* 1 History
* 2 Buddhist history of
* 3 Mauryan
During the period prior the
Maurya Empire ,
The excavations of the archaeological site of
The Buddhist commentarial scriptures give two reasons for the name Kausambi/Kosambī. The more favoured is that the city was so called because it was founded in or near the site of the hermitage once occupied by the sage Kusumba (v.l. Kusumbha). Another explanation is that large and stately neem trees or Kosammarukkhā grew in great numbers in and around the city.
BUDDHIST HISTORY OF KOSAMBI
In the time of the Buddha its king was Parantapa, and after him
reigned his son Udena (Pali. Sanskrit: Udayana). Kosambī was
evidently a city of great importance at the time of the Buddha for we
The city was thirty leagues by river from Benares (modern day
Near Kosambī, by the river, was Udayana/Udena's park, the Udakavana
Buddha's Holy Sites
THE FOUR MAIN SITES
FOUR ADDITIONAL SITES
* v * t * e
BUDDHIST MONASTERIES IN KOSAMBI
Already in the Buddha's time there were four establishments of the Order in Kosambī - the Kukkutārāma , the Ghositārāma , the Pāvārika-ambavana (these being given by three of the most eminent citizens of Kosambī, named respectively, Kukkuta, Ghosita and Pāvārika), and the Badarikārāma . The Buddha visited Kosambī on several occasions, stopping at one or other of these residences, and several discourses delivered during these visits are recorded in the books. (Thomas, op. cit., 115, n.2, doubts the authenticity of the stories connected with the Buddha's visits to Kosambī, holding that these stories are of later invention).
The Buddha spent his ninth rainy season at Kosambī, and it was on his way there on this occasion that he made a detour to Kammāssadamma and was offered in marriage Māgandiyā , daughter of the Brahmin Māgandiya. The circumstances are narrated in connection with the Māgandiya Sutta. Māgandiyā took the Buddha's refusal as an insult to herself, and, after her marriage to King Udena (of Kosambi), tried in various ways to take revenge on the Buddha, and also on Udena's wife Sāmavatī, who had been the Buddha's follower.
THE SCHISM AT KOSAMBI
A great schism once arose among the monks in Kosambī. Some monks charged one of their colleagues with having committed the offence of leaving water in the dipper in the bathroom (which would let mosquitoes breed in it), but he refused to acknowledge the charge and, being himself learned in the Vinaya , argued his case and pleaded that the charge be dismissed. The rules were complicated; on the one hand, the monk had broken a rule and was treated as an offender, but on the other, he should not have been so treated if he could not see that he had done wrong. The monk was eventually excommunicated, and this brought about a great dissension. When the matter was reported to the Buddha, he admonished the partisans of both sides and urged them to give up their differences, but they paid no heed, and even blows were exchanged. The people of Kosambī, becoming angry at the monks' behaviour, the quarrel grew apace. The Buddha once more counselled concord, relating to the monks the story of King Dīghiti of Kosala, but his efforts at reconciliation were of no avail, one of the monks actually asking him to leave them to settle their differences without his interference. In disgust the Buddha left Kosambī and, journeying through Bālakalonakāragāma and the Pācīnavamsadaya, retired alone to keep retreat in the Pārileyyaka forest. In the meantime the monks of both parties repented, partly owing to the pressure exerted by their lay followers in Kosambī, and, coming to the Buddha at Sāvatthi, they asked his pardon and settled their dispute
OTHER LEGENDS AND REFERENCES IN LITERATURE
Bakkula was the son of a banker in Kosambī. In the Buddha's time
there lived near the ferry at Kosambī a powerful
During the time of the Vajjian heresy, when the Vajjian monks of Vesāli wished to excommunicate Yasa Kākandakaputta, he went by air to Kosambī, and from there sent messengers to the orthodox monks in the different centres (Vin.ii.298; Mhv.iv.17).
It was at Kosambī that the Buddha promulgated a rule forbidding the use of intoxicants by monks (Vin.ii.307).
Kosambī is mentioned in the Samyutta Nikāya.
The schism edict of Kausambi (Minor Pillar Edict 2) states that, "The King instructs the officials of Kausambi as follows: ..... The way of the Sangha must not be abandoned..... Whosoever shall break the unity of Sangha, whether monk or nun from this time forth, shall be compelled to wear white garments, and to dwell in a place outside the sangha."
All sources cite Kausambi as an important site during the period.
More than three thousand stone sculptures have been recovered from
Kausambi and its neighbouring ancient sites – Mainhai, Bhita,
Mankunwar and Deoria. These are currently housed in the Prof. G.R.
Sharma Memorial Museum of the Department of Ancient History, Allahabad
Allahabad Museum and State Museum in
* ^ A. L. Basham (2002).
The Wonder That Was India . Rupa and Co.
p. 41. ISBN 0-283-99257-3 .
* ^ Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu. Oxford
University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-531405-2 .
* ^ J.iv.28; vi.236
* ^ Rohan L. Jayetilleke (2007-12-05). "The Ghositarama of
Kaushambi". Daily News . Retrieved 2008-10-29.
* ^ James Heitzman, The City in South Asia (Routledge, 2008), pp.13
* ^ S. Kusumgar and M. G. YadavaMunshi Manoharlal Publishers, New
Delhi (2002). K. Paddayya, ed. Recent Studies in Indian Archaeology.
pp. 445–451. ISBN 81-215-0929-7 .
* ^ E.g., UdA.248; SNA.300; MA.i.535. Epic tradition ascribes the
foundation of Kosambī to a Cedi prince, while the origin of the Vatsa
people is traced to a king of Kāsī, see PHAI.83, 84
* ^ e.g., MA i.539; PsA.413
* ^ MA.ii.740f; DhA.i.164f
* ^ D.ii.146,169
* ^ See, e.g., Vin.i.277
* ^ AA.i.170; PsA.491
* ^ See Vin.ii.184f
* ^ Vin.ii.290f; SNA.ii.514; J.iv.375
* ^ S.v.437
* ^ PvA.141
* ^ DhA.i.199ff; iii.193ff; iv.1ff; Ud.vii.10
* ^ Vin.i.337-57; J.iii.486ff (cp.iii.211ff); DhA.i.44ff;
SA.ii.222f. The story of the Buddha going into the forest is given in
Ud.iv.5. and in S.iii.94, but the reason given in these texts is that
he found Kosambī uncomfortable owing to the vast number of monks, lay
people and heretics. But see UdA.248f, and SA.ii.222f).
* ^ MA.ii.929; AA.i.170
* ^ AA.i.179; but see J.i.360, where the incident is given as
happening at Bhaddavatikā
* ^ J.vi.237f
* ^ J.iv.392
* ^ S.iv.179; but see AA.i.170; MA.ii.929; PsA.491, all of which
indicate that the city was on the Yamunā) as being "Gangāya nadiyā
tīre." This is either an error, or here the name Gangā refers not to