Kraków (Polish: [ˈkrakuf] ( listen)), also Cracow or
Krakow (UK: /ˈkrækaʊ/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/), is the second
largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the
Vistula River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser
Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century.
Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish
academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most
important economic hubs. It was the capital of the Crown of the
Poland from 1038 to 1569; the Polish–Lithuanian
Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596, the
Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków from 1815
to 1846; the
Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków
Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1998. It has been the capital of
Poland Voivodeship since 1999.
The city has grown from a
Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most
important city. It began as a hamlet on
Wawel Hill and was already
being reported as a busy trading centre of Slavonic Europe in 965.
With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the
emergence of the
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the
Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic
and artistic centre. The city has a population of approximately
760,000, with approximately 8 million additional people living
within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of its main square.
After the invasion of
Poland at the start of World War II, Kraków
became the capital of Germany's General Government. The Jewish
population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the
Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination
camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, and the Nazi
concentration camps like Płaszów.
In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the
Pope John Paul II — the first Slavic pope ever, and
the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO
approved the first ever sites for its new World Heritage List,
including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic
Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking
of high sufficiency by GaWC. Cited as one of Europe's most
beautiful cities, as well as one of the most unique destinations
in the world, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of
Gothic, Renaissance and
Baroque architecture includes the Wawel
Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the
Vistula river, the
St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest
medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny.
home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the
world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher
Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013
Kraków was officially approved as a
UNESCO City of Literature.
The city hosted the
World Youth Day
World Youth Day in July 2016.
2.1 Kraków's "Golden Age"
2.2 19th century
2.3 20th century to the present
4.1 Parks and gardens
6.1 Knowledge and Innovation Community
10.1 Museums and national art galleries
10.2 Performing arts
13 International relations
13.1 Contemporary foreign names for the city
13.2 Twin towns and sister cities
14 See also
17 External links
The name of
Kraków is traditionally derived from
Grakch), the legendary founder of
Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of
Lechitians. In Polish,
Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak
and essentially means "Krak's (town)". Krakus's name may derive from
"krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a
Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most often
associated with the concept of genealogy. The first mention of Prince
Krakus (then written as Grakch) dates back to 1190, although the town
existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of
The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto
Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of
Kraków". In English, a person born or living in
Kraków is a
Cracovian (Polish: krakowianin). While in the 1990s the English
version of the name was often written Cracow, the most widespread
modern English version is Krakow.
History of Kraków
History of Kraków and Timeline of Kraków
Kraków from the
Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
Royal tomb of king
Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great at the Wawel
Kraków was the capital of
Poland from 1038 to 1596
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a
Stone Age settlement
on the present site of the
Wawel Hill. A legend attributes
Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a
cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski. The first written record of
the city's name dates back to 965, when
Kraków was described as a
notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia (876–879), but
captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first
acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took
Kraków from the Bohemians
and incorporated it into the holdings of the
Piast dynasty towards the
end of his reign.
Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the
end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade.
Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal
with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St.
Adalbert's, a cathedral, and a basilica. The city was sacked and
burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt
practically identical, based on new location act and incorporated
in 1257 by the high duke
Bolesław V the Chaste
Bolesław V the Chaste who following the
example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg
law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the
citizens. In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A
third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built
fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of
Polish) declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after
Kazimierz (Casimiria in Latin). The defensive walls were erected
around the central section of
Kazimierz in 1362, and a plot was set
aside for the
Augustinian order next to Skałka.
The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland
founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in
central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir
also began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died
in 1370 and the campus was never completed. The city continued to grow
under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of
the Kingdom of
Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city
attracted many craftsmen, businesses, and guilds as science and the
arts began to flourish. The royal chancery and the University
ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the
Kraków's "Golden Age"
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's
Złoty Wiek or
Golden Age. Many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture
were created, including ancient synagogues in Kraków's Jewish
quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the
Old Synagogue. During the reign of Casimir IV, various artists
came to work and live in Kraków, and
Johann Haller established a
printing press in the city after
Kasper Straube had printed the
Calendarium Cracoviense, the first work printed in Poland, in
Kraków (Cracovia) near the end of the 16th-century
In 1495, King
John I Albert
John I Albert expelled the Jews from the city walls of
Krakow; they moved to
Kazimierz (now a district of Krakow).
However, they were still allowed to trade on the Main Square.
In 1520, the most famous church bell in Poland, named Zygmunt after
Sigismund I of Poland, was cast by Hans Behem. At that time, Hans
Dürer, a younger brother of artist and thinker Albrecht Dürer, was
Sigismund's court painter.
Hans von Kulmbach
Hans von Kulmbach made altarpieces for
several churches. In 1553, the
Kazimierz district council gave the
Jewish Qahal a licence for the right to build their own interior walls
across the western section of the already existing defensive walls.
The walls were expanded again in 1608 due to the growth of the
community and influx of Jews from Bohemia. In 1572, King Sigismund
II, the last of the Jagiellons, died childless. The Polish throne
Henry III of France
Henry III of France and then to other foreign-based rulers
in rapid succession, causing a decline in the city's importance that
was worsened by pillaging during the Swedish invasion and by an
outbreak of bubonic plague that left 20,000 of the city's residents
dead. In 1596, Sigismund III of the
House of Vasa
House of Vasa moved the
administrative capital of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from
Kraków to Warsaw.
Tadeusz Kościuszko takes the oath of loyalty to the Polish nation in
Kraków's market square (Rynek), 1794
Act of granting the constitution to the Free City of Cracow. After the
Partitions of Poland,
Kraków was independent city republic and the
only piece of sovereign Polish territory between 1815 and 1846.
Already weakened during the 18th century, by the mid-1790s the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth had twice been partitioned by its
neighbors: Russia, the Habsburg empire, and Prussia. In 1791, the
Austrian Emperor Joseph II changed the status of
Kazimierz as a
separate city and made it into a district of Kraków. The richer
Jewish families began to move out. However, because of the injunction
against travel on the Sabbath, most Jewish families stayed relatively
close to the historic synagogues. In 1794, Tadeusz Kościuszko
initiated an unsuccessful insurrection in the town's Main Square
which, in spite of his victorious
Battle of Racławice
Battle of Racławice against a
numerically superior Russian army, resulted in the third and final
partition of Poland. In 1809,
Napoleon Bonaparte captured former
Polish territories from
Austria and made the town part of the Duchy of
Warsaw. Following Napoleon's defeat, the 1815 Congress of Vienna
restored the pre-war boundaries but also created the partially
independent Free City of Kraków. An insurrection in 1846
failed, resulting in the city being annexed by
Austria under the
Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow (Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie,
German: Großherzogtum Krakau).
Austria granted a degree of autonomy to Galicia after its own
defeat in the Austro-Prussian War. Politically freer Kraków
became a Polish national symbol and a centre of culture and art, known
frequently as the "Polish Athens" (Polskie Ateny) or "Polish
Mecca". Many leading Polish artists of the period resided in
Kraków, among them the seminal painter Jan Matejko, laid to
rest at Rakowicki Cemetery, and the founder of modern Polish drama,
Fin de siècle
Fin de siècle
Kraków evolved into a
modern metropolis; running water and electric streetcars were
introduced in 1901, and between 1910 and 1915,
Kraków and its
surrounding suburban communities were gradually combined into a single
administrative unit called Greater
Kraków (Wielki Kraków).
At the outbreak of
World War I
World War I on 3 August 1914, Józef Piłsudski
formed a small cadre military unit, the First Cadre Company—the
predecessor of the Polish Legions—which set out from
fight for the liberation of Poland. The city was briefly besieged
by Russian troops in November 1914. Austrian rule in
in 1918 when the
Polish Liquidation Committee assumed power.
20th century to the present
Flower vendors in Rynek. First autochrome in Poland, dated 1912
With the emergence of the Second Polish Republic,
Kraków resumed its
role as a major academic and cultural centre, with the establishment
of new universities such as the AGH University of Science and
Technology and the
Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, including a
number of new and essential vocational schools. It became an important
cultural centre for the Polish Jews with a Zionist youth movement
relatively strong among the city's Jewish population.
also an influential centre of Jewish spiritual life, with all its
manifestations of religious observance from Orthodox, to Chasidic and
Reform flourishing side by side.
Kraków Ghetto, 1942—a German checkpoint during operation Aktion
Following the invasion of
Nazi Germany in September 1939,
the city became part of the General Government, a separate
administrative region of the Third Reich, and from 4 November 1939; it
became the capital of this administration. The
General Government was
Hans Frank who was based in the city's
Wawel Castle. The
Nazis envisioned turning
Kraków into a completely Germanised city;
after removal of all the Jews and Poles, renaming of locations and
streets into the German language, and sponsorship of propaganda trying
to portray it as a historically German city. During an operation
called "Sonderaktion Krakau", more than 180 university professors and
academics were arrested and sent to Sachsenhausen and Dachau
concentration camps, though the survivors were later released on the
request of prominent Italians. The Jewish population was first
confined to a ghetto in which many died of illness or starvation.
Those in the ghetto were later murdered or sent to concentration
camps, including Płaszów and Auschwitz. Roman Polanski, the film
director, is a survivor of the
Kraków Ghetto, while Oskar Schindler
selected employees from the ghetto to work in his enamelware plant,
Deutsche Emailwaren Fabrik (Emalia for short) saving them from the
camps. Although looted by occupational authorities, Kraków
remained relatively undamaged at the end of World War II, sparing
most of the city's historical and architectural legacy. Soviet forces
entered the city on 18 January 1945, and began arresting Poles loyal
Polish government-in-exile or those who had served in the Home
Kraków's territorial growth from the late 18th- to the 20th-century
After the war, under the Polish People's Republic, the intellectual
and academic community of
Kraków was put under complete political
control. The universities were soon deprived of printing rights and
autonomy. The Stalinist government ordered the construction of the
country's largest steel mill in the newly created suburb of Nowa
Huta. The creation of the giant Lenin Steelworks (now Sendzimir
Steelworks owned by Mittal) sealed Kraków's transformation from a
university city, into an industrial centre. The new working-class,
drawn by the industrialisation of Kraków, contributed to rapid
In an effort that spanned two decades, Karol Wojtyła, cardinal
archbishop of Kraków, successfully lobbied for permission to build
the first churches in the newly industrial suburbs. In 1978,
Wojtyła was elevated to the papacy as John Paul II, the first
non-Italian pope in 455 years. In the same year,
UNESCO placed Kraków
Old Town on the first-ever list of World Heritage Sites.
Camaldolese Hermit Monastery in Bielany
Kraków lies in the southern part of Poland, on the
Vistula River, in
a valley at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, 219 m
(719 ft) above sea level; halfway between the Jurassic Rock
Upland (Polish: Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska) to the north, and the
Tatra Mountains 100 km (62 mi) to the south, constituting
the natural border with
Slovakia and the Czech Republic; 230 km
(143 mi) west from the border with Ukraine. There are five nature
reserves in Kraków, with a combined area of ca. 48.6 hectares (120
acres). Due to their ecological value, these areas are legally
protected. The western part of the city, along its northern and
north-western side, borders an area of international significance
known as the Jurassic Bielany-
Tyniec refuge. The main motives for the
protection of this area include plant and animal wildlife and the
area's geomorphological features and landscape. Another part of
the city is located within the ecological 'corridor' of the Vistula
River valley. This corridor is also assessed as being of international
significance as part of the Pan-European ecological network. The
city centre is situated on the left (northern) bank of the river.
Convent of Norbertine Sisters in
Kraków-Zwierzyniec and the Vistula
River during the Winter season
Kraków has a humid continental climate (Dfb) according to the Köppen
climate classification system, which can be classified as an oceanic
climate (Cfb) using the −3.0 °C (27 °F) isotherm. The
Kraków climate is influenced by its far inland position, with
significant temperature differences between seasons. Average
temperatures in summer range from 17.0 to 19.2 °C (63 to
67 °F) and in winter from −2.0 to −0.6 °C (28 to
31 °F). The average annual temperature is 8.7 °C
(48 °F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 °C
(77 °F), and even 30 °C (86 °F), while winter drops
to −5 °C (23 °F) at night and about 0 °C
(32 °F) at day; during very cold nights the temperature can drop
to −15 °C (5 °F). Since
Kraków lies near the Tatra
Mountains, there are often occurrences of halny blowing (a foehn
wind), causing temperatures to rise rapidly, and even in winter reach
up to 20 °C (68 °F).
The climate table below presents weather data from the years
2000–2012 although the official Köppen reference period was from
1981–2010. According to ongoing measurements, the temperature has
increased during these years as compared with the last series. This
increase averages about 0.6 °C over all months. Warming is most
pronounced during the winter months, with an increase of more than
1.0 °C in January.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: bestplaces.net
The Renaissance Cloth Hall (Sukiennice) in Main Market Square
Developed over many centuries,
Kraków provides a showcase setting for
many historic styles of architecture. As the city expanded, so too did
the architectural achievements of its builders. It is for this reason
that the variations in style and urban planning are so easily
Built from its earliest nucleus outward, and having escaped much of
the destruction endured by
Poland during the 20th-century wars,
Kraków's many architectural monuments can typically be seen in
historical order by walking from the city centre out, towards its
Kraków is one of the few medieval towns in Poland
that does not have a historic
Ratusz town hall in its Main Square,
because it has not survived the Partitions of Poland.
Kraków's historic centre, which includes the Old Town,
Wawel Castle, was included as the first of its kind on the list of
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1978. The Stare Miasto is the most
prominent example of an old town in the country. For many
Kraków was the royal capital of Poland, until Sigismund III
Vasa relocated the court to
Warsaw in 1596. The whole district is
bisected by the Royal Road, the coronation route traversed by the
Kings of Poland. The Route begins at
St. Florian's Church
St. Florian's Church outside the
northern flank of the old city-walls in the medieval suburb of
Kleparz; passes the Barbican of
Kraków (Barbakan) built in 1499, and
enters Stare Miasto through the Florian Gate. It leads down
Floriańska Street through the Main Square, and up Grodzka to Wawel,
the former seat of Polish royalty, overlooking the
Vistula river. Old
Town attracts visitors from all over the World.
centre is one of the 13 places in
Poland that are included in the
UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The architectural design of the district
had survived all cataclysms of the past and retained its original form
coming from the medieval times. The Old Town of
Kraków is home to
about six thousand historic sites and more than two million works of
art. Its rich variety of heritage architecture includes Gothic,
Renaissance and Baroque buildings. Kraków's palaces, churches,
theatres and mansions display great variety of color, architectural
details, stained glass, paintings, sculptures, and furnishings.
Kanonicza Street, at the foot of the
In addition to the old town, the city's district of
particularly notable for its many renaissance buildings and
picturesque streets, as well as the historic Jewish quarter located in
the north-eastern part of Kazimierz.
Kazimierz was founded in the 14th
century to the south-east of the city centre and soon became a
wealthy, well-populated area where construction of imposing properties
became commonplace. Perhaps the most important feature of medieval
Kazimierz was the only major, permanent bridge (Pons Regalis) across
the northern arm of the Vistula. This natural barrier used to separate
Kazimierz from the Old Town for several centuries, while the bridge
Kraków to the
Wieliczka Salt Mine
Wieliczka Salt Mine and the lucrative
Hungarian trade route. The last structure at this location (at the end
of modern Stradom Street) was dismantled in 1880 when the northern arm
of the river was filled in with earth and rock, and subsequently built
Kraków from St. Mary's Basilica in the Market Square
By the 1930s,
Kraków had 120 officially registered synagogues and
prayer houses that spanned across the old city. Much of Jewish
intellectual life had moved to new centres like Podgórze. This in
turn, led to the redevelopment and renovation of much of
the development of new districts in Kraków. Most historic buildings
Kazimierz today are preserved in their original form. Some
old buildings however, were not repaired after the devastation brought
by the Second World War, and have remained empty. Most recent efforts
at restoring the historic neighborhoods gained new impetus around
Kazimierz is now a well-visited area, seeing a booming growth in
Jewish-themed restaurants, bars, bookstores and souvenir shops.
Palace of Art at Szczepański Square, is an example of Art Nouveau
architecture in central Kraków
As the city of
Kraków began to expand further under the rule of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, the new architectural styles also developed.
Key buildings from the 19th and early 20th centuries in Kraków
Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts, the directorate of the
Polish State Railways as well as the original complex of Kraków
Główny railway station and the city's Academy of Economics. It was
also at around that time that Kraków's first radial boulevards began
to appear, with the city undergoing a large-scale program aimed at
transforming the ancient Polish capital into a sophisticated regional
centre of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. New representative government
buildings and multi-story tenement houses were built at around that
time. Much of the urban-planning beyond the walls of the Old Town was
done by Polish architects and engineers trained in Vienna. Some major
projects of the era include the development of the Jagiellonian
University's new premises and the building of the
Collegium Novum just
west of the Old Town. The imperial style planning of the city's
further development continued until the return of Poland's
independence, following the First World War. Early modernist style in
Kraków is represented by such masterpieces as the Palace of Art by
Franciszek Mączyński and the 'House under the Globe'. Secession
style architecture, which had arrived in
Kraków from Vienna, became
popular towards the end of the Partitions.
Basztowa Street, filled with some of the most unique historical
buildings in all architectural styles; part of the Royal Route of
With Poland's regained independence came the major change in the
fortunes of Kraków—now the second most important city of a
sovereign nation. The state began to make new plans for the city
development and commissioned a number of representative buildings. The
predominant style for new projects was modernism with various
interpretations of the art-deco style. Important buildings
constructed in the style of
Polish modernism include the Feniks 'LOT'
building on Basztowa Street, the Feniks department store on the Main
Square and the Municipal Savings Bank on Szczepański Square. The
Józef Piłsudski house is also of note as a particularly good example
of interwar architecture in the city.
After the Second World War, new government turned toward Soviet
influence and the Stalinist monumentalism. The doctrine of Socialist
realism in Poland, as in other countries of the People's Republics,
was enforced from 1949 to 1956. It involved all domains of art, but
its most spectacular achievements were made in the field of urban
design. The guidelines for this new trend were spelled-out in a 1949
resolution of the National Council of Party Architects. Architecture
was to become a weapon in establishing the new social order by the
communists. The ideological impact of urban design was valued more
than aesthetics. It aimed at expressing persistence and power. This
form of architecture was implemented in the new industrial district of
Nowa Huta with apartment blocks constructed according to a Stalinist
blueprint, with repetitious courtyards and wide, tree-lined
Pawilon Wyspiański 2000 is a rare piece of Postmodern architecture
present in Krakow's Old Town
Since the style of the Renaissance was generally regarded as the most
revered in old Polish architecture, it was also used for augmenting
Poland's Socialist national format. However, in the course of
incorporating the principles of Socialist realism, there were quite a
few deviations introduced by the communists. One of these was to more
closely reflect Soviet architecture, which resulted in the majority of
works blending into one another. From 1953, critical opinions in the
Party were increasingly frequent, and the doctrine was given up in
1956 marking the end of Stalinism. Currently the soc-realist
Nowa Huta is considered to be a meritorious monument of the
times. This period in postwar architecture was followed by the
mass-construction of large Panel System apartment blocks, most of
which were built outside the city centre and thus do not encroach upon
the beauty of the old or new towns. Some examples of the new style
(e.g., Hotel Cracovia) recently listed as heritage monuments were
built during the later half of the 20th century in Kraków.
Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989 and the birth of the Third Republic in
the later half of the 20th century, a number of new architectural
projects were completed, including the construction of large business
parks and commercial facilities such as the Galeria Krakowska, or
infrastructure investments like the
Kraków Fast Tram, giving the city
a great deal of quality solutions blending with its centuries-old
heritage. A good example of this would be the 2007-built Pawilon
Wyspiański 2000, which is used as a multi-purpose information and
exhibition space, or the award-winning Małopolski Garden of Arts
(Małopolski Ogród Sztuki), a multi-purpose exhibition and theatre
complex located in the historic Old Town.
Parks and gardens
Fountain in the Planty Park, which surrounds Kraków's Old Town
There are about 40 parks in
Kraków including dozens of gardens and
forests. Several, like the Planty Park, Botanical Garden, Park
Jordan Park and
Błonia Park are located in the centre of
the city; with Zakrzówek, Lasek Wolski forest, Strzelecki Park and
Park Lotników (among others) in the surrounding districts. Parks
cover about 318.5 hectares (2002) of the city.
Planty Park is the best-known park in Kraków. It was established
between 1822 and 1830 in place of the old city walls, forming a green
belt around the Old Town. It consists of a chain of smaller gardens
designed in various styles and adorned with monuments. The park has an
area of 21 hectares (52 acres) and a length of 4 kilometres
(2.5 mi), forming a scenic walkway popular with Cracovians.
Jordan Park founded in 1889 by Dr Henryk Jordan, was the first
public park of its kind in Europe. The park built on the banks of
the Rudawa river was equipped with running and exercise tracks,
playgrounds, the swimming pool, amphitheatre, pavilions, and a pond
for boat rowing and water bicycles. It is located on the grounds of a
larger Kraków’s Błonia Park. The less prominent Park Krakowski
was founded in 1885 by
Stanisław Rehman but has since been greatly
reduced in size because of rapid real estate development. It was a
popular destination point with many Cracovians at the end of the 19th
There are five nature reserves in
Kraków with a total area of 48.6
ha. Smaller green zones constitute parts of the
Kraków-Częstochowa Upland Jurassic Landscape Parks' Board, which
deals with the protection areas of the Polish Jura. Under its
jurisdiction are: the Bielany-
Tyniec Landscape Park (Park
Tenczynek Landscape Park
Tenczynek Landscape Park (Park Tencziński) and
Kraków Valleys Landscape Park
Kraków Valleys Landscape Park (Park Krajobrazowy Dolinki Krakowskie),
with their watersheds. All natural reserves of the Polish Jura Chain
are part of the
CORINE biotopes programme due to their unique flora,
fauna, geomorphology and landscape. The western part of Kraków
constitute the so-called Obszar Krakowski ecological network,
including the ecological corridor of the
Vistula river. The southern
slopes of limestone hills provide conditions for the development of
thermophilous vegetation, grasslands and scrubs.
The city is spaced along an extended latitudinal transect of the
Vistula River Valley with a network of tributaries including its right
tributary Wilga, and left: Rudawa, Białucha,
Dłubnia and Sanka. The
rivers and their valleys along with bodies of water are some of the
most interesting natural wonders of Kraków.
Local government in Kraków
President of Kraków, Jacek Majchrowski
Kraków City Council has 43 elected members, one of whom is
the mayor, or President of Kraków, elected every four years. The
election of the City Council and of the local head of government,
which takes place at the same time, is based on legislation introduced
on 20 June 2002. The current President of Kraków, re-elected for his
fourth term in 2014, is Jacek Majchrowski. Several members of the
Polish national Parliament (Sejm) are elected from the Kraków
constituency. The city's official symbols include a coat of arms,
a flag, a seal, and a banner.
Wielopolski Palace (1560), the seat of Kraków's mayor, administration
and city council
The responsibilities of Kraków's president include drafting and
implementing resolutions, enacting city bylaws, managing the city
budget, employing city administrators, and preparing against floods
and natural disasters. The president fulfills his duties with the
help of the City Council, city managers and city inspectors. In the
1990s, the city government was reorganised to better differentiate
between its political agenda and administrative functions. As a
result, the Office of Public Information was created to handle
inquiries and foster communication between city departments and
citizens at large.
In 2000, the city government introduced a new long-term program called
"Safer City" in cooperation with the Police, Traffic, Social Services,
Fire, Public Safety, and the Youth Departments. Subsequently, the
number of criminal offences went down by 3 percent between 2000 and
2001, and the rate of detection increased by 1.4 percent to a total of
30.2 percent in the same period. The city is receiving help in
carrying out the program from all educational institutions and the
local media, including TV, radio and the press.
Main article: Districts of Kraków
Kraków is divided into 18 administrative districts (dzielnica) or
boroughs, each with a degree of autonomy within its own municipal
government. Prior to March 1991, the city had been divided into
four quarters which still give a sense of identity to
Kraków – the
towns of Podgórze, Nowa Huta, and
Krowodrza which were amalgamated
into the city of
Kraków as it expanded, and the ancient town centre
Matejko Square at
Kleparz is one of the city's most important public
The oldest neighborhoods of
Kraków were incorporated into the city
before the late-18th century. They include the Old Town (Stare
Miasto), once contained within the city defensive walls and now
encircled by the Planty park; the
Wawel District, which is the site of
the Royal Castle and the cathedral; Stradom and Kazimierz, the latter
originally divided into Christian and Jewish quarters; as well as
the ancient town of Kleparz.
Major districts added in the 19th and 20th centuries include
Podgórze, which until 1915, was a separate town on the southern bank
of the Vistula, and Nowa Huta, east of the city centre, built after
World War II.
Socialist-realist district of Nowa Huta
Among the most notable historic districts of the city are:
Wawel Castle and
Wawel Cathedral, where many historic Polish
kings are buried; the medieval Old Town, with its Main Market Square
(200 metres (660 ft) square); dozens of old churches and museums;
the 14th-century buildings of the Jagiellonian University; and
Kazimierz, the historical centre of Kraków's Jewish social and
The Old Town district of
Kraków is home to about 6,000 historic
sites, and more than 2,000,000 works of art. Its rich variety of
historic architecture includes Renaissance, Baroque and Gothic
buildings. Kraków's palaces, churches and mansions display great
variety of colour, architectural details, stained glass, paintings,
sculptures, and furnishings.
In the Market Square stands the Gothic St. Mary's Basilica (Kościół
Mariacki). It was rebuilt in the 14th-century and features the famous
wooden altar (
Altarpiece of Veit Stoss), the largest Gothic altarpiece
in the world, carved by Veit Stoss. From the church's main tower
a trumpet call (hejnał mariacki), is sounded every hour. The melody,
which used to announce the opening and closing of city gates, ends
unexpectedly in midstream. According to legend, the tune was played
during the 13th-century Tatar invasion by a guard warning citizens
against the attack. He was shot by an archer of the invading Tatar
forces whilst playing, the bugle call breaking off at the moment he
died. The story was recounted in a book published in 1928 called
The Trumpeter of Krakow, by Eric P. Kelly, which won a Newbery
Stare Miasto (I)
559.29 ha (5.5929 km2)
586.18 ha (5.8618 km2)
Prądnik Czerwony (III)
638.82 ha (6.3882 km2)
Prądnik Biały (IV)
2,370.55 ha (23.7055 km2)
538.32 ha (5.3832 km2)
957.98 ha (9.5798 km2)
2,866.9 ha (28.669 km2)
4,671.11 ha (46.7111 km2)
Łagiewniki-Borek Fałęcki (IX)
573.9 ha (5.739 km2)
2,416.73 ha (24.1673 km2)
Podgórze Duchackie (XI)
1,065.24 ha (10.6524 km2)
1,846.93 ha (18.4693 km2)
2,516.07 ha (25.1607 km2)
1,229.44 ha (12.2944 km2)
547.82 ha (5.4782 km2)
369.43 ha (3.6943 km2)
Wzgórza Krzesławickie (XVII)
2,375.82 ha (23.7582 km2)
Nowa Huta (XVIII)
6,552.52 ha (65.5252 km2)
32,680.00 ha (326.8000 km2)
The current divisions were introduced by the
Kraków City Hall on 19
April 1995. Districts were assigned
Roman numerals as well as the
current name: Stare Miasto (I), Grzegórzki (II), Prądnik
Prądnik Biały (IV), Łobzów (V), Bronowice (VI),
Zwierzyniec (VII), Dębniki (VIII),
Łagiewniki-Borek Fałęcki (IX),
Podgórze Duchackie (XI),
Mistrzejowice (XV), Bieńczyce
Wzgórza Krzesławickie (XVII), and
Nowa Huta (XVIII).
Map of districts of the City of Kraków
Interactive map. For more information, click on district number.
Cracovia Business Centre
Kraków is one of Poland's most important economic centres and the
economic hub of the Lesser
Poland (Małopolska) region.
Since the fall of communism, the private sector has been growing
steadily. There are about 50 large multinational companies in the
city, including Google, IBM, Royal Dutch Shell, Motorola, Delphi, MAN
SE, General Electric, ABB, Aon Hewitt,
Cisco Systems Hitachi, Philip
Morris, Capgemini, and Sabre Holdings, along with other
British, German and Scandinavian-based firms. The city is
also the global headquarters for Comarch, a Polish enterprise software
house. In 2005,
Foreign direct investment
Foreign direct investment in
Kraków has reached
Kraków has been trying to model
itself as a European version of Silicon Valley, based on the
large number of local and foreign hi-tech companies. The
unemployment rate in
Kraków was 4.8% in May 2007, well below the
national average of 13%.
Kraków is the second most-visited
Poland (after Warsaw). According to the World
Investment Report 2011 by the UN Conference for Trade and Development
Kraków is also the most emergent city location for
investment in global BPO projects (Business Process Outsourcing) in
The Center for Business Innovation office complex in Kraków
In 2011, the city budget, which is presented by the Mayor of Kraków
on 15 November annually, has a projected revenue of 3,500,000,000
złoty. The primary sources of revenue were as follows: 14% from
the municipal taxation on real estate properties and the use of
amenities, 30% in transfers from the national budget, and 34% in state
subsidies. Projected expenditures, totaling 3,520,000,000 złoty,
included 21% in city development costs and 79% in city maintenance
costs. Of the maintenance costs, as much as 39% were spent on
education and childcare. The City of Kraków's development costs
included; 41% toward construction of roads, transport, and
communication (combined), and 25% for the city's infrastructure and
environment. The city has a high bond credit rating, and some 60%
of the population is under the age of 45.
Lufthansa shared service centre
Knowledge and Innovation Community
Kraków is one of the co-location centres of Knowledge and Innovation
Community (Sustainable Energy) of The European Institute of Innovation
and Technology (EIT).
InnoEnergy is an integrated alliance of reputable organisations from
the education, research and industry sectors. It was created based on
long standing links of cooperation as well as the principles of
excellence. The partners have jointly developed a strategy to tackle
the weaknesses of the European innovation landscape in the field of
Main article: Transport in Kraków
Public transport is based on a fairly dense network of tram and bus
routes operated by a municipal company, supplemented by a number of
private minibus operators. Local trains connect some of the suburbs.
The bulk of the city's historic area has been turned into a pedestrian
zone with rickshaws and horse-drawn carriages; however, the tramlines
run within a three-block radius (pictured). The historic means of
transportation in the city can be examined at the Museum of Municipal
Engineering in the
Kazimierz district, with many old trams, cars and
Railway connections are available to most Polish cities, e.g.
Katowice, Częstochowa, Szczecin,
Gdynia and Warsaw. International
destinations include Bratislava, Budapest, Vienna, Prague, Berlin,
Hamburg, Lviv, Kiev, and
Odessa (June–September). The main
railway station is located just outside the Old Town District and is
well-served by public transport.
Kraków's airport, officially named: John Paul II International
Airport Kraków–Balice (IATA: KRK), is located 11 km
(7 mi) west of the city. Direct trains cover the route between
Kraków Główny train station and the airport in 20 minutes. Krakow
Airport served around 5,800,000 passengers in 2017. Also, the
Katowice International Airport is located 80 kilometres (50 miles) or
about 75 minutes from Kraków.
Main Railway Station
Bombardier city tram
Underground tram station
Solaris Urbino city bus
In Autumn 2016 Poland's oldest
Bicycle-sharing system was modernized
and now offers 1,500 bikes at 150 stations under the name of Wavelo
(pl), which is owned by BikeU of the French multinational company
See also: Urban demographics of Poland
Kraków had a recorded population of 762,508 in 2015. According to the
2006 data, the population of
Kraków comprised about 2% of the
Poland and 23% of the population of the Lesser Poland
Voivodeship. Selected demographic indicators are presented in a table
(below), compiled on the basis of only the population living in
Kraków permanently. The larger metropolitan area of the city
encompasses a territory in which (in 2010) 1,393,893 inhabitants
Already in the Middle Ages, the population of
Kraków consisting of
numerous ethnic groups, began to grow rapidly. It doubled between
1100 and 1300 from 5,000 to 10,000, and in 1400 counted 14,000
inhabitants. By 1550, the population of metropolitan
18,000; although it went down to 15,000 in the next fifty years due to
calamity. By the early 17th century the
had reached 28,000 inhabitants.
Number of women
per 100 men
Source: Stat.gov.pl Tabl. 1 (27).
In the historical 1931 census preceding World War II, 78.1% of
Cracovians declared Polish as their primary language, with Yiddish or
Hebrew at 20.9%, Ukrainian 0.4%, German 0.3%, and Russian 0.1%.
The ravages of history have greatly reduced the percentage of ethnic
minorities living in Kraków. The official and unofficial numbers
differ, as in the case of Romani people. Hence, according to the 2002
census, among those who have declared their national identity
(irrespective of language and religion) in
Kraków Voivodeship, 1,572
were Slovaks, followed by
Ukrainians (472), Jews (50) and Armenians
(22). Romani people, officially numbered at 1,678, are estimated at
over 5,000. Statistics collected by the Ministry of Education reveal
that, even though only 1% of adults (as per above) officially claim
minority status, as many as 3% of students participate in programmes
designed for ethnic minorities.
Population growth in
Kraków since 1791
Churches of Kraków
Churches of Kraków and Synagogues of Kraków
Wawel Cathedral, home to royal coronations and resting place of many
national heroes; considered to be Poland's national sanctuary
The metropolitan city of
Kraków is known as the city of churches. The
abundance of landmark, historic temples along with the plenitude of
monasteries and convents earned the city a countrywide reputation as
the "Northern Rome" in the past. The churches of
Kraków comprise over
120 places of worship (2007) of which over 65 were built in the 20th
century. More are still being added. In addition to Roman
Catholicism, other denominations present include Jehovah's
Witnesses, Mariavite Church, Polish Catholic Church, Polish
Protestantism and Latter-Day Saints.
Saint Mary's Basilica (Kościół Mariacki)
Kraków contains also an outstanding collection of monuments of Jewish
sacred architecture unmatched anywhere in Poland.
Kraków was an
influential centre of Jewish spiritual life before the outbreak of
World War II, with all its manifestations of religious observance from
Orthodox to Chasidic and Reform flourishing side by side. There were
at least 90 synagogues in
Kraków active before the Nazi German
invasion of Poland, serving its burgeoning Jewish community of
60,000–80,000 (out of the city's total population of 237,000),
established since the early 12th century.
Most synagogues of
Kraków were ruined during
World War II
World War II by the
Nazis who despoiled them of all ceremonial objects, and used them as
storehouses for ammunition, firefighting equipment, as general storage
facilities and stables. The post-Holocaust Jewish population of the
city had dwindled to about 5,900 before the end of the 1940s. Poland
was the only
Eastern Bloc country to allow free Jewish aliyah without
visas or exit permits upon the conclusion of World War II. By
contrast, Stalin forcibly kept Soviet Jews in the USSR, as agreed to
in the Yalta Conference. In recent time, thanks to efforts of the
local Jewish and Polish organisations including foreign financial aid
from the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, many synagogues
underwent major restorations and serve religious and tourist
Main article: Education in Kraków
Kraków University of Economics
Kraków is a major centre of education. Twenty-four institutions of
higher education offer courses in the city, with more than 200,000
students. Jagiellonian University, the oldest university in
Poland and ranked by the
Times Higher Education
Times Higher Education Supplement as the
second-best university in the country, was founded in 1364
as Studium Generale and renamed in 1817 to commemorate the
Jagiellonian dynasty of Polish-Lithuanian kings. Its principal
academic asset is the Jagiellonian Library, with more than 4 million
volumes, including a large collection of medieval manuscripts
like Copernicus' De Revolutionibus and the Balthasar Behem Codex. With
42,325 students (2005) and 3,605 academic staff, the Jagiellonian
University is also one of the leading research centres in Poland.
Famous historical figures connected with the University include Saint
John Cantius, Jan Długosz, Nicolaus Copernicus, Andrzej Frycz
Modrzewski, Jan Kochanowski, King John III Sobieski,
Pope John Paul II
and Nobel laureates
Ivo Andrić and Wisława Szymborska.
AGH University of Science and Technology, established in 1919, is the
largest technical university in Poland, with more than 15 faculties
and student enrollment exceeding 30,000. It was ranked by the
Polish edition of
Newsweek as the best technical university in the
country in 2004. During its 80-year history, more than 73,000
students graduated from AGH with master's or bachelor's degrees. Some
3,600 persons were granted the degree of Doctor of Science, and about
900 obtained the qualification of Habilitated Doctor.
Collegium Maius, Jagiellonian University's oldest building
Other institutions of higher learning include Academy of Music in
Kraków first conceived as conservatory in 1888, one of the oldest and
most prestigious conservatories in Central Europe and a major concert
venue; Cracow University of Economics, established in 1925;
Pedagogical University, in operation since 1946; Agricultural
University of Cracow, offering courses since 1890 (initially as a part
of Jagiellonian University); Academy of Fine Arts, the oldest
Fine Arts Academy in Poland, founded by the Polish painter Jan
Matejko; Ludwik Solski Academy for the Dramatic Arts; The
Pontifical Academy of Theology; and Cracow University of
Technology, which has more than 37,000 graduates.
Scientific societies and their branches in
Kraków conduct scientific
and educational work in local and countrywide scale. Academy of
Learning, Cracow Scientific Society, Association of Law Students'
Library of the Jagiellonian University, Polish Copernicus Society of
Naturalists, Polish Geological Society, Polish Theological Society in
Kraków, Polish Section of Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers and Polish Society for Synchrotron Radiation have in Kraków
their main seats.
Main articles: Culture of Kraków, Events in Kraków, and
Leonardo da Vinci's
Lady with an Ermine
Lady with an Ermine at National Museum
Kraków was named the official
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture for the
year 2000 by the European Union. It is a major attraction for
both local and international tourists, attracting seven million
visitors a year. Major landmarks include the Main Market Square
with St. Mary's Basilica and the
Sukiennice Cloth Hall, the Wawel
Castle, the National Art Museum, the Zygmunt Bell at the Wawel
Cathedral, and the medieval St Florian's Gate with the Barbican along
the Royal Coronation Route.
Kraków has 28 museums and public art
galleries. Among them is the National Museum featuring works by
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt.
Museums and national art galleries
National Museum in Kraków
National Museum in Kraków is one of Poland's finest galleries of
Kraków's 28 museums are separated into the national and municipal
museums; the city also has a number of art collections and public art
galleries. The National Museum, established in 1879, as well as the
National Art Collection on
Wawel Hill, are all accessible to the
general public and well patroned.
The National Art Collection is located at the Wawel, the former
residence of three dynasties of Polish monarchs. Royal Chambers
feature art, period furniture, Polish and European paintings,
collectibles, and an unsurpassed display of the 16th-century
monumental Flemish tapestries.
Wawel Treasury and Armoury features
Polish royal memorabilia, jewels, applied art, and 15th to 18th
century arms. The
Wawel Eastern Collection features Turkish tents and
military accessories. The National Museum is the richest museum in the
country with collections consisting of several hundred thousand items
kept in big part in the Main Building at Ul. 3 Maja, although there
are as many as eleven separate divisions of the museum in the city,
one of the most popular being The Gallery of the 19th Century Polish
Sukiennice with the collection of some of the best known
paintings and sculptures of the Young
Poland movement. The latest
division called Europeum with Brueghel among a hundred Western
European paintings was inaugurated in 2013.
Kraków's renowned Juliusz Słowacki Theatre.
Other major museums of special interest in
Kraków include the Manggha
Museum of Japanese Art and Technology (at M. Konopnickiej 26),
Stanisław Wyspiański Museum (at 11 Szczepanska St), Jan Matejko
Manor in Krzesławice, – a museum devoted to the master painter
and his life, Emeryk Hutten Czapski Museum, and Józef Mehoffer
Kraków Congress Centre - the business and cultural flagship of the
The Rynek Underground museum, under the main square, is an evocative
modern display of Kraków's 1000+ years of history though its streets,
activities and artifacts. This followed the massively extended
excavations which started in a small way in 2005 and, as more and
more was found, ran on eventually to 2010.
A half-an-hour tram-ride takes you to the little-heralded Polish
Aviation Museum considered eighth world's best aviation museum by CNN
and featuring over 200 aircraft including a
Sopwith Camel among other
First World War biplanes; a comprehensive display of aero engines; and
essentially a complete collection of airplane types developed by
Poland after 1945. Activities of small museums around
in the Lesser
Poland region are promoted and supported by the
Małopolska Institute of Culture; the Institute organises annual
Małopolska Heritage Days.
The city has several famous theatres, including the Narodowy Stary
Teatr (the National Old Theatre), the Juliusz Słowacki Theatre,
the Bagatela Theatre, the Ludowy Theatre, and the Groteska Theatre of
Puppetry, as well as the
Opera Krakowska and
Kraków Operetta. The
city's principal concert hall and the home of the
Orchestra is the
Kraków Philharmonic (Filharmonia Krakowska) built in
Kraków hosts many annual and biannual artistic events, some of
international significance such as the Misteria Paschalia (Baroque
music), Sacrum-Profanum (contemporary music), the Cracow Screen
Festival (popular music), the Festival of Polish Music (classical
music), Dedications (theatre), the
Kraków Film Festival
Kraków Film Festival (one of
Europe's oldest short films events), Etiuda&Anima
International Film Festival (the oldest international art-film event
in Poland), Biennial of Graphic Arts, and the Jewish Culture Festival.
Kraków was the residence of two Polish Nobel laureates in literature,
Wisława Szymborska and Czesław Miłosz; a third Nobel laureate, the
Yugoslav writer Ivo Andric, lived and studied in Kraków. Other former
longtime residents include internationally renowned Polish film
Andrzej Wajda and Roman Polanski, both of whom are Academy
Concert hall of the
Opera Krakowska one of the leading national opera companies,
stages 200 performances each year including ballet, operettas and
musicals. It has, in its main repertoire, the greatest world and
Polish opera classics. The Opera moved into its first permanent House
in the autumn of 2008. It is in charge also of the Summer Festival of
Opera and Operetta.
Kraków is home to two major Polish festivals of early music
presenting forgotten Baroque oratorios and operas: Opera Rara,
and Misteria Paschalia. Meanwhile,
Capella Cracoviensis runs the
Music in Old Cracow International Festival.
Academy of Music in Kraków, founded in 1888, is known worldwide as
the alma mater of the contemporary Polish composer Krzysztof
Penderecki and it is also the only one in
Poland to have two winners
International Chopin Competition
International Chopin Competition in
Warsaw among its alumni.
The Academy organises concerts of its students and guests throughout
the whole year.
Music organisations and venues include:
Sinfonietta Cracovia (a.k.a. the Orchestra of the Royal City of
Kraków), the Polish Radio Choir of Kraków, Organum Academic Choir,
Mariański Choir (Mieszany Chór Mariański), Kraków
Academic Choir of the Jagiellonian University, the
Choir, Amar Corde String Quartet, Consortium Iagellonicum Baroque
Orchestra of the Jagiellonian University, Brass Band of T. Sendzimir
Steelworks, and Camerata Chamber Orchestra of Radio Kraków.
According to recent official statistics, in 2016
Kraków was visited
by over 12 million tourists including 2.9 million foreign travelers.
The visitors spent over 5.4 billion złoty (€1.2 billion) in the
city (without travel costs and pre-booked accommodations). Most
foreign tourists came from Great Britain, followed by German, Italian,
Portuguese, Spanish, Canadian and American visitors. The Kraków
tour-guide from the Lesser
Poland Visitors Bureau indicated that not
all statistics are recorded due to considerable number of those who
come, staying in readily available private rooms paid by cash,
especially from Eastern Europe.
The main reasons for visiting the city are: its historical monuments,
recreation as well as relatives and friends (placing third in the
ranking), religion and business. There are 120 quality hotels in
Kraków (usually about half full) offering 15,485 overnight
accommodations. The average stay last for about 4 to 7 nights.
The survey conducted among the travelers showed that they enjoyed the
city's friendliness most, with 90% of Polish tourists and 87%
foreigners stating that they would personally recommend visiting
it. Notable points of interest outside the city include the
Wieliczka salt mine, the
Tatra Mountains 100 km (62 mi) to
the south, the historic city of
Częstochowa (north-west), the
well-preserved former Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz, and
Ojcowski National Park, which includes the Renaissance Castle at
Kraków has been awarded a number of top
international rankings such as the 1st place in the Top city-break
destinations 2014 survey conducted by the British Which?.
Popular points of interest in and around Kraków
German concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Wieliczka Salt Mine
Ojców National Park
Ojców National Park and
Pieskowa Skała castle
Wisła Kraków Stadium
Kraków was the host city of the 2014 FIVB Men's Volleyball World
Championship and 2016 European Men's Handball Championship. It has
also been selected as the European City of Sport for 2014.
Football is one of the most popular sports in the city. The two
teams with the largest following are thirteen-time Polish champion
Wisła Kraków, and five-time champion Cracovia, both
founded in 1906 as the oldest still existing in Poland. They have
been involved in the most intense rivalry in the country and one of
the most intense in all of Europe, known as the Holy War (Święta
Wojna). Other football clubs include Hutnik Kraków, Wawel
Kraków, and one-time Polish champion Garbarnia Kraków. There is also
the first-league rugby club Juvenia Kraków.
Kraków has a number of
additional, equally valued sports teams including twelve-time Polish
ice hockey champions Cracovia and the twenty-time women's basketball
champions Wisła Kraków.
The Cracovia Marathon, with over a thousand participants from two
dozen countries annually, has been held in the city since 2002.
Poland's first F1 racing driver
Robert Kubica was born and brought up
in Kraków, as was former WWE tag team champion Ivan Putski, and Top
10 ranked women's tennis player Agnieszka Radwańska.
The construction of a new
Kraków Arena began in May 2011; for
concerts, indoor athletics, hockey, basketball, futsal, etc. The Arena
will be ready in 2013; the total cost is estimated to be 363 million
Polish złoty.[needs update] It will accommodate up to 15 thousand
viewers. In the case of a concert, when the stage is set on the lower
arena, the facility will be able to seat up to 18 thousand
Kraków was bidding to host the
2022 Winter Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics with
the bid was rejected by a majority (69.72%) of the vote in a
referendum on 16 May 2014. The referendum was organised after a wave
of criticism from citizens who believed that the Olympics would not
promote the city. The organizing committee of "Krakow 2022" spent
almost $40,000 to pay for a citizen-approved logo, but many citizens
considered this a waste of public money. The committee was rumoured to
have fraudulently used several million zlotys for unknown expenses.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Contemporary foreign names for the city
Kraków is referred to by various names in different languages. A
traditional English name for the city is Cracow; though it has become
less common in recent decades, some sources still use it. The city is
known in Czech, Slovak and Serbian as Krakov, in Hungarian as Krakkó,
in Lithuanian as Krokuva, in Finnish as "Krakova", in German and Dutch
as Krakau, in Latin, Spanish and Italian as Cracovia, in French as
Cracovie, in Portuguese as Cracóvia and in Russian as Краков.
Ukrainian and Yiddish languages refer to it as Krakiv (Краків)
and Kroke (קראָקע respectively.
See also: Names of
Kraków in different languages.
Twin towns and sister cities
Kraków is twinned, or maintains close relations, with 34 cities
around the world:
Cambridge, Massachusetts, US (1989)
United Kingdom (1995)
Rochester, New York, US (1973)
San Francisco, US (2009)
European Union portal
Tourism in Poland
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kraków.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kraków.
Kraków in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikisource has the text of the 1921
Collier's Encyclopedia article
Essential Kraków—Tourism information about Kraków
Kraków Heritage Campaign
krakowmiasto.pl (in Polish)
Jewish Community in
Kraków on Virtual Shtetl
Poland at JewishGen
Kraków Heritage Under Threat
Kraków Jewish guide and genealogy in Poland
Tourism and culture in
Kraków (overview) at Krakow4you.net
English Guide to Krakow
The Snapshots My Way (The Colors of Nowa Huta. Options: The Nowa Huta
– Walks, Churches, Meadows, Parks etc.)
Kraków – gallery, news, map
Municipal spatial information system – GIS maps of
Cultural heritage of
Kraków (in yellow on city map)
Kraków old map from 1785 year
Beatniks and Beyond: An Alternative Guide to Kraków
Things to do in Kraków
Links to related articles
Stare Miasto (I)
Prądnik Czerwony (III)
Prądnik Biały (IV)
Łagiewniki-Borek Fałęcki (IX)
Podgórze Duchackie (XI)
Wzgórza Krzesławickie (XVII)
Nowa Huta (XVIII)
Basilica of Saint Mary
Dworek Jana Matejki w Krzesławicach
Historical Museum of Kraków
Museum of Insurances in Kraków
Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie
Muzeum Archidiecezjalne w Krakowie
Muzeum Czynu Niepodległościowego
Muzeum Czynu Zbrojnego
Muzeum Etnograficzne im. Seweryna Udzieli w Krakowie
Muzeum Geologiczne Instytutu Nauk Geologicznych PAN w Krakowie
Muzeum Historii Fotografii w Krakowie
Muzeum Inżynierii Miejskiej w Krakowie
Muzeum Katedralne im. Jana Pawła II na Wawelu
National Museum, Kraków
Polish Aviation Museum
Armia Krajowa Museum in Kraków
History of Kraków
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