Tilari * Ujjani * Walwan * Varasgaon * Waghur
* Godavari basin * Narmada basin
HYDROGRAPHY OF SURROUNDING AREAS
* v * t * e
* Kuntala * Bogatha * Pochera * Mallela Theertham * Paarakaphi * Savatula Gundam * Sirnapally * Gayatri
* Bhadrakali * Himayat Sagar * Hussain Sagar * Lotus Pond * Osman Sagar * Pakhal * Palair * Ramappa * Shamirpet * Saroornagar * Laknavaram * Ramanthapur * Kapra * Safilguda * Ramakrishnapuram * Edulabad * Waddepally
* Lower Manair Dam
* Pulichinthala * Yellampalli * Rajolibanda Dam * Icchampally * Manjira
HYDROGRAPHY OF SURROUNDING AREAS
* v * t * e
* Amarga * Amarja * Arkavathy * Bhadra * Chakra * Chitrvathi * Dandavathi * Gangavalli * Ghataprabha * Gurupura * Hemavati * Honnuhole * Kabini * Kali * Kaveri * Kedaka * Krishna * Kubja * Kumaradhara * Lakshmana Tirtha * Malaprabha * Manjira River * Netravati * Palar * Panchagangavalli * Papagni * Penna * Ponnaiyar * Shambavi * Sharavathi * Shimsha * Souparnika * Tunga * Tungabhadra * Varada * Varahi * Vedavathi * Vrishabhavathi
* Abbey * Barkana * Chunchanakatte * Devaragundi * Godchinamalaki * Gokak * Hebbe * Irupu * Jaladurga * Jog * Kalhatti * Kuchikal * Magod * Mallalli * Muthyalamaduvu * Sathodi * Shivanasamudra or Cauvery * Shivganga * Unchalli * Vajrapoha * Varapoha
* Almatti * Basava Sagar * Bhadra Dam * Harangi * Kadra * Kanva * Kodasalli * Krishna Raja Sagara / KRS * Linganamakki * Raja Lakhamagowda * Renuka Sagara * Shanti Sagara * Supa * Tungabhadra * Mari Kanive
* v * t * e
* Bay of Bengal * Coromandel
* Krishna estuary * Narava Gedda creek
* Coringa * Krishna delta mangrove
* Arani * Bendi Gedda * Borramma Gedda * Budameru * Bahuda * Champavathi * Cheyyeru * Chitravathi * Galeru * Garibula Gedda * Godavari * Gosthani * Gundlakamma * Jhanjavati * Kandaleru * Kandivalasa * Kalangi * Kinnerasani * Koringa * Krishna * Kundu * Mahendratanaya * Madala * Maldevi * Manneru * Munneru * Murredu * Nadari * Nagari * Nagavali * Narava Gedda * Palar * Paleru * Papagni * Pedda Gedda * Peddavagu * Penna * Ponnaiyar * Sabari * Sileru * Sarada * Swarnamukhi * Tammileru * Tandava * Tungabhadra * Vamsadhara * Varaha * Vedavathi * Yeleru * Yerrakaluva
* Alaganoor * Balimela * Brahmamsagar * Dowleswaram * Gandikota * Gotta barrage * Gundlakamma * Jalaput * Jeedipalli * Kalyani * Kandaleru * Kanithi * Mid Penna * Mylavaram * Nagarjuna * Nagarjuna Sagar tail pond * Nellore anicut * Penna Ahobilam * Polavaram * Prakasham * Pulichinthala * Rajolibanda * Sangam anicut * Somasila * Srisailam * Sunkesula * Tatipudi * Thotapalli * Veligallu * Veligonda * Veligodu * Yeleru
HYDROGRAPHY OF SURROUNDING AREAS
* v * t * e
* Bhadra * Bhavani * Bhima * Chalakudy * Chittar * Godavari * Gurupura * Kabini * Kali * Kallayi * Kaveri * Koyna * Krishna * Kundali * Malaprabha * Manimuthar * Netravati * Pachaiyar * Parambikulam * Saraswati * Savitri * Sharavati * Tambaraparani * Tapti * Tunga * Venna
* Agastya Mala * Anamudi * Anginda * Anjaneri * Banasura * Biligirirangana Betta * Brahmagiri * Chembra * Dhodap * Doddabetta * Gangamoola * Harishchandragad * Kalsubai * Kemmangundi * Kudremukh * Kumarikkal Mala * Kodachadri * Kumara Parvata * Mullayanagiri * Marunthuvazh Malai * Nedumpara Peak * Ponmudi * Pushpagiri * Paithalmala * Salher * Saptashrungi * Sispara * Sonsogor * Tadiandamol * Taramati * Vavul Mala * Vellarimala * Ranipuram * Vagamon
* Annekal Reserved Forest * Anshi National Park * Aralam Reserved Forest * Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve * Agasthyavanam Biological Park * Bandipur National Park * Bannerghatta National Park * Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary * Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary * Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary * Chandoli National Park * Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary * Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary * Dandeli National Park * Eravikulam National Park * Grass Hills National Park * Anamalai Tiger Reserve * Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve * Karian Shola National Park * Karnala Bird Sanctuary * Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary * Kudremukh National Park * Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary * Mudumalai National Park * Mudumalai Tiger Reserve * Mukurthi National Park * Nagarhole Rajiv Gandhi National Park * New Amarambalam Reserved Forest * Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary * Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve * Palani Hills National Park * Parambikulam Tiger Reserve * Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary * Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary * Periyar National Park * Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary * Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary * SAI Sanctuary * Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary * Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary * Silent Valley National Park * Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary * Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary * Talakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary * Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary
* Amboli Ghat * Bhor Ghat * Tamhini Ghat * Amba Ghat * Bhor Road Ghat * Chorla Ghat * Goa Gap * Kasara Road Ghat * Kumbharli Ghat * Malshej Ghat * Naneghat * Charmadi ghat * Shiradi ghat * Bisle ghat * Sampaje ghat * Palakkad Gap * Varandha Ghat
* v * t * e
* Beas * Betwa * Bhagirathi * Brahmaputra * Chambal * Chenab * Damodar * Godavari * Gandaki * Ganges * Ghaghara * Indus * Jhelum * Kali * Kaveri * Kosi * Krishna * Luni * Mahanadi * Mahaweli * Meghna * Narmada * Padma * Ravi * Sarasvati * Sankosh * Sharda * Son * Sutlej * Tapti * Yamuna
INLAND LAKES, DELTAS, ETC.
* Ganges Basin * Ganges Delta * Indus Delta * Dal Lake * Pookode Lake * Skeleton Lake * Chilika Lake * Lake Powai * Borith Lake * Saiful Muluk * Gosaikunda * Nizam Sagar * Red Hills Lake * Malampuzha * Kerala backwaters * Pulicat Lake
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 239633911 * GND : 4478193-3