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Kozhikode
Kozhikode
([koːɻikːoːɖ] (listen)), also known as Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India
India
and the headquarters of the Kozhikode district. The Kozhikode metropolitan area is the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala
Kerala
with a population of 2 million as of 2011.[12] The city lies about 358 km south west of Bangalore, 233 km south of Mangalore
Mangalore
and 525 km south west of Chennai. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was dubbed the City of Spices for its role as the major trading point of Indian spices.[1] It was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris (Zamorins) in the Middle Ages and later of the erstwhile Malabar District
Malabar District
under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, and Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode
Kozhikode
on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and the fort was intact in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
for short period (1511–1525, until the Fall of Calicut). The English landed in 1615 (constructing a trading post in 1665), followed by the French (1698) and the Dutch (1752). In 1765, Mysore
Mysore
captured Kozhikode
Kozhikode
as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth.[13]to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences, earnings and investments, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
ranked as the second best city in India
India
to reside in.[14] It was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007.[15]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early Kozhikode
Kozhikode
in foreign accounts 2.2 The Samoothiri

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Civic administration 6 Corporation Election 2015

6.1 Political Performance in Election 2015 6.2 Initiatives by District Administration 6.3 Law and order

7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 National highways 7.3 State Highways 7.4 Rail 7.5 Air

8 Economy

8.1 Shopping 8.2 Music

9 Media

9.1 Radio 9.2 Television

10 Education 11 Notable players 12 Location 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] Pazhashi Raja Museum The exact origin of the name Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is uncertain. According to many sources, the name Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is derived from Koyil-kota (fort), meaning fortified palace.[16] The name also got corrupted into Kolikod, or its anglicized version Calicut.[17] Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ (IPA: qˠaːliqˠːuːtˤ).[18] Tamils called it Kallikkottai while for the Chinese it was Kalifo. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut.[19] The word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth that was exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut.[20] It is the historical capital of Kerala
Kerala
as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
landed in Kappad, near Calicut.[21]

History[edit] Early Kozhikode
Kozhikode
in foreign accounts[edit] Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing then can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
(1342–1347), who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. He describes Kozhikode
Kozhikode
as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them".[22] Ma Huan
Ma Huan
(1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He)[23] lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day) and the matrilineal system of succession. Abdur Razzak (1442–43) the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour perfectly secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries especially from Abyssinia, Zirbad and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti
Niccolò de' Conti
(1445), perhaps the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, lac, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon, myrobalans and zedary. He calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles (13  km). The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin or Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74) calls 'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode
Kozhikode
include the Italian Ludovico di Varthema[24] (1503–1508) and Duarte Barbosa.[25]

Image of Kozhikode, India
India
from Georg Braun
Georg Braun
and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates Orbis terrarum, 1572 The Samoothiri[edit] See also: Zamorin of Calicut Kozhikode
Kozhikode
and its suburbs formed part of the Polanad kingdom ruled by the Porlatiri.[26] The Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad
Eranad
wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands.[27] and after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki became the ruler of Polanad and came to terms with the troops and people.[28] After this, the town of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was founded close to the palace at Tali.[29] Then, the Eradis shifted their headquarters from Nediyirippu to Kozhikode. The Governor of Ernad built a fort at a place called Velapuram to safeguard his new interests. The fort most likely lent its name to Koyil Kotta the precursor to Kozhikode. Thus the city came into existence sometime in the 13th century CE. The status of Udaiyavar increased and he became known as Swami Nambiyathiri Thirumulpad, and eventually Samuri or Samoothiri. Europeans called him in a corrupt form as Zamorin. According to K.V. Krishna Iyer, the rise of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is at once a cause and a consequence of Samoothiri's ascendancy in Kerala. By the end of the century, Samoothiri
Samoothiri
was at the zenith of his powers with all princes and chieftains of Kerala
Kerala
north of Kochi
Kochi
acknowledging his suzerainty.[30]

Geography and climate[edit] View of Calicut beach Geography[edit] View of Kappad
Kappad
beach The city of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is 410 kilometres (255 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. It is located at approximately 11°15′N 75°46′E / 11.25°N 75.77°E / 11.25; 75.77. It has an elevation of 1 metre (3 ft) along the coast with the city's eastern edges rising to at least 15 metres, with a sandy coastal belt and a lateritic midland. The city has a 15 km (9.3 mi) long shoreline and small hills dot the terrain in the eastern and central regions. To the city's west is the Laccadive Sea
Laccadive Sea
and from approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) to the east rises the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
Mountains. The geographical conditions of city area and suburban areas are similar to the other parts of the district falling in coastal and midland zones. The region comprising Kozhikode Corporation and peri-urban blocks belong to the low- and Midlands in the typical classification of land in Kerala
Kerala
as low-, mid- and highlands. Lagoons and backwaters characterise the lowland, which receives runoff from the rivers. The lowland is often subjected to salinity intrusion. The coastal plains exhibit more or less flat, narrow terrain with land forms such as beach ridges, sandbars, and backwater marshes. A few kilometres from the sea to the east, the surface gathers into slopes and clustering hills with numerous valleys in between formed due to floods and sediment transport. The Midlands is represented by hummocky rocky terrain with lateritised denudational hills and intervening valley fills (locally called elas). The 'elas' are fairly wide in the lower reaches of midlands and narrow towards the upper parts of the Midlands. A number of rivers originating from the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
run along the outer reaches of the city. These include the Chaliyar puzha, Kallayi Puzha, Korapuzha
Korapuzha
river, Poonoor
Poonoor
puzha (river), and Iravanjhi puzha. Of these, Kallai river that runs through the southern part of the city has been the most important culturally and historically for Kozhikode. The Kallai River has its origin in Cherikkulathur village. It is connected with Chaliyar on the south by a man-made canal. The river passes through Cherukulathur, Kovur, Olavanna, Manava and Kallai before finally joining the sea near Kozhikode. The length of the river is 22 kilometres (14 mi). The Korapuzha
Korapuzha
river is formed by the confluence of the Agalapuzha with the Punnurpuzha, and it joins the sea at Elathur. The Agalapuzha is more or less a backwater while the Punnurpuzha originates from Arikkankunni. The total length of the river is 40 kilometres (25 mi). Panurpuzha is a tributary of Korapuzha. It passes through the northern boundary of the study area and joins to the sea. The river is perennial. Canoly Canal
Canoly Canal
was built in 1848 to connect the Korapuzha
Korapuzha
river in the north to Kallayi river in the south. It functions as a drain to reduce flooding in the city during the rainy season and as a navigation channel. A system of wetland (mangrove) forests pervades the city from Kallai river to Eranjikkal.

Climate[edit] Kozhikode
Kozhikode
features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). The city has a highly humid tropical climate with high temperatures recorded from March to May. A brief spell of pre-monsoon Mango showers hits the city sometime during April. However, the primary source of rain is the South-west monsoon
South-west monsoon
that sets in the first week of June and continues until September. The city receives significant precipitation from the North-East Monsoon that sets in from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3,266  mm. The weather is milder from December/January until March when the skies are clear and the air is crisp. Winters are seldom cold. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C in March 1975. The lowest was 14 °C recorded on 26 December 1975.

Climate data for Kozhikode

Month

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Year

Record high °C (°F)

35.8(96.4)

36.6(97.9)

34.6(94.3)

34.4(93.9)

34.3(93.7)

34.0(93.2)

32.1(89.8)

30.8(87.4)

31.9(89.4)

32.7(90.9)

33.7(92.7)

34.0(93.2)

36.6(97.9)

Average high °C (°F)

28.9(84.0)

29.8(85.6)

31.6(88.9)

32.4(90.3)

32.8(91.0)

30.5(86.9)

29.8(85.6)

27.9(82.2)

29.5(85.1)

31(88)

30.2(86.4)

29.8(85.6)

30.5(86.9)

Daily mean °C (°F)

26.8(80.2)

27.7(81.9)

28.9(84.0)

29.6(85.3)

29.1(84.4)

26.7(80.1)

26.0(78.8)

25.9(78.6)

26.8(80.2)

27.3(81.1)

27.5(81.5)

27.2(81.0)

27.5(81.4)

Average low °C (°F)

21.7(71.1)

22.5(72.5)

23.8(74.8)

24.4(75.9)

25.1(77.2)

24.8(76.6)

24.5(76.1)

23.9(75.0)

22.8(73.0)

22.2(72.0)

21.8(71.2)

21.3(70.3)

23.3(73.9)

Record low °C (°F)

17.4(63.3)

19.0(66.2)

21.3(70.3)

20.8(69.4)

21.5(70.7)

21.0(69.8)

20.3(68.5)

21.2(70.2)

21.2(70.2)

18.4(65.1)

17.8(64.0)

18.0(64.4)

17.4(63.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches)

2.7(0.11)

3.4(0.13)

1.5(0.06)

31.1(1.22)

78.9(3.11)

818.2(32.21)

1,230.3(48.44)

764.4(30.09)

132.1(5.20)

46.6(1.83)

12.2(0.48)

8.8(0.35)

3,130.2(123.24)

Average rainy days

0.3

0.3

1.1

4.9

10.8

25.4

25.3

23.3

13.0

11.9

7.7

1.9

125.9

Average relative humidity (%)

70

72

73

74

78

88

90

90

86

82

77

71

79

Source #1: IMD (average high and low, precipitation)[31]

Source #2: NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity, rain days, 1971–1990)[32]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
district English Church Menon Museum Total Population under Municipal Corporation limits is 550,440.[9] Males form 47.7% and females 52.3%. Kozhikode
Kozhikode
has been a multi-ethnic and multi-religious town since the early medieval period. The Hindus
Hindus
forms the largest religious group, followed by Muslims and Christians.[33] Hindus
Hindus
form the majority at 57.7% of the population with 315807 members.[9] Muslims form 37.6% of the population with 207298 members.[9] The corporation of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
has an average literacy rate of 96.8%[11] (national average is 74.85%). The male literacy rate is 97.93% and female literacy rate is 95.78%.[11] Pre-modern Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was already teeming with people of several communities and regional groups. Most of these communities continued to follow their traditional occupations and customs till the 20th century.[34] Brahmins, too, lived in the city mostly around the Hindu temples. Regional groups like the Tamil Brahmins, Gujaratis and Marwari Jains
Marwari Jains
became part of the city and lived around their shrines.[35] The Nairs
Nairs
formed the rulers, warriors and landed gentry of Kozhikode. The Samoothiri
Samoothiri
had a ten thousand strong Nair bodyguard called the Kozhikkottu pathinaayiram (The 10,000 of Kozhikode) who defended the capital and supported the administration within the city. He had a larger force of 30,000 Nairs
Nairs
in his capacity as the Prince of Eranadu, called the Kozhikkottu Muppatinaayiram (The 30,000 of Kozhikode). The Nairs
Nairs
also formed the members of the suicide squad (chaver). The Thiyyas formed the vaidyars(Physicians), local militia and traders of Kozhikode. The Muslims of Kozhikode
Kozhikode
are known as Mappilas, and according to the official Kozhikode
Kozhikode
website "the great majority of them are Sunnis following the Shafi school of thought.[33] There are some smaller communities among the Muslims such as Dawoodi Bohras of Gujarati origin.[36] Many of the Muslims living in the historic part of the city follow matrilineality and are noted for their piety.[37] Though Christianity is believed to have been introduced in Kerala
Kerala
in 52 CE, the size of community in Malabar (northern Kerala) began to rise only after the arrival of the Portuguese towards the close of the 15th century. A few Christians of Thiruvitankoor and Kochi
Kochi
have lately migrated to the hilly regions of the district and are settled there.[37] The Tamil Brahmins
Tamil Brahmins
are primarily settled around the Tali Siva temple. They arrived in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
as dependants of chieftains, working as cooks, cloth merchants and moneylenders.[38] They have retained their Tamil language
Tamil language
and dialects as well as caste rituals. The Gujarati community is settled mostly around the Jain
Jain
temple in and around the Valliyangadi. They owned a large number of establishments, especially textile and sweet shops. They must have arrived in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
at least from the beginning of the 14th century. They belong to either the Hindu or the Jain
Jain
community. A few Marwari families are also found in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
who was basically moneylenders.

Civic administration[edit] The city is administered by the Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Corporation, headed by a mayor. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 75 wards,[39] from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years. Recently neighbouring suburbs Beypore, Elathur, Cheruvannur and Nallalam were merged within the municipal corporation.

Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Municipal Corporation

Mayor

Thottathil Raveendran

Deputy Mayor

Meera Darsak

Member of Parliament

M.K.Raghvan

District Collector

Shri. Seeram Sambasiva Rao IAS

Police Commissioner

Shri A V George IPS

Kozhikode Corporation is the first City Corporation in Kerala
Kerala
after the creation of the state. Established in 1962, Kozhikode Corporation's first mayor was H Manjunatha Rao. Kozhikode
Kozhikode
corporation has four assembly constituencies – Kozhikode
Kozhikode
North, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
South, Beypore
Beypore
and Elathur – all of which are part of Kozhikode.[40]

Corporation Election 2015[edit] Political Performance in Election 2015[edit]

S.No. Party Name Party symbol Number of Corporators

01 LDF

47

02 UDF

21

03 BJP

07

04 Independents

0

Initiatives by District Administration[edit] Operation Sulaimani : Providing food with dignity for those who cannot afford a meal through contributions from the public. Project 4 N : Maintenance of roads through public participation. Savari Giri Giri : To enable students to travel in buses with dignity. Compassionate Kozhikode:[41] The brand name for plethora of initiatives launched by the District Administration in partnership with civil society, Government agencies and citizens, who volunteer to make Kozhikode
Kozhikode
an authentic and inspirational destination for them to live and invite others to visit and experience it. It is the brainchild of former District Collector
District Collector
Prasanth N. (IAS). Law and order[edit] The Kozhikode
Kozhikode
City Police is headed by a commissioner, an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The city is divided into six zones each under a circle officer. Apart from regular law and order, the city police comprise the traffic police, bomb squad, dog squad, fingerprint bureau, women's cell, juvenile wing, narcotics cell, riot force, armed reserve camps, district crime records bureau and a women's station.[42] It operates 16 police stations functioning under the Home Ministry of Government of Kerala.

Transport[edit] Main article: Transportation in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
district Road[edit] The city has a reasonably well-developed transport infrastructure. A large number of buses, predominantly run by individual owners, ply on the major routes within the city and to nearby locations. City buses are painted green. Kerala State Road Transport Corporation
Kerala State Road Transport Corporation
(KSRTC) runs regular services to many destinations in the state and to the neighbouring states. The city has three bus stands. All private buses to the suburban and nearby towns ply from the Palayam Bus Stand. Private buses to adjoining districts start from the Mofussil Bus Stand (one of the largest bus stand in Kerala) on Indira Gandhi Road (Mavoor Road). Buses operated by the KSRTC drive from the KSRTC bus stand on Indira Gandhi Road. KSRTC Bus Stand Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is the biggest bus stand in Kerala
Kerala
having a size of 36,036.47 meter square.[43] There are also KSRTC depots in Thamarassery, Thottilpalam, Thiruvambady
Thiruvambady
and Vatakara
Vatakara
in the district. There are two routes available to Bangalore. One is Kozhikode–Gundlupet–Mysore–Bangalore; this road is most preferred one but is very busy. Another route, less used, is Kozhikode–Gundlupet–Chamarajanagar–Kollegal–Bangalore. Private tour operators maintain regular luxury bus services to Mumbai, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Chennai, Vellore, Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Ooty etc. and mainly operate from the Palayam area. These are usually night services.

National highways[edit] .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center KSRTC bus terminal-cum-shopping complex in KozhikodeVolvo 8400 at Calicut Bus Terminal Thamarassery
Thamarassery
Churam is one of the popular tourist destinations in Kozhikode Calicut Mini Bypass.Calicut International Airport Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Railway Station is one of the busiest railway stations in South India National Highway 66 connects Kozhikode
Kozhikode
to Mumbai
Mumbai
via Mangaluru, Udupi and Goa
Goa
to the north and Kochi
Kochi
and Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
near Thiruvananthapuram to the south along the west coast of India. This highway connects the city with the other important towns like, Uppala, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Kannur, Thalassery, Mahe, Vadakara, Koyilandy, Vengalam,[44] Ramanattukara, Kottakkal, Kuttippuram, Ponnani, (Guruvayoor)Chavakkad, Kodungallur, North Paravur, Edapally
Edapally
and proceed to Alappuzha, Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
and terminate at the southern tip of India, Kanyakumari. National Highway 766 connects Kozhikode
Kozhikode
to Bangalore
Bangalore
through Kollegal in Karnataka via Tirumakudal Narsipur, Mysore, Nanjangud, Gundlupet, Sulthan Bathery, Kalpetta
Kalpetta
and Thamarassery. National Highway 966 connects Kozhikode
Kozhikode
to Coimbatore
Coimbatore
through Malappuram
Malappuram
and Palakkad. It covers a distance of 125 kilometres (78 mi). At Ramanattukara, a suburb of Kozhikode, it joins NH 66. It passes through towns like Kondotty, Perinthalmanna, and Mannarkkad and Malappuram
Malappuram
city. This stretch connects the city and Calicut International Airport.

State Highways[edit] SH 29 passes through the city. It connects NH 212, Malabar Christian College, civil station, Kunnamangalam
Kunnamangalam
and Padanilam, Thamarassery, Chellot, Chitragiri and Road to Gudallor from Kerala
Kerala
border. SH 54 is connecting city and Kalpetta. The highway is 99.0 kilometres (61.5 mi) long. The highway passes through Pavangad, Kozhikode, Ulliyeri, Perambra, Poozhithodu, Peruvannamuzhi
Peruvannamuzhi
and Padinjarethara. SH 68 starts from Kappad
Kappad
and ends in Adivaram. The highway is 68.11 kilometres (42.32 mi) long. SH 34 starts from Koyilandy
Koyilandy
and ends in Edavanna
Edavanna
which is 44.0 km long. This highway passes through Koyilandi, Ulliyeri, Balussery, Thamarassery, Omassery, Mukkam.

Rail[edit] The history of railways in Malabar dates to 1861 when the first tracks were laid between Tirur
Tirur
and Beypore.[45] Kozhikode
Kozhikode
railway station is the only A1 railway station in Palakkad
Palakkad
railway division;[citation needed] it is in the Shoranur-Mangalore section. Today, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is connected by rail to cities like Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Thrissur, Kollam, Tirunelveli, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Vellore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Kannur, Mangalore, Mumbai, New Delhi, Vijayawada
Vijayawada
and Visakhapatnam.[citation needed]

Air[edit] Calicut International Airport
Calicut International Airport
is 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the city at Karipur. Domestic services are operated to major Indian cities. There are international flights to the Middle Eastern air hubs like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Salalah, Muscat, Dammam, Riyadh, Sharjah, Bahrain, Doha
Doha
and to domestic hubs Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mumbai
Mumbai
and New Delhi.[citation needed]

Economy[edit] Broken bridge at Calicut beach Calicut is one of the biggest economic hub in Kerala. Service sector dominates the economy followed by industries. Cyberpark, is a Government of Kerala
Kerala
organisation plan to build, operate and manage IT parks for the promotion and development of investment in IT and ITES industries in the Malabar region
Malabar region
of Kerala. It would be the third IT hub in the state of Kerala. The two IT parks might create a total 100,000 direct job opportunities. The first project is the development of Cyberpark
Cyberpark
hub in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
with its spokes at Kannur
Kannur
and Kazargode IT parks.[46][47] Other planned projects include the Birla IT park (at Mavoor) and Malaysian satellite city (at Kinaloor) where KINFRA has plans to set up a 400-acre (1.6 km2) industrial park. In 2012, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was given the tag of "City of Sculptures" (Shilpa Nagaram) because of the architectural sculptures around the city.[48][49]

Shopping[edit] The Focus Mall, the first shopping mall of its kind in the State Main article: Shopping Malls in Calicut The city has a strong mercantile aspect. The main area of business was once Valiyangadi (Big Bazaar) near the railway station. As time progressed, it shifted to other parts of the city. These days, the commercial heart has moved to Mittai Theruvu (Sweetmeat Street or S. M. Street), a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from saris to cosmetics. It also houses restaurants and sweetmeat shops. Today, the city has multiple shopping malls. Focus Mall, HiLITE Mall (the second largest mall in Kerala)[50] Address Mall and RP Mall are a few among them.[51]

Music[edit] In addition to the Malabar Mahotsavam, the annual cultural fest of Kozhikode,[52] every year since 1981 the Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
Aradhana Trust has been conducting a five-day music festival in honour of Tyagaraja. The festival is complete with the Uncchavritti, rendering of Divyanama kritis, Pancharatna Kritis, concerts by professional artistes and students of music from morning to late in the evening.[53] Kozhikode
Kozhikode
has a tradition of Ghazal
Ghazal
and Hindustani music appreciation. There are many Malayalam Ghazals. The late film director and play back singer M. S. Baburaj, from Kozhikode
Kozhikode
was influenced by Ghazal
Ghazal
and Hindustani.[54]

Media[edit] Radio[edit] The Kozhikode
Kozhikode
radio station of All India
India
Radio has two transmitters: Kozhikode
Kozhikode
AM (100 kilowatts) and Kozhikode
Kozhikode
FM [Vividh Bharathi] (10 kilowatts). Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9 operated by Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd. Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
operated by Entertainment Network India
India
Ltd. and Club FM 104.8
Club FM 104.8
operated by Mathrubhumi group and Red FM 93.5 of the SUN Network. AIR FM radio stations are Kozhikode – 103.6 MHz; AIR MW radio station is Kozhikode
Kozhikode
– 684 kHz.

Television[edit] MediaOne TV Headquarters And Studio A television transmitter has been functioning in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
since 3 July 1984, relaying programmes from Delhi
Delhi
and Thiruvananthapuram Doordarshan. Doordarshan
Doordarshan
has its broadcasting centre in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
at Medical College. The Malayalam channels based on Kozhikode
Kozhikode
are the Shalom Television, Darshana TV and Media One TV. All major channels in Malayalam viz. Manorama News, Asianet, Surya TV, Kairali TV, Amrita TV, Jeevan TV, Indiavision and Jaihind
Jaihind
have their studios and news bureaus in the city. Satellite television services are available through DD Direct+, Dish TV, Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct DTH
and Tata Sky. Asianet Digital TV
Asianet Digital TV
is popularly known as ACV telecasts daily city news. Spidernet is another local channel. Other local operators include KCL and Citinet. The Calicut Press Club came into existence in 1970. It is the nerve centre of all media activities, both print and electronic. Begun with around 70 members in the roll, this Press Club, became a prestigious and alert media centre in the state with a present membership of over 280.[55][better source needed]

Education[edit] Indian Institute of Management KozhikodeNational Institute of Technology Calicut Main article: Educational institutions in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
district See also: Education in Kerala
Kerala
and List of educational institutions in Kozhikode There are 1,237 schools in Kozhikode district
Kozhikode district
including 191 highschools.[56] Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is home to two premier educational institutions of national importance: the Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode
Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode
(IIMK), and the National Institute of Technology, Calicut
National Institute of Technology, Calicut
(NITC). Other institutions include National Institute for Research and Development in Defence Shipbuilding (NIRDESH),[57] Indian Institute of Spices Research (IISR),[58] and National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT) are also based in Calicut.[59] The University of Calicut
University of Calicut
is the largest university in Kerala
Kerala
and is located in Thenjipalam, about 24 kilometres (15 mi) south of Calicut. This university was established in 1968 and was the second university set up in Kerala. Most of the colleges offering tertiary education in the region are affiliated to this university.[60] The Calicut Medical College
Calicut Medical College
was established in 1957 as the second medical college in Kerala. Since then, the institution has grown into a premier centre of medical education in the state. Presently it is the largest medical institute in the state with a yearly intake of 250 candidates for the undergraduate programme. In 1877, a school for young Rajas was started in Kozhikode. This was later thrown open to all caste Hindu boys. In 1879, it was affiliated to the University of Madras as a second-grade college and with this, collegiate education in the district received a fillip. Secondary education recorded appreciable progress since 1915. The erstwhile Malabar district, of which the present Kozhikode district
Kozhikode district
formed a part, holds a high rank among the districts of Madras Presidency in secondary education.[61]

Notable players[edit] Olympian Abdurahiman - participated in the 1956 Summer Olympics Rino Anto Prasanth Karuthadathkuni Ghani Ahmmed Nigam Location[edit] vteAreas of Kozhikode Koyilandy Perambra Balussery

Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Beach

Calicut City

Kunnamangalam

Beypore Feroke Ramanattukara

See also[edit]

India
India
portal History of Kozhikode Kozhikode
Kozhikode
district Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Beach Kozhikode
Kozhikode
East Kozhikode
Kozhikode
North Kozhikode
Kozhikode
South Airport Road, Kozhikode List of people from Kozhikode References[edit]

^ a b "Lectures 26-27". Web.archive.org. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2019..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ M. G. S. Narayanan (2006). The City of Truth Revisited. University of Calicut. p. 350. ISBN 978-8177481044.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
to be 'city of sculptures'". The Hindu. 6 June 2012.

^ "thottathil-raveendran-new-calicut-mayor". Malayala manorama. Doha, Qatar. 5 June 2016. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

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^ Reporter, Staff (29 July 2010). " Kozhikode Corporation finalising master plan". The Hindu.

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India
2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012. Cite web requires |website= (help)

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India
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^ Menon, A. Sreedhara (1965). Kerala
Kerala
District Gazetteers: Kozhikode
Kozhikode
- Gazetteer of India, Volume 5 of Kerala
Kerala
District Gazetteers, Kerala (India). Superintendent of Govt. Presses.

^ Ayyar, K. V. Krishna (1938). The Zamorins of Calicut: From the Earliest Times Down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut; University of Michigan.

^ Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund (2010). "18. Ibn Battuta: International Trade at the Malabar Coast". A History of India. Routledge. ISBN 9780415485432. Thence we travelled to the town of Qāliqūṭ. [Calicut], which is one of the chief ports in Mulaibār.

^ M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Press, Kozhikode.

^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). calico

^ 1951-, Crowley, Roger, (2015). Conquerors : how Portugal forged the first global empire (First ed.). New York. ISBN 9780812994001. OCLC 904967943.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)

^ Ibn Battuta, H. A. R. Gibb (1994). The Travels of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
A.D 1325-1354. IV. London.

^ Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN 974-8496-78-3

^ Varthema, Ludovico di, The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, A.D.1503–08, translated from the original 1510 Italian ed. by John Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society, London

^ Gangadharan. M., The Land of Malabar: The Book of Barbosa (2000), Vol II, M.G University, Kottayam.

^ Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala
Kerala
History(1967), p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam

^ Bhāratīya sthalanāma patrikā (page 44) published by Place Names Society of India

^ Sewell, Robert (1884). Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of southern India. p. 197. The Samoothiri
Samoothiri
made Menokki ruler of Porallatiri and came to terms with the troops and people. After this follows an account of the founding of the town of Kozhikode, close to the Samoothiri's palace at Tali

^ K. V. Krishna Ayyar; University of Calicut. Publication Division (1938). The Samorins of Calicut: from the earliest times down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-7748-000-9. Retrieved 25 July 2011.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut), Kerala, India
India
- Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut) Hotels, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut) resorts, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut) tourism, Kozhikode (Calicut) real estate and Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(Calicut) businesses". Kozhikode.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
weather". India
India
Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012. Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ a b "Official Website of Kozhikode". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

^ "Official website of kozhikode". 12 October 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ Narayanan M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth, Calicut University Press (2006)

^ "Bohras in Calicut". Hinduonnet.com. 19 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

^ a b "Official website of Kozhikode, Govt. of Kerala". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

^ Narayanan.M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth(2006) Calicut University Publications

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Corporation, Councillors" (PDF). Kozhikodecorporation.org. Retrieved 27 November 2011.[permanent dead link]

^ Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Lok Sabha constituency redrawn Delimitation impact, The Hindu 5 February 2008

^ "COMPASSIONATE KOZHIKODE". Compassionatekozhikode.in. Retrieved 22 June 2019.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
City Police". Kozhikode
Kozhikode
City Police. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

^ "Deadlock on Pooladikunnu- Vengalam
Vengalam
stretch over". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 22 June 2019.

^ "Central station completes 75 years". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 November 2006.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
- Cyber Park Kerala". Cyberparkkerala.org. Retrieved 22 June 2019.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
Cyberpark
Cyberpark
to take off next year". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ "'Shilpa Nagaram' on June 7". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 June 2012.

^ " Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is 'Shilpa Nagaram'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 June 2012.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

^ "HiLITE City, One of India's Largest Mixed-Use Development Project Enters the Limelight". Business Wire. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.

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^ "Paying tribute to Sathguru Sri Tyagaraja". Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
Aradhana Trust. Retrieved 4 September 2015.

^ Ramin Raveendran (20 October 2013). "Keeping the harmonium close to his heart". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 4 September 2015.

^ "Calicut press club". Archived from the original on 23 June 2003. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

^ List of High Schools in Kozhikode, Mighil 28 December 2017

^ Biju Govind (1 May 2016). "Nirdesh to design ships for Navy". The Hindu. Calicut, India. Retrieved 21 May 2019.

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^ "Introduction". National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology. Retrieved 21 May 2019. Cite web requires |website= (help)

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Kozhikode
Education". Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kozhikode.

Kozhikode
Kozhikode
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Kozhikode
Kozhikode
District official website Articles Related to Kozhikode vteState of KeralaCapital: ThiruvananthapuramDistricts Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam
Ernakulam
KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14 Topics Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Wildlife Government Tourism Sports Symbols Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden rain Fish Karimeen Fruit Jackfruit Insect Papilio buddha Taluks Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Thiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwar Municipal Corporations Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur Municipalities Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur-Thathamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Pala Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perinthalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Thiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala Other townsSouth Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Parippally Chathannoor Kottiyam Kundara Neendakara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Kadakkal Pathanapuram Thenmala Kulathupuzha Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omallur Vadasserikara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalappuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirappally Erumely Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Central Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varappuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Puthukkad Manaloor Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala North Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikkunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiady Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadom Anjarakkandy Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kalliasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbla Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwar Historical regions Malabar North Malabar South Malabar Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin Portal: Kerala vteCities and towns in Kozhikode
Kozhikode
districtKozhikode Beypore Balussery Calicut Chorode Edacheri Chathamangalam Chathangottunada Cheruvannur Elathur Eramala Feroke Karaparamba Kadalundi Kappad Karuvanthuruthy Koduvally Kunnamangalam Kuttiyadi Maniyur Mavoor Meppayur Mukkam Nadapuram Njeliyanparambu Olavanna Orkkatteri Pantheeramkavu Payyoli Perambra Purameri Quilandy Ramanattukara Thamarassery Thiruvambadi Vatakara Villiappally

vte North Malabar
North Malabar
RegionDistricts Kozhikode
Kozhikode
( Vatakara
Vatakara
and Koyilandy
Koyilandy
Taluks) Wayanad ( Mananthavady
Mananthavady
Taluk) Mahe Kannur Kasaragod Main Towns and Cities Kannur Thalassery Kozhikode Vatakara Kasaragod Mahe Koyilandy Payyannur Kanhangad Nileshwaram Thaliparamba Kuthuparamba Mattannur Mananthavady Perambra Kuttiyadi Peringome Nadapuram Payyoli Iritty Azhiyur Orkkateri Meppayur Vellikulangara Edakkad New Mahe Pinarayi Mambaram Panoor Vellamunda Thirunelli Edavaka Thavinjal Panamaram Irikkur Kottayam Anjarakkandy Pazhayangadi Trikarpur Manjeswaram Pappinisseri Kalliasseri Cherukunnu Kannapuram Morazha Aroli Pattuvam Sreekandapuram Alakode Cherupuzha Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cheruvathur Mattool

vtePortuguese overseas empireNorth Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta
Ceuta
1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir) 1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah) 1471–1662 Tangier 1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1487–16th century Ouadane
Ouadane
1488–1541 Safim (Safi) 1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir) 1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira) 1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima) 1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour) 1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya) 1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim 1462–1975 Cape Verde 1470–1975 São Tomé1 1471–1975 Príncipe1 1474–1778 Annobón 1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko) 1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina) 1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast 1508–15472 Madagascar3 1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi
Malindi
1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique
Portuguese Mozambique
1502–1659 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
1503–1698 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa) 1506–1511 Socotra
Socotra
1557–1578 Accra
Accra
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola 1588–1974 Cacheu4 1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá 1687–1974 Bissau4 18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa) 1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe 19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753.2 Or 1600.3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.4 Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas) 1507–1643 Sohar
Sohar
1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus) 1515–1648 Quriyat 1515–? Qalhat
Qalhat
1515–1650 Muscat 1515?–? Barka 1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah) 1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama) 1521–1529? Qatif 1521?–1551? Tarut Island 1550–1551 Qatif
Qatif
1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan
Khor Fakkan
1621?–? As Sib 1621–1622 Qeshm
Qeshm
1623–? Khasab
Khasab
1623–? Libedia 1624–? Kalba
Kalba
1624–? Madha
Madha
1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn
Dibba Al-Hisn
1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545 Laccadive Islands(Lakshadweep) 16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)  • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)  • 1502–1658 1659–1661 Quilon(Coulão / Kollam)  • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)  • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)  • 1510–1961 Goa
Goa
 • 1512–1525 1750 Calicut(Kozhikode)  • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)  • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)  • 1523–1662 Mylapore  • 1528–1666 Chittagong(Porto Grande De Bengala)  • 1531–1571 Chaul
Chaul
 • 1531–1571 Chalé  • 1534–1601 Salsette Island  • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)  • 1535 Ponnani
Ponnani
 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)  • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)  • 1540–1612 Surat
Surat
 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)  • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu  • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)  • 1579–1632Hugli  • 1598–1610Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) 1518–1521 Maldives
Maldives
1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka) 1558–1573 Maldives 17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore 18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia] 1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]  • 1522–1575  Ternate  • 1576–1605  Ambon  • 1578–1650   Tidore
Tidore
1512–1665 Makassar 1557–1999 Macau [China] 1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan] 17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane
Coloane
 • 1851–1999 Taipa
Taipa
 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde 20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira
Madeira
1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland) 1500–1579? Labrador 1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil  • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil  • 1549–1572  Brazil  • 1572–1578  Bahia  • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro  • 1578–1607  Brazil  • 1621–1815  Brazil 1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão 1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento 18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão 1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro 1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay) 1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá) 1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Armorial of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Nusantara Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

vteMillion-plus agglomerations in IndiaNorth Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota Central Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Prayagraj Eastern Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol Western Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad Southern Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

Authority control BNF: cb15538833f (data) GND: 4302447-6 LCCN: n83060710 VIAF: 125525481 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

.