HOME
The Info List - Krishna


--- Advertisement ---



Krishna
Krishna
(/ˈkrɪʃnə/,[8] [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] ( listen); Sanskrit: कृष्ण, translit. Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu
Vishnu
and also as the supreme God
God
in his own right.[9] He is the god of compassion, tenderness, and love in Hinduism,[1][2] and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities.[10] Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu
Hindu
calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.[11] Krishna
Krishna
is also known by numerous names, such as Govinda, Mukunda, Madhusudhana, Vasudeva, and Makhan chor. The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled as Krishna
Krishna
Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many Hindu
Hindu
philosophical, theological, and mythological texts.[12] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and as the universal supreme being.[13] His iconography reflects these legends, and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha
Radha
or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.[14] The synonyms of Krishna
Krishna
have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature.[15] In some sub-traditions, Krishna
Krishna
is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, and this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. These sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement.[16] Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance.[17][18] He is a pan- Hindu
Hindu
god, but is particularly revered in some locations such as Vrindavan
Vrindavan
in Uttar Pradesh, Jagannatha
Jagannatha
in Odisha, Mayapur
Mayapur
in West Bengal,[19] Dwarka
Dwarka
and Junagadh in Gujarat, Pandharpur
Pandharpur
in Maharashtra, Udupi
Udupi
in Karnataka, Nathdwara in Rajasthan[20] and Guruvayur
Guruvayur
in Kerala.[21] Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna
Krishna
has also spread to the Western world
Western world
and to Africa, largely due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON).[22]

Contents

1 Names and epithets 2 Iconography 3 Historical and literary sources

3.1 Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage 3.2 Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
and other inscriptions

4 Life and legends

4.1 Birth 4.2 Childhood and youth 4.3 Adulthood 4.4 Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
and Bhagavad Gita 4.5 Death and Ascension 4.6 Versions and interpretations

5 Proposed datings 6 Philosophy and theology 7 Influence

7.1 Vaishnavism 7.2 Early traditions 7.3 Bhakti
Bhakti
tradition

7.3.1 Indian subcontinent 7.3.2 Outside Asia

7.4 Southeast Asia

8 Performance arts 9 Other religions

9.1 Jainism 9.2 Buddhism 9.3 Sikhism 9.4 Bahá'í Faith 9.5 Ahmadiyya 9.6 Other

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 External links

Names and epithets[edit] Main article: List of titles and names of Krishna The name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue".[23] The waning moon is called Krishna
Krishna
Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening".[23] The name is also interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".[24] As a name of Vishnu, Krishna
Krishna
is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna
Krishna
is often depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna
Krishna
is also known by various other names, epithets, and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; Govinda "chief herdsman",[25] and Gopala "Protector of the 'Go', which means "Soul" or the cows".[26][27] Some names for Krishna
Krishna
hold regional importance; Jagannatha, found in Puri Hindu
Hindu
temple, is a popular incarnation in Odisha
Odisha
state and nearby regions of eastern India.[28][29][30] Iconography[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
with cows, herdsmen, and Gopis

Krishna
Krishna
is represented in the Indian traditions in many ways, but with some common features. His iconography typically depicts him with black, dark, or blue skin, like Vishnu.[31] However, ancient and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material out of which he is formed, both in India
India
and in southeast Asia.[32][33] In some texts, his skin is poetically described as the color of Jambul
Jambul
(Jamun, a purple-colored fruit).[34] Krishna
Krishna
is often depicted wearing a peacock-feather wreath or crown, and playing the bansuri (Indian flute).[35][36] In this form, he is usually shown standing with one leg bent in front of the other in the Tribhanga
Tribhanga
posture. He is sometimes accompanied by cows or a calf, which symbolise the divine herdsman Govinda. Alternatively, he is shown as a romantic and seductive man with the gopis (milkmaids), often making music or playing pranks.[37]

Krishna
Krishna
lifting Govardhana at Bharat Kala Bhavan, recovered from a Muslim graveyard in Varanasi. It is dated to the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
era (4th/6th-century CE).[38]

In other icons, he is a part of battlefield scenes of the epic Mahabharata. He is shown as a charioteer, notably when he is addressing the Pandava
Pandava
prince Arjuna
Arjuna
character, symbolically reflecting the events that led to the Bhagavad Gita – a scripture of Hinduism. In these popular depictions, Krishna
Krishna
appears in the front as the charioteer, either as a counsel listening to Arjuna, or as the driver of the chariot while Arjuna
Arjuna
aims his arrows in the battlefield of Kurukshetra.[39][40] Alternate icons of Krishna
Krishna
show him as a baby (Bala Krishna, the child Krishna), a toddler crawling on his hands and knees, a dancing child, or an innocent-looking child playfully stealing or consuming butter (Makkan Chor),[41] holding Laddu
Laddu
in his hand ( Laddu
Laddu
Gopal)[42][43] or as a cosmic infant sucking his toe while floating on a banyan leaf during the Pralaya (the cosmic dissolution) observed by sage Markandeya.[44] Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna
Krishna
are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha
Jaganatha
in Odisha, Vithoba
Vithoba
in Maharashtra,[45] Shrinathji
Shrinathji
in Rajasthan[46][47][47] and Guruvayoorappan in Kerala
Kerala
[48] Guidelines for the preparation of Krishna
Krishna
icons in design and architecture are described in medieval-era Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts on Hindu temple arts such as Vaikhanasa agama, Vishnu
Vishnu
dharmottara, Brihat samhita, and Agni
Agni
Purana.[49] Similarly, early medieval-era Tamil texts also contain guidelines for sculpting Krishna
Krishna
and Rukmini. Several statues made according to these guidelines are in the collections of the Government Museum, Chennai.[50] Historical and literary sources[edit] See also: Krishna
Krishna
in the Mahabharata

Krishna
Krishna
is celebrated in the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition in various stages of his life, such as Makkan chor (butter thief).[41]

The earliest text containing detailed descriptions of Krishna
Krishna
as a personality is the epic Mahabharata, which depicts Krishna
Krishna
as an incarnation of Vishnu.[51] Krishna
Krishna
is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
contain the advice of Krishna
Krishna
to Arjuna
Arjuna
on the battlefield. The Harivamsa, a later appendix to the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth.[52] The Chandogya Upanishad, estimated to have been composed sometime between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, has been another source of speculation regarding Krishna
Krishna
in ancient India. Verse 3.17.6 mentions Krishna
Krishna
Devakiputra (Sanskrit: कृष्णाय देवकीपुत्रा) as a student of the sage Ghora Angirasa. This phrase, which means " Krishna
Krishna
the son of Devaki", has been mentioned by scholars such as Max Müller[53] as a potential source of fables and Vedic lore about Krishna
Krishna
in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and other ancient literature – only potential because this verse could have been interpolated into the text,[53] or the Krishna Devikaputra could be different from the deity Krishna.[54] These doubts are supported by the fact that the much later age Sandilya Bhakti
Bhakti
Sutras, a treatise on Krishna,[55] cites later age compilations such as the Narayana Upanishad
Narayana Upanishad
but never cites this verse of the Chandogya Upanishad. Other scholars disagree that the Krishna mentioned along with Devika in the ancient Upanishad
Upanishad
is unrelated to the later Hindu
Hindu
god of the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
fame. For example, Archer states that the coincidence of the two names appearing together in the same Upanishad
Upanishad
verse cannot be dismissed easily.[56] Yāska's Nirukta, an etymological dictionary published around the 6th century BCE, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from the well-known Puranic story about Krishna.[57] Shatapatha Brahmana
Shatapatha Brahmana
and Aitareya-Aranyaka associate Krishna
Krishna
with his Vrishni origins.[58] Pāṇini, the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to the 5th or 6th century BCE), mentions a character called Vāsudeva, son of Vasudeva.[59][60]

Bala Krishna
Bala Krishna
dancing, 14th century CE Chola
Chola
sculpture, Tamil Nadu, in the Honolulu Academy of Arts

Megasthenes, a Greek ethnographer
Greek ethnographer
and an ambassador of Seleucus I
Seleucus I
to the court of Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
towards the end of 4th century BCE, made reference to Herakles in his famous work Indica. This text is now lost to history, but was quoted in secondary literature by later Greeks such as Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo.[61] According to these texts, Megasthenes
Megasthenes
mentioned that the Sourasenoi tribe of India, who worshipped Herakles, had two major cities named Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river named the Jobares. According to Edwin Bryant, a professor of Indian religions known for his publications on Krishna, "there is little doubt that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna
Krishna
belonged".[61] The word Herakles, states Bryant, is likely a Greek phonetic equivalent of Hari-Krishna, as is Methora of Mathura, Kleisobora of Krishnapura, and the Jobares of Jamuna. Later, when Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
launched his campaign in the northwest Indian subcontinent, his associates recalled that the soldiers of Porus were carrying an image of Herakles.[61] The Buddhist
Buddhist
Pali canon
Pali canon
and the Ghata-Jâtaka (No. 454) polemically mention the devotees of Vâsudeva and Baladeva. These texts have many peculiarities and may be a garbled and confused version of the Krishna
Krishna
legends.[62] The texts of Jainism
Jainism
mention these tales as well, also with many peculiarities and different versions, in their legends about Tirthankaras. This inclusion of Krishna-related legends in ancient Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jaina literature suggests that Krishna theology was existent and important in the religious landscape observed by non- Hindu
Hindu
traditions of ancient India.[63][64] Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
coinage[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
as Vasudeva
Vasudeva
on a coin of Agathocles of Bactria, c. 180 BCE[65]

Around 180 BCE the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Agathocles issued some coinage bearing images of deities that are now interpreted as being related to Vaisnava
Vaisnava
imagery in India.[66][67] The deities displayed on the coins appear to be Vishnu's avatars Balarama-Sankarshana with attributes consisting of the Gada mace and the plow, and Vasudeva-Krishna
Vasudeva-Krishna
with attributes of the Shankha
Shankha
(conch) and the Sudarshana Chakra wheel.[68][66] According to Bopearachchi, the headdress on top of the deity is actually a misrepresentation of a shaft with a half-moon parasol on top (chattra).[66]

Heliodorus Pillar in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, erected about 120 BCE. The inscription states that Heliodorus is a Bhagvatena, and a couplet in the inscription closely paraphrases a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verse from the Mahabharata.[69][70]

The ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammarian Patanjali
Patanjali
in his Mahabhashya makes several references to Krishna
Krishna
and his associates found in later Indian texts. In his commentary on Panini's verse 3.1.26, he also uses the word Kamsavadha or the "killing of Kamsa", an important part of the legends surrounding Krishna.[71][72] Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
and other inscriptions[edit] A pillar with a Brahmi script inscription was discovered by colonial era archaeologists in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. Using modern techniques, it has been dated to between 125 and 100 BCE, and traced to an Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
who served as an ambassador of the Greek king Antialcidas
Antialcidas
to a regional Indian king.[66][69] Named after the Indo-Greek, it is now known as the Heliodorus pillar. Its inscription is a dedication to "Vasudeva", another name for Krishna
Krishna
in the Indian tradition. Scholars consider the "Vasudeva" to be referring to a deity, because the inscription states that it was constructed by "the Bhagavata Heliodorus" and that it is a " Garuda
Garuda
pillar" (both are Vishnu-Krishna-related terms). Additionally, the inscription includes a Krishna-related verse from chapter 11.7 of the Mahabharata stating that the path to immortality and heaven is to correctly live a life of three virtues: self-temperance (damah), generosity (cagah or tyaga), and vigilance (apramadah).[69][73][74] The Heliodorus inscription is not an isolated evidence. Three Hathibada inscriptions and one Ghosundi inscription, all located in the state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and dated by modern methodology to the 1st century BCE, mention Samkarsana and Vasudeva, also mention that the structure was built for their worship. These four inscriptions are notable for being some of the oldest-known Sanskrit inscriptions.[75] A Mora stone slab found at the Mathura- Vrindavan
Vrindavan
archaeological site in Uttar Pradesh, held now in the Mathura
Mathura
Museum, has a Brahmi inscription. It is dated to the 1st century CE and lists five Vrishni heroes: Balarama, Krishna, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Samba.[76][77][78] Another terracotta plaque from the same site shows an infant being carried by an adult over his head, similar to the legend about Krishna's birth.[76] Many Puranas
Puranas
tell Krishna's life story or some highlights from it. Two Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
and the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna's story,[79] but the life stories of Krishna
Krishna
in these and other texts vary, and contain significant inconsistencies.[80][81] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
consists of twelve books subdivided into 332 chapters, with a cumulative total of between 16,000 and 18,000 verses depending on the version.[82][83] The tenth book of the text, which contains about 4,000 verses (~25%) and is dedicated to legends about Krishna, has been the most popular and widely studied part of this text.[84][85] Life and legends[edit]

Vasudeva
Vasudeva
carrying the newborn Krishna
Krishna
to Nand's house in Gokul
Gokul
via the river Yamuna

This summary is a mythological account, based on literary details from the Mahābhārata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. The scenes from the narrative are set in ancient India, mostly in the present states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi, and Gujarat. The legends about Krishna's life are called Krishna
Krishna
charitas (IAST: Kṛṣṇacaritas).[86] Birth[edit] In Krishna
Krishna
charitas, Krishna
Krishna
is born to Devaki
Devaki
and her husband, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
of the Chandravanshi clan.[87] Devaki's brother is a tyrant named Kansa. At Devaki's wedding, according to Puranic legends, Kansa is told by fortune tellers that a child of Devaki
Devaki
would kill him. Kansa arranges to kill all of Devaki's children. When Krishna
Krishna
is born, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
secretly carries the infant Krishna
Krishna
away across the Yamuna and exchanges him. When Kansa tries to kill the newborn, the exchanged baby appears as the Hindu
Hindu
goddess Durga, warning him that his death has arrived in his kingdom, and then disappears, according to the legends in the Puranas. Krishna
Krishna
grows up with Nanda and his wife Yasoda
Yasoda
near modern-day Mathura.[88][89][90] Two of Krishna's siblings also survive, namely Balarama
Balarama
and Subhadra, according to these legends.[91] The day of birth of Krishna
Krishna
is celebrated as Krishna Janmashtami. Childhood and youth[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
playing flute (15th century artwork).

The legends of Krishna's childhood and youth describe him as a cow herder, a mischievous boy whose pranks earns him the nickname a Makhan Chor (butter thief), and a protector who steals the hearts of the people in both Gokul
Gokul
and Vrindavana. The texts state, for example, that Krishna
Krishna
lifts the Govardhana hill
Govardhana hill
to protect the inhabitants of Vrindavana from devastating rains and floods.[92] Other legends describe him as an enchanter and playful lover of the gopis (milkmaids) of Vrindavana, especially Radha. These metaphor-filled love stories are known as the Rasa lila
Rasa lila
and were romanticised in the poetry of Jayadeva, author of the Gita Govinda. They are also central to the development of the Krishna
Krishna
bhakti traditions worshiping Radha
Radha
Krishna.[93] Krishna's childhood illustrates the Hindu
Hindu
concept of lila, playing for fun and enjoyment and not for sport or gain. His interaction with the gopis at the rasa dance or Rasa-lila
Rasa-lila
is an example. Krishna
Krishna
plays his flute and the gopis come immediately, from whatever they were doing, to the banks of the Yamuna
Yamuna
River, and join him in singing and dancing. Even those who could not physically be there join him through meditation. He is the spiritual essence and the love-eternal in existence, the gopis metaphorically represent the prakṛti matter and the impermanent body.[94] This lila is a constant theme in the legends of Krishna's childhood and youth. Even when he is battling with a serpent to protect others, he is described in Hindu texts
Hindu texts
as if he were playing a game.[95] This quality of playfulness in Krishna
Krishna
is celebrated during festivals as Rasa-lila
Rasa-lila
and Janmashtami, where Hindus in some regions such as Maharashtra
Maharashtra
playfully mimic his legends, such as by making human gymnastic pyramids to break open handis (clay pots) hung high in the air to "steal" butter or buttermilk, spilling it all over the group.[96] Adulthood[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
with his consorts Rukmini
Rukmini
and Satyabhama
Satyabhama
and his mount Garuda, Tamil Nadu, India, late 12th–13th century[97]

Krishna
Krishna
legends then describe his return to Mathura. He overthrows and kills the tyrant king, his uncle Kansa after quelling several assassination attempts by Kansa. He reinstates Kansa's father, Ugrasena, as the king of the Yadavas and becomes a leading prince at the court.[98] In one version of the Krishna
Krishna
story, as narrated by Shanta Rao, Krishna
Krishna
after Kamsa's death leads the Yadavas to the newly built city of Dwaraka. Thereafter Pandavas rise. Krishna
Krishna
befriends Arjuna
Arjuna
and the other Pandava
Pandava
princes of the Kuru kingdom. Krishna plays a key role in the Mahabharata.[99] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
describes eight wives of Krishna
Krishna
that appear in sequence as (Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravinda, Nagnajiti
Nagnajiti
(also called Satya), Bhadra, and Lakshmana (also called Madra).[100] According to Dennis Hudson, this is a metaphor where each the eight wives signify a different aspect of him.[101] According to George Williams, Vaishnava
Vaishnava
texts mention all Gopis as wives of Krishna, but this is spiritual symbolism of devotional relationship and Krishna's complete loving devotion to each and everyone devoted to him.[102] His wife is sometimes called Rohini, Radha, Rukmini, Svaminiji or others.[103] In Krishna-related Hindu
Hindu
traditions, he is most commonly seen with Radha. All of his wives and his lover Radha are considered in the Hindu
Hindu
tradition to be the avatars of the goddess Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu.[104][7] Gopis are considered as Radha's many forms and manifestations.[7] Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
and Bhagavad Gita[edit] Main articles: Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War
and Bhagavad Gita

Srikrishna use weapon in Kurukshetra

According to the epic poem Mahabharata, Krishna
Krishna
becomes Arjuna's charioteer for the Kurukshetra War, but on the condition that he personally will not raise any weapon. Upon arrival at the battlefield, and seeing that the enemies are his family, his grandfather, and his cousins and loved ones, Arjuna
Arjuna
is moved and says his heart will not allow him to fight and kill others. He would rather renounce the kingdom and put down his Gandiv (Arjuna's bow). Krishna
Krishna
then advises him about the nature of life, ethics, and morality when one is faced with a war between good and evil, the impermanence of matter, the permanence of the soul and the good, duties and responsibilities, the nature of true peace and bliss and the different types of yoga to reach this state of bliss and inner liberation. This conversation between Krishna
Krishna
and Arjuna
Arjuna
is presented as a discourse called the Bhagavad Gita.[105][106][107] Death and Ascension[edit] Main article: Mausala Parva It is stated in the Indian texts that the legendary Kurukshetra War leads to the death of all the hundred sons of Gandhari. On the night before Duryodhana's death, Krishna
Krishna
visits Gandhari to offer his condolences. Feeling that Krishna
Krishna
deliberately did not put an end to the war, in a fit of rage and sorrow Gandhari places a curse on Krishna
Krishna
that he, along with everyone else from his Yadu dynasty, will perish. According to the Mahabharata, a fight breaks out at a festival among the Yadavas, who end up killing each other. Mistaking the sleeping Krishna
Krishna
for a deer, a hunter named Jara shoots an arrow that fatally injures him. Krishna
Krishna
forgives Jara and dies.[108][109][110] The pilgrimage (tirtha) site of Bhalka
Bhalka
in Gujarat
Gujarat
marks the location where Krishna
Krishna
is believed to have died. It is also known as Dehotsarga, states Diana L. Eck, a term that literally means the place where Krishna
Krishna
"gave up his body".[109] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
in Book 11, chapter 31 states that after his death, Krishna
Krishna
returned to his transcendent abode directly because of his yogic concentration. Waiting gods such as Brahma
Brahma
and Indra
Indra
were unable to trace the path Krishna
Krishna
took to leave his human incarnation and return to his abode.[111][112] Versions and interpretations[edit] There are numerous versions of Krishna's life story, of which three are most studied: the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana.[113] They share the basic storyline but vary significantly in their specifics, details, and styles.[114] The most original composition, the Harivamsa
Harivamsa
is told in a realistic style that describes Krishna's life as a poor herder but weaves in poetic and allusive fantasy. It ends on a triumphal note, not with the death of Krishna.[115] Differing in some details, the fifth book of the Vishnu Purana moves away from Harivamsa
Harivamsa
realism and embeds Krishna
Krishna
in mystical terms and eulogies.[116] The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana manuscripts exist in many versions.[117] The tenth and eleventh books of the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
are widely considered to be a poetic masterpiece, full of imagination and metaphors, with no relation to the realism of pastoral life found in the Harivamsa. Krishna's life is presented as a cosmic play (lila), where his youth is set as a princely life with his foster father Nanda portrayed as a king.[118] Krishna's life is closer to that of a human being in Harivamsa, but is a symbolic universe in the Bhagavata Purana, where Krishna
Krishna
is within the universe and beyond it, as well as the universe itself, always.[119] The Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
manuscripts also exist in many versions, in numerous Indian languages.[120][84] Proposed datings[edit] See also: Vedic-Puranic chronology
Vedic-Puranic chronology
and History of Hinduism

14th-century fresco of Krishna
Krishna
in Udaipur, Rajasthan

The date of Krishna's birth is celebrated every year as Janmashtami.[121] Based on the events posited within the legends in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and some Puranas, some sources suggest Krishna
Krishna
was an actual historic person. For example, Lanvanya Vemsani states that Krishna
Krishna
can be inferred to have lived between 3227 BCE - 3102 BCE from the Puranas.[122] In contrast, according to mythologies in the Jain tradition, Krishna
Krishna
was a cousin of Neminatha, the 22nd Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of the Jains.[123] Neminatha
Neminatha
is believed in the Jain tradition to have been born 84,000 years before the 9th-century BCE Parshvanatha.[124] Guy Beck states that Krishna
Krishna
– whether human or divine – reflects an actual person in ancient India, who lived at least by 1000 BCE, but this historicity cannot be established purely by studying the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
canon.[125] Other scholars such as Ludo Rocher and Hazra state that the Puranas are not a reliable source for Indian history, because the content therein about kings, various peoples, sages, and kingdoms is highly inconsistent across the manuscripts. They state that these stories are probably based in part on real events, in part on hagiography, and in part embellished by expansive imagination.[126][127][note 2] A high degree of inconsistency and manuscript corruption occurred particularly from the 12th century onwards, evidenced by cross-referencing the texts; Matsya
Matsya
Purana, for example, stated that Kurma
Kurma
Purana has 18,000 verses, while Agni Purana
Agni Purana
asserts the same text has 8,000 verses, and Naradiya attests that the Kurma
Kurma
manuscript has 17,000 verses.[132][133] The Puranic literature has gone through slow redaction and text corruption over time, as well as sudden deletion of numerous chapters and its replacement with new content to an extent that the currently circulating Puranas
Puranas
are completely different from those that existed before the 11th century, or 16th century.[134] For example, a newly discovered palm-leaf manuscript in Nepal
Nepal
has been dated to be from 810 CE, but is quite different from versions of the same Purana text that have been circulating in South Asia since the colonial era.[134][135] Philosophy and theology[edit] A wide range of theological and philosophical ideas are presented through Krishna
Krishna
in Hindu
Hindu
texts. Ramanuja, a Hindu
Hindu
theologian whose works were influential in Bhakti
Bhakti
movement,[136] presented him in terms of qualified monism (Vishishtadvaita).[137] Madhvacharya, a Hindu philosopher whose works led to the founding of Haridasa
Haridasa
sect of Vaishnavism,[138] presented Krishna
Krishna
in the framework of dualism (Dvaita).[139] Jiva Goswami, a saint from Gaudiya Vaishnava school,[140] described Krishna
Krishna
theology in terms of Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga and Achintya Bheda Abheda.[141] Krishna
Krishna
theology is presented in a pure monism (advaita, called shuddhadvaita) framework by Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya, who was the founder of Pushti sect of vaishnavism.[142][143] Madhusudana Sarasvati, an India
India
philosopher,[144] presented Krishna theology in nondualism-monism framework ( Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta), while Adi Shankara, who is credited for unifying and establishing the main currents of thought in Hinduism,[145][146][147] mentioned Krishna
Krishna
in his early eighth-century discussions on Panchayatana puja.[148] The Bhagavata Purana, a popular text on Krishna
Krishna
considered to be like a scripture in Assam, synthesizes an Advaita, Samkhya, and Yoga framework for Krishna
Krishna
but one that proceeds through loving devotion to Krishna.[149][150][151] Bryant describes the synthesis of ideas in Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
as,

The philosophy of the Bhagavata is a mixture of Vedanta
Vedanta
terminology, Samkhyan metaphysics and devotionalized Yoga
Yoga
praxis. (...) The tenth book promotes Krishna
Krishna
as the highest absolute personal aspect of godhead – the personality behind the term Ishvara
Ishvara
and the ultimate aspect of Brahman. — Edwin Bryant, Krishna: A Sourcebook[3]

While Sheridan and Pintchman both affirm Bryant's view, the latter adds that the Vedantic view emphasized in the Bhagavata is non-dualist with a difference. In conventional nondual Vedanta
Vedanta
all reality is an interconnected and one, the Bhagavata posits that the reality is interconnected and plural.[152][153] Across the various theologies and philosophies, the common theme presents Krishna
Krishna
as the essence and symbol of divine love, with human life and love as a reflection of the divine. The longing and love-filled legends of Krishna
Krishna
and the gopis, his playful pranks as a baby,[154] as well as his later dialogues with other characters, are philosophically treated as metaphors for the human longing for the divine and for meaning, and the play between the universals and the human soul.[155][156][157] Krishna's lila is a theology of love-play. According to John Koller, "love is presented not simply as a means to salvation, it is the highest life". Human love is God's love.[158] Other texts that include Krishna
Krishna
such as the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
have attracted numerous bhasya (commentaries) in the Hindu
Hindu
traditions.[159] Though only a part of the Hindu
Hindu
epic Mahabharata, it has functioned as an independent spiritual guide. It allegorically raises through Krishna
Krishna
and Arjuna
Arjuna
the ethical and moral dilemmas of human life, then presents a spectrum of answers, weighing in on the ideological questions on human freedoms, choices, and responsibilities towards self and towards others.[159][160] This Krishna
Krishna
dialogue has attracted numerous interpretations, from being a metaphor of inner human struggle teaching non-violence, to being a metaphor of outer human struggle teaching a rejection of quietism to persecution.[159][161][160] Influence[edit] Vaishnavism[edit] Main article: Vaishnavism

Part of a series on

Vaishnavism

Supreme deity

Vishnu

Important deities

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parasurama Rama Balarama Krishna Buddha Kalki

Other Avatars

Mohini Nara-Narayana Hayagriva

Related

Lakshmi Sita Hanuman Shesha

Texts

Vedas Upanishads Bhagavad Gita Divya Prabandha Ramcharitmanas

Puranas

Vishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Agni

Sampradayas

Sri (Vishishtadvaita) Brahma
Brahma
(Dvaita, Acintyabhedabheda) Rudra
Rudra
(Shuddhadvaita) Nimbarka
Nimbarka
(Dvaitadvaita)

Philosophers–acharyas

Nammalvar Yamunacharya Ramanuja Madhva Chaitanya Vallabha Sankardev Madhavdev Nimbarka Pillai Lokacharya Prabhupada Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika

Related traditions

Bhagavatism Pancharatra Tattvavada Pushtimarg Radha
Radha
Krishna ISKCON Swaminarayan Ekasarana Pranami Ramanandi Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

The worship of Krishna
Krishna
is part of Vaishnavism, a major tradition within Hinduism. Krishna
Krishna
is considered a full avatar of Vishnu, or one with Vishnu
Vishnu
himself.[162] However, the exact relationship between Krishna
Krishna
and Vishnu
Vishnu
is complex and diverse,[163] with Krishna
Krishna
sometimes considered an independent deity and supreme.[164] Vaishnavas accept many incarnations of Vishnu, but Krishna
Krishna
is particularly important. Their theologies are generally centered either on Vishnu
Vishnu
or an avatar such as Krishna
Krishna
as supreme. The terms Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and Vishnuism have sometimes been used to distinguish the two, the former implying that Krishna
Krishna
is the transcendent Supreme Being.[165] All Vaishnava
Vaishnava
traditions recognise Krishna
Krishna
as the eighth avatar of Vishnu; others identify Krishna
Krishna
with Vishnu, while traditions such as Gaudiya Vaishnavism,[166][167] Vallabha
Vallabha
Sampradaya and the Nimbarka Sampradaya regard Krishna
Krishna
as the Svayam Bhagavan, the original form of Lord or the same as the concept of Brahman
Brahman
in Hinduism.[4][168][169][170][171] Gitagovinda of Jayadeva
Jayadeva
considers Krishna
Krishna
to be the supreme lord while the ten incarnations are his forms. Swaminarayan, the founder of the Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday, also worshipped Krishna
Krishna
as God
God
himself. "Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of the Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala of the late Vedic period.[172] Today the faith has a significant following outside of India
India
as well.[173] Early traditions[edit] The deity Krishna- Vasudeva
Vasudeva
(kṛṣṇa vāsudeva "Krishna, the son of Vasudeva") is historically one of the earliest forms of worship in Krishnaism
Krishnaism
and Vaishnavism.[15][57] It is believed to be a significant tradition of the early history of Krishna
Krishna
religion in antiquity.[174] Thereafter, there was an amalgamation of various similar traditions. These include ancient Bhagavatism, the cult of Gopala, of "Krishna Govinda" (cow-finding Krishna), of Balakrishna (baby Krishna) and of " Krishna
Krishna
Gopivallabha" ( Krishna
Krishna
the lover).[175][176] According to Andre Couture, the Harivamsa
Harivamsa
contributed to the synthesis of various characters as aspects of Krishna.[177] Bhakti
Bhakti
tradition[edit] Main articles: Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
and Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga

Krishna
Krishna
has been a major part of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.

The use of the term bhakti, meaning devotion, is not confined to any one deity. However, Krishna
Krishna
is an important and popular focus of the devotionalism tradition within Hinduism, particularly among the Vaishnava
Vaishnava
sects.[166][178] Devotees of Krishna
Krishna
subscribe to the concept of lila, meaning 'divine play', as the central principle of the universe. It is a form of bhakti yoga, one of three types of yoga discussed by Krishna
Krishna
in the Bhagavad Gita.[167][179][180] Indian subcontinent[edit] The bhakti movements devoted to Krishna
Krishna
became prominent in southern India
India
in the 7th to 9th centuries CE. The earliest works included those of the Alvar saints of the Tamil country.[181] A major collection of their works is the Divya Prabandham. The Alvar Andal's popular collection of songs Tiruppavai, in which she conceives of herself as a gopi, is the most famous of the oldest works in this genre.[182][183][184]

Krishna
Krishna
(left) with Radha
Radha
at Bhaktivedanta Manor, Watford, England

The movement originated in South India
India
during the 7th CE, spreading northwards from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
through Karnataka
Karnataka
and Maharashtra; by the 15th century, it was established in Bengal and northern India.[185] Early Bhakti
Bhakti
pioneers include Nimbarka
Nimbarka
(12th or 13th century CE),[186] but most emerged later, including Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
(15th century CE) and (Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. They started their own schools, namely Nimbarka Sampradaya, Vallabha
Vallabha
Sampradaya, and Gaudiya Vaishnavism, with Krishna as the supreme god. In the Deccan, particularly in Maharashtra, saint poets of the Varkari sect such as Dnyaneshwar, Namdev, Janabai, Eknath, and Tukaram promoted the worship of Vithoba,[45] a local form of Krishna, from the beginning of the 13th century until the late 18th century.[13] In southern India, Purandara Dasa
Purandara Dasa
and Kanakadasa
Kanakadasa
of Karnataka
Karnataka
composed songs devoted to the Krishna
Krishna
image of Udupi. Rupa Goswami of Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
has compiled a comprehensive summary of bhakti called Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.[178] In South India, the acharyas of the Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
have written reverentially about Krishna
Krishna
in most of their works, including the Thiruppavai by Andal[187] and Gopala Vimshati by Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika.[188] Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala
Kerala
states have many major Krishna
Krishna
temples, and Janmashtami
Janmashtami
is one of the widely celebrated festivals in South India.[189] Outside Asia[edit]

An ISKCON temple in Luçay-le-Mâle, France

By 1965 the Krishna-bhakti movement had spread outside India
India
after Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Prabhupada
(as instructed by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura) traveled from his homeland in West Bengal to New York City. A year later in 1966, after gaining many followers, he was able to form the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), popularly known as the Hare Krishna
Krishna
movement. The purpose of this movement was to write about Krishna
Krishna
in English and to share the Gaudiya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophy with people in the Western world by spreading the teachings of the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. In the biographies of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the mantra he received when he was given diksha or initiation in Gaya was the six-word verse of the Kali-Santarana Upanishad, namely "Hare Krishna
Krishna
Hare Krishna, Krishna
Krishna
Krishna
Krishna
Hare Hare; Hare Rama
Rama
Hare Rama, Rama
Rama
Rama
Rama
Hare Hare". In Gaudiya tradition, it is the maha-mantra, or great mantra, about Krishna
Krishna
bhakti.[190][191] Its chanting was known as hari-nama sankirtana.[192] The maha-mantra gained the attention of George Harrison
George Harrison
and John Lennon of The Beatles
The Beatles
fame,[193] and Harrison produced a 1969 recording of the mantra by devotees from the London
London
Radha
Radha
Krishna Temple.[194] Titled "Hare Krishna
Krishna
Mantra", the song reached the top twenty on the UK music charts and was also successful in West Germany and Czechoslovakia.[193][195] The mantra of the Upanishad
Upanishad
thus helped bring Bhaktivedanta and ISKCON ideas about Krishna
Krishna
into the West.[193] ISCKON has built many Krishna
Krishna
temples in the West, as well as other locations such as South Africa.[196] Southeast Asia[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
lifts "Govardhan" mountain, a 7th-century artwork from a Da Nang, Vietnam, archaeological site[197][198]

Krishna
Krishna
is found in southeast Asian history and art, but to a far less extent than Shiva, Durga, Nandi, Agastya, and Buddha. In temples (candi) of the archaeological sites in hilly volcanic Java, Indonesia, temple reliefs do not portray his pastoral life or his role as the erotic lover, nor do the historic Javanese Hindu
Hindu
texts.[199] Rather, either his childhood or the life as a king and Arjuna's companion have been more favored. The most elaborate temple arts of Krishna
Krishna
are found in a series of Krsnayana reliefs in the Prambanan Hindu temple
Hindu temple
complex near Yogyakarta. These are dated to the 9th century CE.[199][200][201] Krishna
Krishna
remained a part of the Javanese cultural and theological fabric through the 14th century, as evidenced by the 14th-century Penataran
Penataran
reliefs along with those of the Hindu
Hindu
god Rama
Rama
in east Java, before Islam replaced Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
on the island.[202] The medieval era arts of Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia
Cambodia
feature Krishna. The earliest surviving sculptures and reliefs are from the 6th and 7th century, and these include Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
iconography.[197] According to John Guy, the curator and director of southeast Asian arts at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Krishna
Krishna
Govardhana art from 6th/7th-century Vietnam
Vietnam
at Danang, and 7th-century Cambodia
Cambodia
at Phnom Da cave in Angkor Borei, are some of the most sophisticated of this era.[197] Krishna
Krishna
iconography has also been found in Thailand, along with those of Surya
Surya
and Vishnu. For example, a large number of sculptures and icons have been found in the Si Thep and Klangnai sites in the Phetchabun region of northern Thailand. These are dated to about the 7th and 8th century, from both the Funan and Zhenla periods archaeological sites.[203] Performance arts[edit]

The Krishna
Krishna
legends in the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
have inspired many performance arts repertoire, such as Kathak, Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
(left) and Odissi.[18][16] The Rasa Lila where Krishna
Krishna
plays with the gopis in Manipuri dance
Manipuri dance
style (right).

Indian dance and music theatre traces its origins and techniques to the ancient Sama Veda and Natyasastra
Natyasastra
texts.[204][205] The stories enacted and the numerous choreographic themes are inspired by the mythologies and legends in Hindu
Hindu
texts, including Krishna-related literature such as Harivamsa
Harivamsa
and Bhagavata Purana.[206] The Krishna
Krishna
stories have played a key role in the history of Indian theatre, music, and dance, particularly through the tradition of Rasaleela. These are dramatic enactments of Krishna's childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. One common scene involves Krishna
Krishna
playing flute in rasa leela, only to be heard by certain gopis (cowheard maidens), which is theologically supposed to represent divine call only heard by certain enlightened beings.[207] Some of the text's legends have inspired secondary theatre literature such as the eroticism in Gita Govinda.[208] Krishna-related literature such as the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
accords a metaphysical significance to the performances and treats them as religious ritual, infusing daily life with spiritual meaning, thus representing a good, honest, happy life. Similarly, Krishna-inspired performances aim to cleanse the hearts of faithful actors and listeners. Singing, dancing, and performance of any part of Krishna Lila is an act of remembering the dharma in the text, as a form of para bhakti (supreme devotion). To remember Krishna
Krishna
at any time and in any art, asserts the text, is to worship the good and the divine.[209] Classical dance styles such as Kathak, Odissi, Manipuri, Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
and Bharatnatyam
Bharatnatyam
in particular are known for their Krishna-related performances.[210] Krisnattam
Krisnattam
(Krishnattam) traces its origins to Krishna
Krishna
legends, and is linked to another major classical Indian dance form called Kathakali.[211] Bryant summarizes the influence of Krishna stories in the Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
as, "[it] has inspired more derivative literature, poetry, drama, dance, theatre and art than any other text in the history of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature, with the possible exception of the Ramayana.[17] Other religions[edit] Jainism[edit] The Jainism
Jainism
tradition lists 63 Śalākāpuruṣa
Śalākāpuruṣa
or notable figures which, amongst others, includes the twenty-four Tirthankaras (spiritual teachers) and nine sets of triads. One of these triads is Krishna
Krishna
as the Vasudeva, Balarama
Balarama
as the Baladeva, and Jarasandha
Jarasandha
as the Prati-Vasudeva. In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva
Vasudeva
with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. Between the triads, Baladeva upholds the principle of non-violence, a central idea of Jainism. The villain is the Prati-vasudeva, who attempts to destroy the world. To save the world, Vasudeva-Krishna
Vasudeva-Krishna
has to forsake the non-violence principle and kill the Prati-Vasudeva.[212] The stories of these triads can be found in the Harivamsa
Harivamsa
Purana (8th century CE) of Jinasena
Jinasena
(not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to Mahābhārata) and the Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita of Hemachandra.[213][214] The story of Krishna's life in the Puranas
Puranas
of Jainism
Jainism
follows the same general outline as those in the Hindu
Hindu
texts, but in details they are very different: they include Jain Tirthankaras as characters in the story, and generally are polemically critical of Krishna, unlike the versions found in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana.[215] For example, Krishna
Krishna
loses battles in the Jain versions, and his gopis and his clan of Yadavas die in a fire created by an ascetic named Dvaipayana. Similarly, after dying from the hunter Jara's arrow, the Jaina texts state Krishna
Krishna
goes to the third hell in Jain cosmology, while his brother is said to go to the sixth heaven.[216] Vimalasuri is attributed to be the author of the Jain version of the Harivamsa
Harivamsa
Purana, but no manuscripts have been found that confirm this. It is likely that later Jain scholars, probably Jinasena
Jinasena
of the 8th century, wrote a complete version of Krishna
Krishna
legends in the Jain tradition and credited it to the ancient Vimalasuri.[217] Partial and older versions of the Krishna
Krishna
story are available in Jain literature, such as in the Antagata Dasao of the Svetambara
Svetambara
Agama tradition.[217] In other Jain texts, Krishna
Krishna
is stated to be a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The Jain texts state that Naminatha taught Krishna
Krishna
all the wisdom that he later gave to Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita. According to Jeffery D. Long, a professor of religion known for his publications on Jainism, this connection between Krishna
Krishna
and Neminatha
Neminatha
has been a historic reason for Jains to accept, read, and cite the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
as a spiritually important text, celebrate Krishna-related festivals, and intermingle with Hindus as spiritual cousins.[218] Buddhism[edit]

Depiction of Krishna
Krishna
playing the flute in a temple constructed in 752 CE on the order of Emperor Shomu, Todai-ji Temple, Great Buddha
Buddha
Hall in Nara, Japan

The story of Krishna
Krishna
occurs in the Jataka
Jataka
tales in Buddhism.[219] The Vidhurapandita Jataka
Jataka
mentions Madhura (Sanskrit: Mathura), the Ghata Jataka
Jataka
mentions Kamsa, Devagabbha (Sk: Devaki), Upasagara or Vasudeva, Govaddhana (Sk: Govardhana), Baladeva (Balarama), and Kanha or Kesava (Sk: Krishna, Keshava).[220][221] Like the Jaina versions of the Krishna
Krishna
legends, the Buddhist
Buddhist
versions such as one in Ghata Jataka
Jataka
follow the general outline of the story,[222] but are different from the Hindu
Hindu
versions as well.[220][63] For example, the Buddhist
Buddhist
legend describes Devagabbha (Devaki) to have been isolated in a palace built upon a pole, after she is born, so no future husband could reach her. Krishna's father similarly is described as a powerful king, but who meets up with Devagabbha anyway, and to whom Kamsa
Kamsa
gives away his sister Devagabbha in marriage. The siblings of Krishna
Krishna
are not killed by Kamsa, though he tries. In the Buddhist
Buddhist
version of the legend, all of Krishna's siblings grow to maturity.[223] Krishna
Krishna
and his siblings' capital becomes Dvaravati. The Arjuna
Arjuna
and Krishna
Krishna
interaction is missing in the Jataka
Jataka
version. A new legend is included, wherein Krishna
Krishna
laments in uncontrollable sorrow when his son dies, and a Ghatapandita feigns madness to teach Krishna
Krishna
a lesson.[224] The Jataka
Jataka
tale also includes an internecine destruction among his siblings after they all get drunk. Krishna
Krishna
also dies in the Buddhist
Buddhist
legend by the hand of a hunter named Jara, but while he is traveling to a frontier city. Mistaking Krishna
Krishna
for a pig, Jara throws a spear that fatally pierces his feet, causing Krishna
Krishna
great pain and then his death.[223] At the end of this Ghata- Jataka
Jataka
discourse, the Buddhist
Buddhist
text declares that Sariputta, one of the revered disciples of the Buddha
Buddha
in the Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition, was incarnated as Krishna
Krishna
in his previous life to learn lessons on grief from the Buddha
Buddha
in his prior rebirth:

Then he [Master] declared the Truths, and identified the Birth: 'At that time, Ananda was Rohineyya, Sariputta
Sariputta
was Vasudeva
Vasudeva
[Krishna], the followers of the Buddha
Buddha
were the other persons, and I myself was Ghatapandita." —  Jataka
Jataka
Tale No. 454, Translator: W. H. D. Rouse[225]

While the Buddhist
Buddhist
Jataka
Jataka
texts co-opt Krishna- Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and make him a student of the Buddha
Buddha
in his previous life,[225] the Hindu
Hindu
texts co-opt the Buddha
Buddha
and make him an avatar of Vishnu.[226][227] The 'divine boy' Krishna
Krishna
as an embodiment of wisdom and endearing prankster forms a part of the pantheon of gods in Japanese Buddhism.[228] Sikhism[edit] Krishna
Krishna
is mentioned as Krishna
Krishna
Avtar in the Chaubis Avtar, a composition in Dasam Granth traditionally and historically attributed to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh.[229] Bahá'í Faith[edit] Bahá'ís believe that Krishna
Krishna
was a "Manifestation of God", or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the Word of God
God
progressively for a gradually maturing humanity. In this way, Krishna
Krishna
shares an exalted station with Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster, Buddha, Muhammad, Jesus, the Báb, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh.[230][231] Ahmadiyya[edit] Ahmadiyya, a modern-era movement, consider Krishna
Krishna
as one of their ancient prophets. Ahmadi's consider themselves to be Muslims, but they are rejected as apostates of Islam by mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims who do not recognize Krishna
Krishna
as their prophet.[232][233][234] Ghulam Ahmad stated that he was himself a prophet in the likeness of prophets such as Krishna, Jesus, and Muhammad,[235] who had come to earth as a latter-day reviver of religion and morality. Other[edit] Krishna
Krishna
worship or reverence has been adopted by several new religious movements since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in occult texts, along with Greek, Buddhist, biblical, and even historical figures.[236] For instance, Édouard Schuré, an influential figure in perennial philosophy and occult movements, considered Krishna
Krishna
a Great Initiate, while Theosophists regard Krishna
Krishna
as an incarnation of Maitreya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom), the most important spiritual teacher for humanity along with Buddha.[237][238] Krishna
Krishna
was canonised by Aleister Crowley
Aleister Crowley
and is recognised as a saint of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica in the Gnostic Mass of Ordo Templi Orientis.[239][240] See also[edit]

Bhagavan Dashavatara Hinduism
Hinduism
in Russia Prem Mandir Vrindavan Radha Vedanta Shrinathji

Notes[edit]

^ The regional texts vary in the identity of Krishna's wife (consort), some presenting it as Rukmini, some as Radha, some as Svaminiji, some adding all gopis, and some identifying all to be different aspects or manifestation of one Devi
Devi
Lakshmi.[6][7] ^ Dimmitt and van Buitenen state that it is difficult to ascertain when, where, why and by whom the Puranas
Puranas
were written, and they grew by "numerous accretions in successive historical eras" where people added or changed the text at random.[128] Their reliability has also suffered from the way surviving manuscripts were copied over the centuries.[129][130] The liberties in the transmission of Puranas
Puranas
were normal and those who copied older manuscripts replaced words or added new content.[131][130]

References[edit]

^ a b Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1993). Ineffability: The Failure of Words in Philosophy and Religion. State University of New York Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-7914-1347-0. , Quote: "Krishna, god of love, (...)" ^ a b Edwin Bryant & Maria Ekstrand 2004, pp. 20–25, Quote: "Three Dimensions of Krishna's Divinity (...) divine majesty and supremacy; (...) divine tenderness and intimacy; (...) compassion and protection.; (..., p.24) Krishna
Krishna
as the God
God
of Love". ^ a b Bryant 2007, p. 114. ^ a b K. Klostermaier (1997). The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972–1984. Crotty, Robert B. Brill Academic Pub. p. 109. ISBN 90-04-07863-0. "(...) After attaining to fame eternal, he again took up his real nature as Brahman. The most important among Visnu's avataras is undoubtedly Krsna, the black one, also called Syama. For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but Svayam Bhagavan, the Lord himself.  ^ Raychaudhuri 1972, p. 124 ^ a b John Stratton Hawley, Donna Marie Wulff (1982). The Divine Consort: Rādhā and the Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 12. ISBN 9780895811028.  ^ a b c Bryant 2007, p. 443. ^ "Krishna". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Krishna". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online.  ^ Freda Matchett (2001). Krishna, Lord Or Avatara?. Psychology Press. p. 199. ISBN 9780700712816.  ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 314–315. ISBN 978-0823931798.  ^ Richard Thompson, Ph.D. (December 1994). "Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism". Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  ^ a b Mahony, W. K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions. American Oriental Society. 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381. , Quote: "Krsna's various appearances as a divine hero, alluring god child, cosmic prankster, perfect lover, and universal supreme being (...)". ^ Knott 2000, pp. 15, 36, 56 ^ a b Hein, Norvin (1986). "A Revolution in Kṛṣṇaism: The Cult of Gopāla". History of Religions. 25: 296–317. doi:10.1086/463051. JSTOR 1062622.  ^ a b Ravi Gupta and Kenneth Valpey (2013), The Bhagavata Purana, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149990, pages 185–200 ^ a b Bryant 2007, pp. 118. ^ a b ML Varadpande (1987), History of Indian Theatre, Vol 1, Abhinav, ISBN 978-8170172215, pages 98–99 ^ J. Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 330–331. ISBN 978-1-59884-205-0.  ^ Cynthia Packert (2010). The Art of Loving Krishna: Ornamentation and Devotion. Indiana University Press. pp. 5, 70–71, 181–187. ISBN 0-253-22198-6.  ^ Lavanya Vemsani (2016). Krishna
Krishna
in History, Thought, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-61069-211-3.  ^ Selengut, Charles (1996). "Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada
Prabhupada
and the Founding of ISKCON". ISKCON Communications Journal. 4 (2). Archived from the original on 10 July 2012.  ^ a b

Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (2008 revision) Apte Sanskrit-English Dictionary

^ Bryant 2007, p. 382 ^ Monier Monier Williams, Go-vinda, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
English Dictionary and Ettymology, Oxford University Press, p. 336, 3rd column ^ Bryant 2007, p. 17 ^ Hiltebeitel, Alf (2001). Rethinking the Mahābhārata: a reader's guide to the education of the dharma king. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 251–53, 256, 259. ISBN 0-226-34054-6.  ^ B. M. Misra. Orissa: Shri Krishna
Krishna
Jagannatha: the Mushali parva from Sarala's Mahabharata. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-514891-6.  ^ Bryant 2007, p. 139. ^ For the historic Jagannath
Jagannath
temple in Ranchi, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
see: Francis Bradley Bradley-Birt (1989). Chota Nagpur, a Little-known Province of the Empire. Asian Educational Services (Orig: 1903). pp. 61–64. ISBN 978-81-206-1287-7.  ^ T. Richard Blurton (1993). Hindu
Hindu
Art. Harvard University Press. pp. 133–134. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5.  ^ Guy, John (7 April 2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1-58839-524-5.  ^ [a] Cooler, Richard M. (1978). "Sculpture, Kingship, and the Triad of Phnom Da". Artibus Asiae. JSTOR. 40 (1): 29. doi:10.2307/3249812. JSTOR 3249812. ; [b] Bertrand Porte (2006), "La statue de Kṛṣṇa Govardhana du Phnom Da du Musée National de Phnom Penh." UDAYA, Journal of Khmer Studies, Volume 7, pages 199-205 ^ Vishvanatha, Cakravarti Thakura (2011). Sarartha-darsini (Bhanu Swami ed.). Sri Vaikunta Enterprises. p. 790. ISBN 978-81-89564-13-1.  ^ The Encyclopedia Americana. [s.l.]: Grolier. 1988. p. 589. ISBN 0-7172-0119-8.  ^ Benton, William (1974). The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 885. ISBN 9780852292907.  ^ Harle, J. C. (1994). The art and architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. p. 410. ISBN 0-300-06217-6. figure 327. Manaku, Radha's messenger describing Krishna
Krishna
standing with the cow-girls, gopi from Basohli.  ^ Diana L. Eck (1982). Banaras, City of Light. Columbia University Press. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-231-11447-9.  ^ Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu: Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-971825-2.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 210–212. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ a b John Stratton Hawley (2014). Krishna, The Butter
Butter
Thief. Princeton University Press. pp. 3–8. ISBN 978-1-4008-5540-7.  ^ Hoiberg, Dale; Ramchandani, Indu (2000). Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. p. 251. ISBN 9780852297605.  ^ Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
Satsvarupa dasa Goswami
(1998). "The Qualities of Sri Krsna". GNPress: 152 pages. ISBN 0-911233-64-4.  ^ Stuart Cary Welch (1985). India: Art and Culture, 1300–1900. Metropolitan Museum of Art,. p. 58. ISBN 0030061148.  ^ a b Vithoba
Vithoba
is not only viewed as a form of Krishna. He is also by some considered that of Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
and Gautama Buddha
Buddha
according to various traditions. See: Kelkar, Ashok R. (2001) [1992]. "Sri-Vitthal: Ek Mahasamanvay (Marathi) by R. C. Dhere". Encyclopaedia of Indian literature. 5. Sahitya Akademi. p. 4179. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  and Mokashi, Digambar Balkrishna; Engblom, Philip C. (1987). Palkhi: a pilgrimage to Pandharpur — translated from the Marathi book Pālakhī by Philip C. Engblom. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-88706-461-2.  ^ Tryna Lyons (2004). The Artists of Nathadwara: The Practice of Painting in Rajasthan. Indiana University Press. pp. 16–22. ISBN 0-253-34417-4.  ^ a b Official website of Nathdwara
Nathdwara
Temple of Shrinathji ^ Kunissery Ramakrishnier Vaidyanathan (1992). Sri Krishna, the Lord of Guruvayur. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. pp. 2–5.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 201–204. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1993). Elements of Hindu
Hindu
iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 204–208. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.  ^ Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(2008). "Britannica: Mahabharata". encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  ^ Maurice Winternitz (1981), History of Indian Literature, Vol. 1, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-0836408010, pages 426–431 ^ a b Max Müller, Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
3.16–3.17, The Upanishads, Part I, Oxford University Press, pages 50–53 with footnotes ^ Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand (2004), The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231122566, pages 33–34 with note 3 ^ Sandilya Bhakti
Bhakti
Sutra SS Rishi (Translator), Sree Gaudia Math (Madras) ^ WG Archer (2004), The Loves of Krishna
Krishna
in Indian Painting and Poetry, Dover, ISBN 978-0486433714, page 5 ^ a b Bryant 2007, p. 4 ^ Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya Krishna-cult in Indian Art. 1996 M. D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.128: Satha-patha-brahmana and Aitareya- Aranyaka
Aranyaka
with reference to first chapter. ^ [1] Archived 17 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Pâṇ. IV. 3. 98, Vâsudevârjunâbhyâm vun. See Bhandarkar, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Śaivism, p. 3 and J.R.A.S. 1910, p. 168. Sûtra 95, just above, appears to point to bhakti, faith or devotion, felt for this Vâsudeva. ^ a b c Bryant 2007, p. 5. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 5–6. ^ a b Bryant 2007, p. 6. ^ Hemacandra Abhidhânacintâmani, Ed. Boehtlingk and Rien, p. 128, and Barnett's translation of the Antagada Dasāo, pp. 13–15 and 67–82. ^ Osmund Bopearachchi, Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence, 2016. ^ a b c d Osmund Bopearachchi, 2016, Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence ^ Audouin, Rémy, and Paul Bernard, "Trésor de monnaies indiennes et indo-grecques d'Aï Khanoum (Afghanistan). II. Les monnaies indo-grecques." Revue numismatique 6, no. 16 (1974), pp. 6–41 (in French). ^ Nilakanth Purushottam Joshi, Iconography of Balarāma, Abhinav Publications, 1979, p. 22 ^ a b c F. R. Allchin; George Erdosy (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–310. ISBN 978-0-521-37695-2.  ^ L. A. Waddell (1914), Besnagar Pillar Inscription B Re-Interpreted, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, pp.  1031–1037 ^ Bryant 2007, p. 5 ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 73.  ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 265–267. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.  ^ Benjamín Preciado-Solís (1984). The Kṛṣṇa Cycle in the Purāṇas: Themes and Motifs in a Heroic Saga. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-89581-226-1.  ^ Richard Salomon (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-19-509984-3.  ^ a b Manohar Laxman Varadpande (1982). Krishna
Krishna
Theatre in India. Abhinav Publications. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-81-7017-151-5.  ^ Barnett, Lionel David (1922). Hindu
Hindu
Gods and Heroes: Studies in the History of the Religion of India. J. Murray. p. 93.  ^ Puri, B. N. (1968). India
India
in the Time of Patanjali. Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan. Page 51: The coins of Rajuvula have been recovered from the Sultanpur District...the Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura
Mathura
Museum, ^ Elkman, S. M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava
Vaisnava
Movement. Motilal Banarsidass.  ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 18, 49–53, 245–249. ^ Gregory Bailey (2003). Arvind Sharma, ed. The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7.  ^ Barbara Holdrege (2015), Bhakti
Bhakti
and Embodiment, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415670708, pp. 109–110 ^ Richard Thompson (2007), The Cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana 'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819191 ^ a b Bryant 2007, p. 112. ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 127–137. ^ Matchett 2001, p. 145. ^ The Poems of Sūradāsa. Abhinav publications. 1999.  ^ " Yashoda
Yashoda
and Krishna". Metmuseum.org. 2011-10-10. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2011-10-23.  ^ Sanghi, Ashwin (2012). The Krishna
Krishna
key. Chennai: Westland. p. Key7. ISBN 9789381626689. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ Lok Nath Soni (2000). The Cattle and the Stick: An Ethnographic Profile of the Raut of Chhattisgarh. Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture, Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture, 2000 Original from the University of Michigan. p. 16. ISBN 978-8185579573.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 124–130,224 ^ Lynne Gibson (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 503.  ^ Schweig, G. M. (2005). Dance of divine love: The Rasa Lila of Krishna
Krishna
from the Bhagavata Purana, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ; Oxford. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.  ^ Largen, Kristin Johnston. God
God
at Play: Seeing God
God
Through the Lens of the Young Krishna. Wiley-Blackwell. 1 September 2011. p. 256. ^ Largen, Kristin Johnston. God
God
at Play: Seeing God
God
Through the Lens of the Young Krishna. Wiley-Blackwell. 1 September 2011. p. 255. ^ Largen, Kristin Johnston. God
God
at Play: Seeing God
God
Through the Lens of the Young Krishna. Wiley-Blackwell. 1 September 2011. p. 253–261. ^ " Krishna
Krishna
Rajamannar with His Wives, Rukmini
Rukmini
and Satyabhama, and His Mount, Garuda
Garuda
LACMA Collections". collections.lacma.org. Retrieved 2014-09-23.  ^ Bryant 2007, p. 290 ^ Rao, Shanta Rameshwar (2005). Krishna. New Delhi: Orient Longman. p. 108. ISBN 9788125026969.  ^ D Dennis Hudson (27 August 2008). The Body of God : An Emperor's Palace for Krishna
Krishna
in Eighth-Century Kanchipuram: An Emperor's Palace for Krishna
Krishna
in Eighth-Century Kanchipuram. Oxford University Press. pp. 263–4. ISBN 978-0-19-970902-1. Retrieved 28 March 2013.  ^ D Dennis Hudson (27 August 2008). The Body of God : An Emperor's Palace for Krishna
Krishna
in Eighth-Century Kanchipuram: An Emperor's Palace for Krishna
Krishna
in Eighth-Century Kanchipuram. Oxford University Press. pp. 102–103, 263–273. ISBN 978-0-19-970902-1. Retrieved 28 March 2013.  ^ George Mason Williams (18 June 2008). Handbook of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 188, 222. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2. Retrieved 10 March 2013.  ^ John Stratton Hawley, Donna Marie Wulff (1982). The Divine Consort: Rādhā and the Goddesses of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publisher. p. 12. ISBN 9780895811028. , Quote: "The regional texts vary in the identity of Krishna's wife (consort), some presenting it as Rukmini, some as Radha, some as Svaminiji, some adding all gopis, and some identifying all to be different aspects or manifestation of one Devi
Devi
Lakshmi." ^ Rosen 2006, p. 136 ^ Krishna
Krishna
in the Bhagavad Gita, by Robert N. Minor in Bryant 2007, pp. 77–79 ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler (2012). The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-1-84519-520-5.  ^ Eknath Easwaran (2007). The Bhagavad Gita: (Classics of Indian Spirituality). Nilgiri Press. pp. 21–59. ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 148 ^ a b Diana L. Eck (2012). India: A Sacred Geography. Harmony. pp. 380–381. ISBN 978-0-385-53190-0. , Quote: " Krishna
Krishna
was shot through the foot, hand, and heart by the single arrow of a hunter named Jara. Krishna
Krishna
was reclining there, so they say, and Jara mistook his reddish foot for a deer and released his arrow. There Krishna
Krishna
died." ^ Mani, Vettam (1975). Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special
Special
Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 429. ISBN 0-8426-0822-2.  ^ Edwin Bryant (2003). Krishna: The Beautiful Legend of God: Srimad Bhagavata Purana. Penguin. pp. 417–418. ISBN 978-0-14-191337-7.  ^ Largen, Kristin Johnston (2011). Baby Krishna, Infant Christ: A Comparative Theology of Salvation. Orbis Books. p. 44. ISBN 1608330184.  ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 9–14, 145–149. ^ Benjamín Preciado-Solís (1984). The Kṛṣṇa Cycle in the Purāṇas: Themes and Motifs in a Heroic Saga. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-89581-226-1. , Quote: "Within a period of four or five centuries [around the start of the common era], we encounter our major sources of information, all in different versions. The Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Visnu Purana, the Ghata Jataka, and the Bala Carita all appear between the first and the fifth century AD, and each of them represents a tradition of a Krsna cycle different from the others". ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 145, 44–49, 63–64. ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 146, 89–104. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 18, 245–249. ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 146–147, 108–115. ^ Matchett 2001, pp. 145–149. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 138–149. ^ Knott, Kim (2000). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-285387-2.  ^ Vemsani, Lavanya (2016). Krishna
Krishna
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu
Hindu
Lord of Many Names: An Encyclopedia of the Hindu
Hindu
Lord of Many Names. ABC-CLIO. p. 212.  ^ Sangave 2001, p. 104. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 226. ^ Beck, Guy. Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu
Hindu
Deity. Suny Press. pp. 4–5.  ^ RC Hazra (1987), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu
Hindu
Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804227, pages 6–9 with footnotes. ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 115–121 with footnotes. ^ Dimmitt & van Buitenen 2012, p. 5. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 49-53. ^ a b Avril Ann Powell (2010). Scottish Orientalists and India: The Muir Brothers, Religion, Education and Empire. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 130, 128–134, 87–90. ISBN 978-1-84383-579-0.  ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pp=49-53 ^ RC Hazra (1987), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu
Hindu
Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804227, pages 6–9 with footnotes ^ Yves Bonnefoy and Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(1993), Asian Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226064567, pages 38–39 ^ a b Dominic Goodall (2009), Parākhyatantram, Vol 98, Publications de l'Institut Français d'Indologie, ISBN 978-2855396422, pages xvi–xvii ^ R Andriaensen et al (1994), "Towards a critical edition of the Skandapurana", Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 37, pages 325–331 ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 329–334 (Francis X Clooney). ^ Sharma; B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita
Dvaita
School of Vedānta and Its Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 514–516. ISBN 978-8120815759.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 358–365 (Deepak Sarma). ^ Tripurari, Swami. "The Life of Sri Jiva Goswami". Harmonist. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 373–378 (Satyanarayana Dasa). ^ Jindel, Rajendra (1976). Culture of a Sacred Town: A Sociological Study of Nathdwara. Popular Prakashan. pp. 34, 37. ISBN 9788171540402.  ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 479–480 (Richard Barz). ^ William R. Pinch (1996). "Soldier Monks and Militant Sadhus". In David Ludden. Contesting the Nation. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 148–150. ISBN 9780812215854.  ^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora, ISBN 978-1-4724-1913-2, page 105, Quote: "In other words, according to Adi Shankara's argument, the philosophy of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
stood over and above all other forms of Hinduism
Hinduism
and encapsulated them. This then united Hinduism; (...) Another of Adi Shankara's important undertakings which contributed to the unification of Hinduism
Hinduism
was his founding of a number of monastic centers." ^ Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia – India
India
(2000), Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica (UK) Publishing, ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5, page 379, Quote: "Shankaracharya, philosopher and theologian, most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
school of philosophy, from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived."; David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, page 1353, Quote: "[Shankara] is the most famous exponent of Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
and the source of the main currents of modern Hindu
Hindu
thought." ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu
Hindu
Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-10335-0, page 2, Quote: "The main current of Hinduism
Hinduism
– if not the only one – which became formalized in a way that approximates to an ecclesiastical structure was that of Shankara". ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 313–318 (Lance Nelson). ^ Sheridan 1986, pp. 1–2, 17–25. ^ Kumar Das 2006, pp. 172–173. ^ Brown 1983, pp. 553–557. ^ Tracy Pintchman (1994), The rise of the Goddess in the Hindu Tradition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791421123, pages 132–134 ^ Sheridan 1986, pp. 17–21. ^ John Stratton Hawley (2014). Krishna, The Butter
Butter
Thief. Princeton University Press. pp. 10, 170. ISBN 978-1-4008-5540-7.  ^ Krishna: Hindu
Hindu
Deity, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2015) ^ John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. pp. 210–215. ISBN 978-1-315-50740-8.  ^ Vaudeville, Ch. (1962). "Evolution of Love-Symbolism in Bhagavatism". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 82 (1): 31. doi:10.2307/595976. JSTOR 595976.  ^ John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. p. 210. ISBN 978-1-315-50740-8.  ^ a b c Juan Mascaró (1962). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin. pp. xxvi–xxviii. ISBN 978-0-14-044918-1.  ^ a b Georg Feuerstein; Brenda Feuerstein (2011). The Bhagavad-Gita: A New Translation. Shambhala Publications. pp. ix–xi. ISBN 978-1-59030-893-6.  ^ Nicholas F. Gier (2004). The Virtue of Nonviolence: From Gautama to Gandhi. State University of New York Press. pp. 36–40. ISBN 978-0-7914-5949-2.  ^ John Dowson (2003). Classical Dictionary of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Religion, Geography, History and Literature. Kessinger Publishing. p. 361. ISBN 0-7661-7589-8.  ^ See Beck, Guy, "Introduction" in Beck 2005, pp. 1–18 ^ Knott 2000, p. 55 ^ Flood 1996, p. 117. ^ a b See McDaniel, June, "Folk Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Ṭhākur Pañcāyat: Life and status among village Krishna
Krishna
statues" in Beck 2005, p. 39 ^ a b Kennedy, M. T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press.  ^ Indian Philosophy & Culture, Volume 20. Institute of Oriental Philosophy (Vrindāvan, India), Institute of Oriental Philosophy, Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Research Institute, contributors. The Institute. 1975. p. 148. On the touch-stone of this definition of the final and positive characteristic of Sri Krsna as the Highest Divinity as Svayam-rupa Bhagavan  ^ Delmonico, N., The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in Edwin Bryant & Maria Ekstrand 2004 ^ De, S. K. (1960). Bengal's contribution to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature & studies in Bengal Vaisnavism. KL Mukhopadhyaya. p. 113: "The Bengal School identifies the Bhagavat with Krishna
Krishna
depicted in the Shrimad-Bhagavata and presents him as its highest personal God." ^ Bryant 2007, p. 381 ^ "Vaishnava". encyclopedia. Division of Religion and Philosophy University of Cumbria. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2008. , University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008 ^ Graham M. Schweig (2005). Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna
Krishna
from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Front Matter. ISBN 0-691-11446-3.  ^ Bhattacharya, Gouriswar: Vanamala of Vasudeva-Krsna-Visnu and Sankarsana-Balarama. In: Vanamala. Festschrift A. J. Gail. Serta Adalberto Joanni Gail LXV. diem natalem celebranti ab amicis collegis discipulis dedicata. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2005). A Survey of Hinduism. State University of New York Press; 3 edition. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4. Present day Krishna
Krishna
worship is an amalgam of various elements. According to historical testimonies Krishna-Vasudeva worship already flourished in and around Mathura
Mathura
several centuries before Christ. A second important element is the cult of Krishna Govinda. Still later is the worship of Bala-Krishna, the Child Krishna—a quite prominent feature of modern Krishnaism. The last element seems to have been Krishna
Krishna
Gopijanavallabha, Krishna
Krishna
the lover of the Gopis, among whom Radha
Radha
occupies a special position. In some books Krishna
Krishna
is presented as the founder and first teacher of the Bhagavata religion.  ^ Basham, A. L. (May 1968). "Review: Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes. by Milton Singer; Daniel H. H. Ingalls". The Journal of Asian Studies. 27 (3): 667–670. JSTOR 2051211.  ^ Couture, André (2006). "The emergence of a group of four characters (Vasudeva, Samkarsana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha) in the Harivamsa: points for consideration". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 34 (6): 571–585. doi:10.1007/s10781-006-9009-x.  ^ a b Klostermaier, K. (1974). "The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 94 (1): 96–107. doi:10.2307/599733. JSTOR 599733.  ^ Jacobsen, Knut A., ed. (2005). Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 351. ISBN 90-04-14757-8.  ^ Christopher Key Chapple (Editor) and Winthrop Sargeant (Translator), The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifth–Anniversary Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438428420, pages 302–303, 318 ^ Vaudeville, C. (1962). "Evolution of Love-Symbolism in Bhagavatism". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 82 (1): 31–40. doi:10.2307/595976. JSTOR 595976.  ^ Bowen, Paul (1998). Themes and issues in Hinduism. London: Cassell. pp. 64–65. ISBN 0-304-33851-6.  ^ Radhakrisnasarma, C. (1975). Landmarks in Telugu Literature: A Short Survey of Telugu Literature. Lakshminarayana Granthamala.  ^ Sisir Kumar Das (2005). A History of Indian Literature, 500–1399: From Courtly to the Popular. Sahitya Akademi. p. 49. ISBN 81-260-2171-3.  ^ Schomer & McLeod (1987), pp. 1–2 ^ Nimbarka, Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ "Thiruppavai". Ibiblio. Retrieved 2013-05-24.  ^ Desika, Vedanta. " Gopala Vimshati". Ibiblio, Sripedia. Retrieved 2013-05-23.  ^ Jaganathan, Maithily (2005). "Sri Krishna
Krishna
Jayanti". South Indian Hindu festivals
Hindu festivals
and traditions (1st ed.). New Delhi: Abhinav Publication. pp. 104–105. ISBN 81-7017-415-5.  ^ Bryant 2013, p. 42. ^ Alanna Kaivalya (2014), Sacred Sound: Discovering the Myth and Meaning of Mantra and Kirtan, New World, ISBN 978-1608682430, pages 153–154 ^ Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
— He Built a House in which the whole world can live in peace, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1984, ISBN 0-89213-133-0 page xv ^ a b c Charles Brooks (1989), The Hare Krishnas in India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-8120809390, pages 83–85 ^ Peter Lavezzoli (2006), The Dawn of Indian Music in the West, Continuum, ISBN 0-8264-2819-3, page 195 ^ Peter Clarke (2005), Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415267076, page 308 Quote: "There they captured the imagination of The Beatles, particularly George Harrison who helped them produce a chart topping record of the Hare Krishna mantra (1969) and ...". ^ Brian A. Hatcher (5 October 2015). Hinduism
Hinduism
in the Modern World. Routledge. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-1-135-04631-6.  ^ a b c John Guy (2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 17, 146–148. ISBN 978-1-58839-524-5.  ^ Anne-Valérie Schweyer; Paisarn Piemmettawat (2011). Viêt Nam ancien: histoire arts archéologie. Editions Olizane. p. 388. ISBN 978-2-88086-396-8.  ^ a b Marijke J. Klokke 2000, pp. 19–23. ^ J Fontein (1997). Nataskha Eilenberg; et al., eds. Living a life in accord with Dhamma: papers in honor of professor Jean Boisselier on his eightieth birthday. Silpakorn University. pp. 191–204. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Triguṇa (Mpu.); Suwito Santoso (1986). Krĕṣṇāyana: The Krĕṣṇa Legend in Indonesia. IAIC. OCLC 15488486.  ^ Marijke J. Klokke 2000, pp. 19–23, for reliefs details see 24–41. ^ John Guy; Pierre Baptiste; Lawrence Becker; et al. (2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Yale University Press. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-0-300-20437-7. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Beck 1993, pp. 107–108. ^ PV Kane, History of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Poetics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120802742 (2015 Reprint), pages 10–41 ^ Varadpande 1987, pp. 92–94. ^ Vemsani, Lavanya (2016). "Music and Krishna". Krishna
Krishna
in history thought and culture. California: ABC-Clio LLC. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-1-61069-210-6.  ^ Graham Schweig ( 2007), Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions (Editor: Yudit Kornberg Greenberg), Volume 1, ISBN 978-1851099801, pages 247–249 ^ Varadpande 1987, pp. 95–97. ^ Varadpande 1987, p. 98. ^ Zarrilli, P. B. (2000). Kathakali
Kathakali
Dance-Drama: Where Gods and Demons Come to Play. Routledge. p. 246.  ^ Jaini, P. S. (1993), Jaina Puranas: A Puranic Counter Tradition, ISBN 978-0-7914-1381-4  ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 26. ^ See Jerome H. Bauer "Hero of Wonders, Hero in Deeds: "Vasudeva Krishna
Krishna
in Jaina Cosmohistory" in Beck 2005, pp. 167–169 ^ Cort, J. E. (1993), Wendy Doniger, ed., An Overview of the Jaina Puranas, in Purana Perennis, pp. 220–233, ISBN 9781438401362  ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 316–318. ISBN 978-81-208-1376-2.  ^ a b Cort, J. E. (1993), Wendy Doniger, ed., An Overview of the Jaina Puranas, in Purana Perennis, p. 191, ISBN 9781438401362  ^ Jeffery D. Long (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. I. B. Tauris. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5.  ^ "Andhakavenhu Puttaa". www.vipassana.info. Retrieved 2008-06-15.  ^ a b Law, B. C. (1941). India
India
as Described in Early Texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Luzac. pp. 99–101.  ^ Jaiswal, S. (1974). "Historical Evolution of the Ram Legend". Social Scientist. 21 (3–4): 89–97. JSTOR 3517633.  ^ G.P. Malalasekera (2003). Dictionary of Pali Proper Names. Asian Educational Services. p. 439. ISBN 978-81-206-1823-7.  ^ a b H. T. Francis; E. J. Thomas (1916). Jataka
Jataka
Tales. Cambridge University Press (Reprinted: 2014). pp. 314–324. ISBN 978-1-107-41851-6.  ^ Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera (2007). Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 825–826. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.  ^ a b E.B. Cowell; WHD Rouse (1901). The Jātaka: Or, Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. Cambridge University Press. p. 57.  ^ Daniel E Bassuk (1987). Incarnation in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Christianity: The Myth of the God-Man. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-349-08642-9.  ^ Edward Geoffrey Parrinder (1997). Avatar
Avatar
and Incarnation: The Divine in Human Form in the World's Religions. Oxford: Oneworld. pp. 19–24, 35–38, 75–78, 130–133. ISBN 978-1-85168-130-3.  ^ Guth, C. M. E. "Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Spring, 1987 ), pp. 1–23". 42: 1–23. JSTOR 2385037.  ^ http://www.info-sikh.com/VVPage1.html ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Manifestations of God". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 231. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 2. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.  ^ Siddiq & Ahmad (1995), Enforced Apostasy: Zaheeruddin v. State and the Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
Community in Pakistan, Law & Inequality, Volume 14, pp. 275–324 ^ Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 6–8. ISBN 978-1-59884-659-1.  ^ Burhani A. N. (2013), Treating minorities with fatwas: a study of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
community in Indonesia, Contemporary Islam, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp. 285–301 ^ Cormack, Margaret (2013). Muslims and Others in Sacred Space. Oxford University Press. pp. 104–105.  ^ Harvey, D. A. (2003). "Beyond Enlightenment: Occultism, Politics, and Culture in France from the Old Regime to the Fin-de-Siècle". The Historian. Blackwell Publishing. 65 (3): 665–694. doi:10.1111/1540-6563.00035.  ^ Schure, Edouard (1992). Great Initiates: A Study of the Secret History of Religions. Garber Communications. ISBN 0-89345-228-9.  ^ See for example: Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996). New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought. Brill Publishers. p. 390. ISBN 90-04-10696-0. , Hammer, Olav (2004). Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. Brill Publishers. pp. 62, 174. ISBN 90-04-13638-X. , and Ellwood, Robert S. (1986). Theosophy: A Modern Expression of the Wisdom of the Ages. Quest Books. p. 139. ISBN 0-8356-0607-4.  ^ Crowley associated Krishna
Krishna
with Roman god Dionysus
Dionysus
and Magickal formulae IAO, AUM and INRI. See Crowley, Aleister (1991). Liber Aleph. Weiser Books. p. 71. ISBN 0-87728-729-5.  and Crowley, Aleister (1980). The Book of Lies. Red Wheels. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-87728-516-0.  ^ Apiryon, Tau; Apiryon (1995). Mystery of Mystery: A Primer of Thelemic Ecclesiastical Gnosticism. Berkeley: Red Flame. ISBN 0-9712376-1-1. 

Bibliography[edit]

Doniger, Wendy (1993). Purana Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0.  Beck, Guy L. (1993), Sonic theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and sacred sound, Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 0-87249-855-7  Brown, C. Mackenzie (1983). "The Origin and Transmission of the Two "Bhāgavata Purāṇas": A Canonical and Theological Dilemma". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 51 (4): 551–567. doi:10.1093/jaarel/li.4.551. JSTOR 1462581.  Edwin Bryant; Maria Ekstrand (2004). The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50843-8.  Bryant, Edwin F. (2004). Krishna: the beautiful legend of God. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044799-7.  Bryant, Edwin F. (2007), Krishna: A Sourcebook, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-19-514891-6  Bryant, Edwin Francis, Maria Ekstrand (2013). The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50843-8.  Dimmitt, Cornelia; van Buitenen, J. A. B. (2012). Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas. Temple University Press (1st Edition: 1977). ISBN 978-1-4399-0464-0.  Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6  The Mahabharata
Mahabharata
of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published between 1883 and 1896 The Vishnu-Purana, translated by H. H. Wilson, (1840) The Srimad Bhagavatam, translated by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, (1988) copyright Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Knott, Kim (2000), Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, USA, p. 160, ISBN 0-19-285387-2  The Jataka
Jataka
or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births, edited by E. B. Cowell, (1895) Zimmer, Heinrich (1953) [April 1952], Campbell, Joseph, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge
Routledge
& Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6  Ekstrand, Maria (2004). Bryant, Edwin H., ed. The Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X.  Matchett, Freda (2001). Kṛṣṇa, Lord or Avatāra?. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-1281-6.  Sangave, Vilas Adinath (2001), Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture, Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, ISBN 978-81-7154-839-2  Gaurangapada, Swami. "Sixty-four qualities of Sri Krishna". Nitaaiveda. Nitaiiveda. Retrieved 2013-05-24.  Goswami, S. D. (1995). "The Qualities of Sri Krsna". GNPress. ISBN 0-911233-64-4. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.  Garuda
Garuda
Pillar of Besnagar, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908–1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129. Flood, Galvin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0  Beck, Guy L. (Ed.) (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu
Hindu
Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6415-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Marijke J. Klokke (2000). Narrative Sculpture and Literary Traditions in South and Southeast Asia. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-11865-9.  Kumar Das, Sisir (2006). A history of Indian literature, 500–1399. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Rosen, Steven (2006). Essential Hinduism. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-99006-0.  Schomer, Karine; McLeod, W. H., eds. (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120802773  Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0179-2.  Sutton, Nicholas (2000). Religious doctrines in the Mahābhārata. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.,. p. 477. ISBN 81-208-1700-1.  Valpey, Kenneth R. (2006). Attending Kṛṣṇa's image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-38394-3.  History of Indian Theatre By M. L. Varadpande. Chapter Theatre of Krishna, pp. 231–94. Published 1991, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-278-0. Varadpande, Manohar Laxman (1987). History of Indian theatre. vol. 3. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 81-7017-221-7. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutKrishnaat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Krishna
Krishna
at Encyclopædia Britannica Krishnalila in Terracotta Temples The Legends of Krishna, W. Crooke (1900), Folklore Bathing in Krishna: A Study in Vaiṣṇava Hindu
Hindu
Theology, Dennis Hudson (1980), The Harvard Theological Review Krishna, Christians, and Colors: The Socially Binding Influence of Kirtan Singing at a Utah Hare Krishna
Krishna
Festival, Sara Black Brown (2014), Ethnomusicology Krishna
Krishna
temple and Palace of Gold, New Vrindaban, West Virginia, USA Krishna Janmashtami
Krishna Janmashtami
Celebration in [Nathdwara]

v t e

Krishna

Forms

Radha
Radha
Krishna Govinda Bala Krishna Jagannath Vithoba Shrinathji Other names

Worship

Krishnaism Vaishnavism Krishna
Krishna
Janmashtami Holi

Holy sites

Dvārakā Mathura Vrindavan Gokul Govardhan Hill Puri Udupi Guruvayur Nathdwara Gupta Vrindavan Dakor

Texts

Bhagavata Purana Bhagavad Gita Gita Govinda Mahabharata Brahma
Brahma
Samhita Uddhava Gita

See also

Hinduism Avatar Svayam Bhagavan Vishnu Radha Rukmini Satyabhama

v t e

Avatars of Vishnu

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parashurama Rama Balarama1 Krishna1 Buddha1 Kalki

Other avatars

Four Kumaras Narada Nara-Narayana Kapila Dattatreya Yajna Rishabha Prithu Dhanvantari Mohini Vyasa Prsnigarbha Hayagriva Hamsa

1 The list of ten avatars varies regionally. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna
Krishna
and Buddha
Buddha
is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna
Krishna
is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the source of all avatars.

v t e

Mahabharata

Books (parvas)

Adi Sabha Vana Virata Udyoga Bhishma Drona Karna Shalya Sauptika Stri Shanti Anushasana Ashvamedhika Ashramavasika Mausala Mahaprasthanika Svargarohana Harivamsa

Kuru Kingdom

Shantanu Ganga Bhishma Satyavati Chitrāngada Vichitravirya Ambika Ambalika Vidura Dhritarashtra Gandhari Pandu Kunti Madri Pandavas

Yudhisthira Bhima Arjuna Nakula Sahadeva

Draupadi Kauravas

Duryodhana Dushasana Vikarna Yuyutsu Dushala

Hidimbi Ghatotkacha Ahilawati Subhadra Uttarā Ulupi Chitrāngadā Abhimanyu Iravan Babruvahana Barbarika Upapandavas Parikshit Janamejaya

Other characters

Amba Ashwatthama Balarama Bhagadatta Brihannala Chekitana Chitrasena Dhrishtadyumna Drona Drupada Durvasa Ekalavya Hidimba Jarasandha Jayadratha Kali
Kali
(demon) Karna Kichaka Kindama Kripa Krishna Kritavarma Mayasura Sanjaya Satyaki Shakuni Shalya Shikhandi Shishupala Bahlika Sudeshna Uttara Kumara Virata Vrishasena Vyasa

Related articles

Avatars Hastinapur Indraprastha Kingdoms Kurukshetra War Bhagavad Gita Vedic-Puranic chronology

Category

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
Shastra Dharma
Dharma
Shastra

Manusmriti Nāradasmṛti Yājñavalkya Smṛti

Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

Hindutva

Persecution Pilgrimage sites Glossary Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69724416 LCCN: no2015096049 GND: 118724479

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Hindu
Hindu
mythology portal Indian religions p

.