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Krefeld
Krefeld
(German pronunciation: [ˈkʁeːfɛlt] ( listen)), also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the river Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen
Uerdingen
is situated directly on the Rhine. Krefeld
Krefeld
is accessed by the autobahns A57 (Cologne–Nijmegen) and the A44 (Aachen–Düsseldorf–Dortmund–Kassel). Krefeld
Krefeld
is also called the "Velvet and Silk City". Krefeld's residents speak Hochdeutsch, or standard German, but the native dialect is a Low German
Low German
variety, sometimes locally called Krefelder Plattdeutsch, Krieewelsch Platt, Plattdeutsch, or sometimes simply Platt. The Uerdingen
Uerdingen
line isogloss, separating general dialectical areas in Germany
Germany
and neighbouring Germanic-speaking countries, runs through and is named after Krefeld's Uerdingen district, originally an independent municipality.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The Jews of Krefeld

2 Points of interest 3 Districts 4 Incorporations 5 Historical population of Krefeld 6 Mayors of Krefeld
Krefeld
from 1848 7 City counsellors 1946 until 1999 8 Transport 9 Economy 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

11 Notable natives 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Records first mention Krefeld
Krefeld
in 1105 under the name of Krinvelde. Uerdingen, In February 1598, Walburga, wife of Adolf van Nieuwenaar, and last Countess of Limburg and Moers, gifted the County of Moers, which included Krefeld, to Maurice, Prince of Orange. After her death in 1600, John William of Cleves took possession of these lands, but Maurice successfully defended his heritage in 1601. Krefeld
Krefeld
and Moers would remain under the jurisdiction of the House of Orange
House of Orange
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
during the Dutch Golden Age.[2] The growth of the town began in that century, partially because Krefeld
Krefeld
was one of few towns spared the horrors of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648). The town of Uerdingen, incorporated into Krefeld
Krefeld
in the 20th century, was less fortunate, almost ceasing to exist, destroyed at the hands of troops from Hesse
Hesse
during the Thirty Years' War. In 1683 a group of thirteen Mennonite
Mennonite
families left Krefeld
Krefeld
to re-settle in Pennsylvania in order to enjoy religious freedom. They crossed the Atlantic on the ship Concord,[3] and founded the settlement of Germantown (now incorporated in Philadelphia), thus beginning the Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch
ethnic identity. After the death of William III of Orange in 1702, Krefeld
Krefeld
passed to the Kingdom of Prussia.[2] The Battle of Krefeld
Battle of Krefeld
occurred nearby in 1758 during the Seven Years' War. Krefeld
Krefeld
and Uerdingen
Uerdingen
were included within the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
in 1815 (after 1822 the Rhine
Rhine
Province). In 1872 Krefeld
Krefeld
became an independent city within Rhenish Prussia. In 1918 during the First World Warthe Belgian Army used it as a base during the occupation of the Rhineland. In 1929 Krefeld
Krefeld
and Uerdingen
Uerdingen
merged to form Krefeld-Uerdingen; in 1940 the name was shortened to simply Krefeld. On December 11, 1941, during World War II, a detailed report on the transport of Jews from Krefeld
Krefeld
and its surroundings listed 1007 Jews from Krefeld
Krefeld
and Duisburg, were deported to the Šķirotava Railway Station near Riga, later to become Jungfernhof concentration camp. They were transported in freezing conditions with no drinking-water for more than two days.[4] Almost immediately upon arrival these Jews were shot in the Rumbula forest massacre.[5] On 21 June 1943 British bombs destroyed large parts of east of the city; a firestorm consumed most of the city center (apart from the central train station, which remained intact apart from minor damage). On 3 March 1945 US troops entered Krefeld, among them the later U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.[citation needed] The town became part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
after World War II. The Jews of Krefeld[edit] Jews were listed as citizens of Krefeld
Krefeld
from 1617. In 1764 a synagogue was erected, and by 1812, under French rule, the town included 196 Jewish families, with three Jewish-owned banks. Under Napoleon, the town became the capital for the surrounding Jewish communities including over 5000 Jews, and by 1897 they comprised 1.8% of the population.[6] In 1846 a Jewish representative was voted onto the town's municipal council, while rising antisemitism was noted during these elections.[6] A reform synagogue was built in 1876, arousing opposition from the Orthodox community. A Jewish school existed in the town, with more than 200 students around 1900.[6] In November 1938 during Kristallnacht, the two synagogues were attacked.[citation needed] In 1941 following an order from Hitler
Hitler
to deport the German Jews to the east, Jews from the town were sent to the area around Riga[4][6] and murdered there.[5] In 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the city and placed Henry Kissinger, then an Army private and later Secretary of State of the United States, in charge of the city administration.[7] In 2008 a new synagogue, library and Jewish cultural center were erected on the location of one of the demolished synagogues. Around 1100 Jews were reported to live in and around Krefeld
Krefeld
at the time.[8] Points of interest[edit]

Castle of Linn (German) Botanischer Garten Krefeld, a municipal botanical garden Lange and Esters Houses, neighbouring houses by early Mies van der Rohe, now serving as local contemporary art museum venues[9] Kaiser Wilhelm Museum,[10] contemporary art museum Zoo Krefeld Galopprennbahn Krefeld, horse racing track

Districts[edit]

There are a number of districts in Krefeld. Each has a municipal representative, with representatives chosen by local elections. The districts are:

010 Stadtmitte 020 Kempener Feld/Baackeshof 030 Inrath/Kliedbruch 040 Cracau 050 Dießem/Lehmheide 060 Benrad-Süd 070 Forstwald 080 Benrad-Nord 090 Hülser Berg 100 Traar, pop: about 5,000, postal code: 47802 110 Verberg 120 Gartenstadt 130 Bockum, pop: about 21.903, elevation: 35 m, postal code: 47800 (old: 4150 Krefeld
Krefeld
1) 140 Linn

Linn, with its own history reaching to between 1090 and 1120, was situated on the banks of the Rhine. In Linn, there is a park built around a Wasserburg, a castle built at the water's edge, and with a water-filled moat. The Burg Linn, as the castle is known, has been preserved for the city's residents as a park and museum.[11]

150 Gellep-Stratum 160 Oppum 170 Fischeln 180 Uerdingen, pop: about 18,507, elevation: 31 m, postal code: 47829 190 Hüls

Incorporations[edit] Cities and places that were incorporated into Krefeld:

1901: Linn ( Stadtrecht
Stadtrecht
since 1314) 1907: Bockum, Verberg und Oppum (all mayoralty Bockum) 1929:

Krefeld
Krefeld
became an independent city Uerdingen, Krefeld
Krefeld
(received municipal law in 1255/1344, added Hohenbudberg in today's Duisburg
Duisburg
district Friemersheim) Fischeln, Krefeld
Krefeld
district Traar, Krefeld
Krefeld
district Gellep and Stratum (in Lank), Krefeld
Krefeld
district Forstwald (Vorst), Krefeld
Krefeld
district Benrad und Hülserberg (Hüls), Kempen

1975: Locality of Hüls
Hüls
from Kempen (since 1970 integrated and belonged since 1929 to the Kempen- Krefeld
Krefeld
district; in 1936 Orbroich had been independent)

Historical population of Krefeld[edit]

Year Population

1604 350

1722 1,499

1787 7,896

1830 18,511

1871 57,105

1875 ¹ 62,905

1880 73,872

1 December 1890 ¹ 105,376

2 December 1895 ¹ 107,245

1 December 1900 ¹ 106,928

1 December 1905 ¹ 110,344

1 December 1910 ¹ 129,406

8 October 1919 ¹ 124,325

Year Population

16 June 1925 ¹ 131,098

16 June 1933 ¹ 165,305

17 May 1939 ¹ 170,968

13 September 1950 ¹ 171,875

6 June 1961 ¹ 213,104

31 December 1970 222,700

30 June 1975 230,500

30 June 1980 223,400

30 June 1985 217,000

1 January 1989 235,423

30 June 1997 246,800

31 December 2003 238,565

31 December 2007 240,648

¹ Census data Largest migrant communities in Krefeld
Krefeld
are :

 Turkey 9,399

 Syria 2,187

 Poland 2,023

 Italy 1,347

Mayors of Krefeld
Krefeld
from 1848[edit] [citation needed]

1848–1872: Ludwig Heinrich Ondereyck 1872–1881: Friedrich Christian Roos 1882–1903: Ernst Küper 1903–1905: Wilhelm Hammerschmidt 1905–1911: Adalbert Oehler 1911–1930: Johannes Johansen 1945–1946: Johannes Stepkes 1946–1947: Wilhelm Warsch 1947–1949: Hermann Passen 1949–1951: Hanns Müller (FDP) 1951–1956: Johannes Hauser (CDU) 1956–1961: Josef Hellenbrock (SPD) 1961–1968: Herbert van Hüllen (CDU) 1968–1982: Hansheinz Hauser (CDU) 1982–1989: Dieter Pützhofen, first term in office (CDU) 1989–1994: Willi Wahl (SPD) 1994–2004: Dieter Pützhofen, second term in office (CDU) 2004–2015: Gregor Kathstede (CDU) 2015–present: Frank Meyer (SPD)

City counsellors 1946 until 1999[edit]

1946–1949: Johan Stepkes 1949–1964: Bernhard Heun 1964–1986: Hermann Steffens 1986–1988: Alfred Dahlmann 1988–1999: Heinz-Josef Vogt

Transport[edit]

Bundesautobahn 44
Bundesautobahn 44
towards Düsseldorf

Krefeld
Krefeld
is connected to the Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
network with several stations, including its main station, Krefeld
Krefeld
Hauptbahnhof. They are served by Intercity, Regional-Express
Regional-Express
and Regionalbahn
Regionalbahn
trains. The Düsseldorf-based Rheinbahn
Rheinbahn
operates a Stadtbahn
Stadtbahn
service to the centrally located Rheinstraße stop. This line was the first electric inter-city rail line in Europe, established in 1898, and commonly called the K-Bahn because of the letter "K" used to denote the trains to Krefeld. Nowadays, in the VRR notation, it is called U76, with the morning and afternoon express trains numbered as U70, the line number there coloured red instead of the usual blue used for U-Bahn lines. The term K-Bahn, however, prevails in common usage. The city of Krefeld
Krefeld
itself operates four tramway and several bus lines under the umbrella of SWK MOBIL, a city-owned company. Since 2010, 19 of the oldest trams of the type DUEWAG
DUEWAG
GT8 were replaced by modern barrier-free trams of the type Bombardier Flexity Outlook. SWK Mobil owns an option to buy another 19 trams of the same type to replace the last 19 DUEWAG
DUEWAG
M8 trams. The whole tram fleet will then be barrier-free. Next to that the city plans to extend the line 044 in Krefeld- Hüls
Hüls
to connect the northern district of Hüls
Hüls
with the Krefeld
Krefeld
downtown area. Economy[edit] The headquarters of Fressnapf, a pet food retailer franchise company, are situated in Krefeld. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Since 1964,[12] the city has hosted an "honors program in foreign language (German) studies" for high school students from Indiana, United States. The program annually places approximately thirty carefully selected high school juniors with families in and around Krefeld
Krefeld
for intensive German language training.[13] Since 1973, the fire services of Krefeld
Krefeld
and twin city Leicester
Leicester
have played each other in an annual 'friendly' football match.[14] Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Krefeld
Krefeld
is twinned with:

Country

City

County/District/ Region/State Date

Netherlands

Venlo

Limburg 1964

England

Leicester

Leicestershire 1969

France

Dunkirk

Nord 1974

Netherlands

Leiden

South Holland 1974

United States

Charlotte

North Carolina 1986

Germany

Beeskow

Brandenburg 1990

Russia

Ulyanovsk

Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Oblast 1993

Turkey

Kayseri

Kayseri
Kayseri
Province 2009

Notable natives[edit] Scientists:

Charlotte
Charlotte
Auerbach (1899–1994), genetic scientist, born here Rudi Dornbusch
Rudi Dornbusch
(1 December, 8 June 1942 – 25 July 2002), economist Max Zorn (6 June 1906 – 9 March 1993 in Bloomington, Indiana), mathematician Leopold Löwenheim, (1878–1957), German logician

Writers, poets and journalists:

Bernhard Hennen
Bernhard Hennen
(born in 1966), German best-seller writer of fantasy literature Kurt Feltz (14 April 1910 – 3 August 1982 in Majorca), poet Werner Ross (1912 in Uerdingen
Uerdingen
– 2002), German writer Otto Brües (1 May 1897 – 18 April 1967), journalist Bodo Hauser (1946-2004), journalist and writer Margarethe Schreinemakers
Margarethe Schreinemakers
(1958), German television presenter and journalist

Musicians:

Silent Force, prog/classical "epic" rock band Blind Guardian, popular German heavy metal band Saki Kaskas, video game music composer Everon, German progressive metal band Ralf Hütter
Ralf Hütter
(20 August 1946), lead singer of electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk Aquagen, popular German trance and eurodance artists Heinrich Band (1821–1860) Andrea Berg, (born 1966), popular German singer Cosmic Gate, popular German trance duo

Artists:

Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
(12 May 1921 – 1986), artist Heinrich Campendonk
Heinrich Campendonk
(3 November 1889 – 9 May 1957 in Amsterdam) Albert Oehlen, artist Markus Oehlen, artist Marc Margielsky, artist

Aviators:

Felix Kracht (1912–2002), aerospace engineer, an Airbus
Airbus
pioneer and former Senior Vice President Werner Voss
Werner Voss
(13 April 1897 – 23 September 1917), German World War I aviator Emil Schäfer
Emil Schäfer
(17 December 1891 – 5 June 1917), German World War I aviator

Athletes:

Martin Hyun, German and U.S. hockey player Frank Schwinghammer, a German and Canadian hockey player Philip Hindes, a British sprint cyclist

Knights Cross Holder:

Heinz Harmel
Heinz Harmel
(1906 - 2000)

Other:

Carl Josef Kleingrothe (1864–1925), photographer in Medan, Sumatra. Thierry Hermès, German-born French businessman and founder of Hermès (1801–1878)

References[edit]

^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.  ^ a b Ada Peele, Een uitzonderlijke erfgenaam: De verdeling van de nalatenschap van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, Uitgeverij Verloren, 2013, Germany, pp. 36-39. ^ Germantown Historical Society: Founders of Germantown; Jones, Iris Carter: Krefeld
Krefeld
Immigrants ^ a b Report on Jewish Deportation to Riga
Riga
(Hebrew Translation of German document by Yad Vashem) , ^ a b (German) Gottwald, Fred, and Schulle, Diana: Die „Judendeportationen“ aus dem Deutschen Reich 1941–1945. (The Jewish deportations by the German Empire from 1941 to 1945.) Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-86539-059-5, p.121 I heard that the Jews were evacuated in rows - and as they left the train - they were shot" (Victor Klemperer, diary entry of January 13, 1942) ^ a b c d Jews of Krefeld
Krefeld
Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
website. Town citizen Isaac Meyer Fuld, a member of the family of Heinrich Heine, was a prominent bank-owner in Germany
Germany
at the time. ^ Walter Isaacson, Kissinger: A Biography, p.48. ^ New synagogue opens in Krefeld
Krefeld
(English, Deutsche Welle website) ^ "Kunstmuseen Krefeld". www.kunstmuseenkrefeld.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "Kunstmuseen Krefeld". www.kunstmuseenkrefeld.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "Herzlich willkommen im Museumszentrum Burg Linn! Besuchen Sie unser Museum". www.archaeologie-krefeld.de. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "History of IUHPFL: About Our Office: Indiana
Indiana
University Honors Program in Foreign Languages for High School Students: Indiana University". www.iu.edu. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ "404 Page Not Found: Error: Indiana
Indiana
University Honors Program in Foreign Languages for High School Students: Indiana
Indiana
University". www.indiana.edu. Retrieved 18 March 2018.  ^ Brown, Tom (31 July 2013). "Twin towns: Do we still need them?". BBC East Midlands Today. BBC News. Retrieved 2013-08-07. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Krefeld
Krefeld
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Crefeld.

(in German) Official city website Krefeld-Linner Flachsmarkt Krefeld
Krefeld
Ice hockey team KFC Uerdingen Stadttheater Krefeld

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Bottrop Dortmund Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Gelsenkirchen Hagen Hamm Herne Köln (Cologne) Krefeld Leverkusen Mönchengladbach Mülheim Münster Oberhausen Remscheid Solingen Wuppertal

Rural districts

Aachen Borken Coesfeld Düren Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Euskirchen Gütersloh Heinsberg Herford Hochsauerlandkreis Höxter Kleve (Cleves) Lippe Märkischer Kreis Mettmann Minden-Lübbecke Oberbergischer Kreis Olpe Paderborn Recklinghausen Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Rhein-Erft-Kreis Rhein-Kreis Neuss Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Soest Steinfurt Unna Viersen Warendorf Wesel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137750346 GND: 4032952-5 BNF:

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