Krai (Russian: Краснода́рский край, tr.
Krasnodarsky kray, IPA: [krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal
Russia (a krai), located in the
North Caucasus region in
Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal
District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. The
third most-populous federal subject, the krai had a population
of 5,226,647 as of the 2010 Census.
Krai is formally and informally referred to as Kuban, a term
denoting a historical region of the same name between the Black Sea
Kuban River which is mostly composed of the krai's territory.
It is bordered by
Rostov Oblast to the north, Stavropol
Krai to the
Karachay-Cherkessia to the south-east, and
Adygea is an enclave
entirely within the krai.
Krai shares an international
border with Georgia to the south, and a disputed border with Crimea
across the Kerch Strait.
The northern part of the krai belongs to the Don Steppe, while
Mediterranean climate has made it a popular tourist
Novorossiysk is Russia's main port on the Black Sea, one of
the few cities awarded the title of the Hero City, and
Sochi was host
XXII Olympic Winter Games in 2014.
Krai is home to
significant infrastructure of the Russian Navy's
Black Sea Fleet.
4 Administrative divisions
7 2012 floods
8 See also
10 External links
Krai is located in the southwestern part of the North
Caucasus and borders with
Rostov Oblast in the northeast, Stavropol
Karachay-Cherkessia in the east, and with the
(internationally recognized as part of Georgia) in the south. The
Adygea is completely encircled by the krai territory. The
Taman Peninsula is situated between the
Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov in the
north and the
Black Sea in the south. In the west, the Kerch
Strait separates the krai from the contested Crimean Peninsula,
internationally recognised as part of
Ukraine but under de facto
Russian control. At its widest extent, the krai stretches for 327
kilometers (203 mi) from north to south and for 360 kilometers
(220 mi) from east to west.
The krai is split into two distinct parts by the
Kuban River, which
gave its name to this entire geographic region. The southern,
seaward part is the western extremity of the
Caucasus range, lying
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion; the
climate is Mediterranean or, in the southeast, subtropical. The
northern part is a steppe zone which shares continental climate
A hilly landscape near Goryachy Klyuch
The height of the mountains exceeds 3,000 meters (9,800 ft), with
Mount Tsakhvoa being the highest at 3,346 meters (10,978 ft).
Mount Fisht, at 2,867 meters (9,406 ft), is the Great Caucasus'
westernmost peak with a glacier.
Mount Tsakhvoa is the highest peak in
Black Sea coast stretches from the
Kerch Strait to Adler and is
Caucasus Mountains from the cold northern winds.
Numerous small mountain rivers flow in the coastal areas, often
creating picturesque waterfalls.
Lake Abrau, located in the wine-making region of Abrau-Dyurso, is the
largest lake in the northeastern
Lake Ritsa is
considered to be one of the most picturesque lakes in the region and
"the diamond of Caucasus"; it is located in an intermountain basin at
the height of 884 meters (2,900 ft) above sea level.
The region's earliest known inhabitants are referred to, generically,
as the Maiōtai (after the Greek name for the Sea of Azov)). During
the 6th century BCE, Pontic Greeks, founded the area's first cities,
Phanagoria (near modern Sennoy) and
Hermonassa (on the Taman
Peninsula), who traded with nomadic tribes including the Skuthai
(Scythians) and Sindi.
From the 8th to the 10th centuries, the area was dominated by the
Turkic people who had earlier migrated from the east onto
the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, where they reputedly converted to Judaism.
After the defeat of the
Khazar Khanate in 965
Kievan prince Svyatoslav
conquered the area, it came under the rule of Kievan Rus', and it then
formed the Tmutarakan principality. Later, due to the increasing
claims of Byzantium at the end of the 11th century, the Tmutarakan
principality came under the authority of the Byzantine emperors (until
In that period of history, the
Circassians were first mentioned, under
the ethnonym Kasogs. For example, Rededi Prince Kasozhsky was
mentioned in The Tale of Igor's Campaign.
In 1243–1438 the current territory of the
Kuban was part of the
Golden Horde. After the collapse of the latter, parts of
held under the Crimean Khanate, Circassia, and the Ottoman Empire,
which dominated the region. The Tsardom of
Russia began to challenge
the protectorate of the
Ottoman Empire in the area during the
In April 1783, by decree of Catherine II, right-bank
Kuban and Taman
Peninsula were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the years 1792–1793
Cossacks moved here from Zaporozhye, now located in Ukraine, and
Black Sea Area troops, with the creation of a solid cordon
line for the
Kuban River and the marginalization of the neighboring
During the campaign for control of the
North Caucasus (Caucasian war
Russia in 1829 pushed the
Ottoman Empire and the
1830s. Border was marked on the
Black Sea coast. For this see Russian
conquest of the Western Caucasus.
In 1783 present northern territory of
Kuban region, became part of
Russia after the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate. To protect the
river Kuban, a border garrison was here in the years 1793–1794. The
remains were relocated to the Cossacks, initiating development of the
region. Administrative region received the status of "Land of Black
October Revolution of 1917, most of the territory of modern
Krasnodar territory occupied area, formed in 1860 from the Black
Cossack Army, the western part of the
Caucasus Line Cossack
Kuban region was a territory of the
In 1900 the region's population numbered around two million people. In
1913 the gross grain harvest
Kuban region entered the 2nd place in
Russia, for the production of marketable grain – in the 1st place.
Krai was founded on 13 September 1937, when Azov-Black Sea
Krai of the Russian SFSR was split up in
Krai and Rostov
Krai Administration building in Krasnodar
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the krai was shared
between three persons: The first secretary of the
Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority), the chairman of
Krai Soviet (legislative power), and the chairman of the Krai
Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the
power, and the head of the krai administration, and eventually the
governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of
Krai is the fundamental law of the region.
The Legislative Assembly of
Krai is the province's standing
legislative (representative) body. The assembly exercises its
authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by
supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other
legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the krai
government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as
district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate
development and run the day to day matters of the province. The krai
administration supports the activities of the governor who is the
highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Krai
Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Main article: Administrative divisions of
Krai is administratively divided into thirty-eight districts
(raions) and fifteen cities of district equivalence. The districts and
cities are further subdivided into eleven towns, plus urban-type
settlements, and rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.
The ten largest cities in
Krai are as follows:
Population (2017 est.)
Population (2017 est.)
Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway
EMU train Lastotschka, Sochi
Several lines of
Russian Railways cross the region and link it with
Abkhazia, Ukraine, and neighboring Russian regions. There are direct
trains from resort cities like
Anapa to Moscow, via
Krasnodar, which become very popular during the summer vacation
season. There are also suburb train connections. The Apsheronsk
narrow-gauge railway, the longest mountain narrow-gauge railway in
Russia, runs through
There are several airports in the region, including Krasnodar
Sochi International Airport,
Anapa Airport, and
The biggest ports are
Novorossiysk and Tuapse. Others are
Temryuk on the Azov Sea, and
Port Kavkaz, Taman, Anapa, Gelendzhik,
Sochi on the Black Sea. There is a
Kerch Strait ferry line which
Krai and Crimea.
Population: 5,404,300 (2014 est.); 5,226,647 (2010 Census);
5,125,221 (2002 Census); 5,113,148 (1989 Census).
The population of
Krai is concentrated in the
drainage basin, which was traditionally
Cossack land (see History of
Kuban Cossacks are now generally considered to be
ethnic Russians, even though they are still an important minority in
their own right in the area. Historically, they were considered to be
ethnic Ukrainian, and reported their language as
Ukrainian in censuses well into the 20th century; this change in
identity is due to assimilation and historical persecution of the
Kuban Cossacks, which was particularly prominent due
to questions of their loyalty to
Moscow and the
Communist state during the Russian Revolution and First World
War. Other notable ethnic groups are the Adyghe, who
have lived in the
Kuban area for thousands of years, and the Armenians
Hamsheni and Cherkesogai), who have lived in the
region since at least the 18th century.
Ethnic groups: the 2010 Census identified ethnic groups, as shown in
the following table:
101,657 people were registered from administrative databases, and
could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of
ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared
Vital Statistics for 2007: Source
Birth Rate: 11.19 per 1000
Death Rate: 14.39 per 1000
Net Immigration: +7.1 per 1000
NGR: -0.32% per Year
PGR: +0.39% per Year
Vital Statistics for 2008:
Population (Jan 2009): 5,100,000
Births (2008): 62,200
Deaths (2008): 72,900
Vital statistics for 2012
Births: 69 031 (13.1 per 1000)
Deaths: 69 427 (13.1 per 1000) 
Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.59 2010 - 1.57 2011 - 1.58 2012 - 1.70 2013 - 1.72
2014 - 1.81 2015 - 1.84 2016 - 1.86(e)
Krai as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
According to a 2012 survey 52.2% of the population of Krasnodar
Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated
generic Christians, 1% are either Orthodox
Christian believers who
don't belong to church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches,
and 1% are Muslims. In addition, 22% of the population declares to be
"spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other
religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Main article: 2012 Russian floods
On July 7, 2012, at least 171 people died in
after torrential rains overnight caused the worst flooding and
landslides in more than seventy years. Over 280
millimeters (11 in) of rain – the typical amount for a four- or
five-month period – was reported to have fallen within forty-eight
hours. A local police spokesman stated that most of the
dead were in Krymsky District, where at least 159 died when a wave of
water 5 meters (16 ft) high swept through the town of
the middle of the night. Ten more deaths occurred in
Gelendzhik, including five electrocuted when a transformer fell into
the floodwater, and two in Novorossiysk. Authorities
stated that 17 people had been officially reported missing, and there
were fears the death toll would rise further, while medics had
hospitalized 210 people, including 16 children.
The regional government claimed that over 24,000 people were affected
by the floods, with more than 3,000 evacuated, and that more than
10,000 rescuers and 140 helicopters were searching for victims and
evacuating survivors. In Krymsk, 14 temporary shelters
were set up to house around 2,000 evacuees. The transport system
in the region was said to have collapsed, while oil shipments from
Novorossiysk were halted when the port, located in the lower part of
the city, was threatened by landslides. Russia's President
Vladimir Putin flew to the area to hold emergency talks with officials
in Krymsk, while authorities in Perm
Krai dispatched a rescue team to
evacuate dozens of children from the region, who had been staying at
summer camps on the
Black Sea coast.
Krymsk claimed the wave of water that hit the town
resulted from the sluice gates of a nearby reservoir being opened,
although this was denied by the prosecutor general's investigative
committee. Local prosecutors had earlier confirmed that the gates were
opened, but stated that it was too early to determine whether this was
the cause of the flooding.
On a beach in Sochi
The port of Novorossiysk
^ Law #5-KZ
^ Президент Российской
Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая
2000 г. «О полномочном представителе
Президента Российской Федерации в
федеральном округе». Вступил в
силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian
Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the
Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian
Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
^ Госстандарт Российской
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amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^ Azarenkova et al., p. 114
^ Official website of
Krasnodar Krai. Biography of Alexander
Nikolayevich Tkachyov, Governor of
Krai (in Russian)
^ Charter of
Krasnodar Krai, Article 39
^ Charter of
Krasnodar Krai, Chapter 24
^ Федеральная служба государственной
статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21).
"Территория, число районов, населённых
пунктов и сельских администраций по
субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory,
Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by
Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)".
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Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal
State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
^ a b c d
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
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vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June
^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported
by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note
that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the
infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the
^ Rosstat.  (in Russian)
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to
Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
^ a b Official website of
Krasnodar Krai. General Information About
the Region (in Russian)
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gorshenyov
^ WWF. Central Asia: Southwest
Russia and the
Crimean Peninsula on the
Black Sea coast
^ a b http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2017/bul_dr/mun_obr2017.rar (RAR)
Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics
Service. Численность населения (in Russian)
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004).
"Численность населения России,
субъектов Российской Федерации в
составе федеральных округов, районов,
городских поселений, сельских
населённых пунктов – районных
центров и сельских населённых пунктов
с населением 3 тысячи и более
человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal
Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural
Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with
Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia
Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9,
^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись
населения 1989 г. Численность
наличного населения союзных и
автономных республик, автономных
областей и округов, краёв, областей,
районов, городских поселений и
сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989:
Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous
Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and
Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers].
Всесоюзная перепись населения
1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian).
Институт демографии Национального
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the National Research University: Higher School of Economics].
Retrieved August 9, 2014.
^ Перепись-2010: русских становится
больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2012-07-07.
^ Население Краснодарского края в 2008
году увеличилось на 0,4% - Новости
России - ИА REGNUM. Regnum.ru (2009-02-19). Retrieved on
^ Естественное движение населения в
разрезе субъектов Российской
^ Каталог публикаций::Федеральная
служба государственной статистики
^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia".
^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012.
Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
^ a b c d e f "
Russia Flash Floods: 144 Killed in
BBC News. London. July 7, 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
^ a b c Elder, Miriam (July 9, 2012). "Russian Floods Kill 150 and
Leave Thousands Homeless". The Guardian. London. Retrieved July 9,
^ a b c d e f g h "Over 170 Killed as Tsunami-like Flood Hits Southern
Russia Today. Moscow. July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7,
^ a b c d e "Over 100 Die in
Russia as Floods and Landslides Hit
Krasnodar Region". The Guardian. London. July 7, 2012. Retrieved July
^ a b "
Vladimir Putin Flies to Flood-hit Southern
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края. Закон №5-КЗ от 5 мая 1995
г. «О символах Краснодарского края», в
ред. Закона №2957-КЗ от 8 мая 2014
г. «О внесении изменений в Закон
Краснодарского края "О символах
Краснодарского края"». Вступил в
силу 31 мая 1995 г. Опубликован:
"Кубанские новости", №87, 24 мая 1995 г.
(Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar
Krai. Law #5-KZ of May 5, 1995 On the Symbols
Krasnodar Krai, as amended by the Law #2957-KZ
of May 8, 2014 On Amending the Law of
Krai "On the
Krasnodar Krai". Effective as of May 31, 1995.).
«Устав Краснодарского края», в ред.
Закона №2870-КЗ от 30 декабря 2013
г «О внесении изменений в Устав
Краснодарского края». Опубликован:
"Кубанские новости", 10 ноября 1993 г. (
Krasnodar Krai, as amended by the Law #2870-KZ
of December 30, 2013 On Amending the Charter of Krasnodar
Горшенёв, М. А. (1983). Путешествия по
Краснодарскому краю (in Russian).
Физкультура и спорт.
Азаренкова, А. С.; И. Ю. Бондарь;
Н. С. Вертышева (1986) . Основные
преобразования на Кубани
(1793–1985 гг.) (in Russian). Краснодарское
книжное издательство. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link)
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Official website of
Krai (in Russian)
Subdivisions of Russia
Ukraine and considered by most of the international
community to be part of Ukraine
2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast
3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk Oblast
Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different
Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development)
Military districts (by Ministry of Defence)
Federal districts (by President)
Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")
Countries and regions of the Caucasus
1 Partially-recognized states
Places adjacent to
Sea of Azov
Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine
Sea of Azov
Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine
Crimea, Russia/ Ukraine
Krai (surrounding Adygea)
Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol Krai