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The romanization of Korean is a system for representing the Korean language using the Latin script. Korea's alphabetic script is called Hangul, and is occasionally written using the combination of, or independently from Hanja
Hanja
(Chinese characters). Romaja literally means Roman letters in Korean, and refers to the Latin script. "Romaja" is not to be confused with "romanization". The former can be applied to any use of the Latin script
Latin script
in Korean text—whether for Korean or non-Korean words or names—while the latter refers to writing Korean words using the Latin script: either romanizing individual words in a Korean text, or writing an entire Korean text in the Latin script.

Contents

1 Systems 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Systems[edit] Many romanization schemes are in common use:

Revised Romanization of Korean
Revised Romanization of Korean
(RR, also called South Korean or Ministry of Culture (MC) 2000): This is the most commonly used and widely accepted system of romanization for Korean. It includes rules both for transcription and for transliteration. South Korea
South Korea
now officially uses this system which was approved in 2000. Road signs and textbooks were required to follow these rules as soon as possible, at a cost estimated by the government to be at least US$20 million.[citation needed] Almost all road signs, names of railway and subway stations on line maps and signs etc. have been changed. Romanization
Romanization
of surnames and existing companies' names has been left untouched; the government encourages using the new system for given names and new companies.

RR is similar to MR, but uses neither diacritics nor apostrophes, which has helped it to gain widespread acceptance on the Internet. In cases of ambiguity, orthographic syllable boundaries may be indicated with a hyphen, although state institutions never seemed to make use of this option until recently. Hyphenation on street and address signs is used to separate proper names and numbers from their assigned function. As of 2014, under mandate from the Roadname Address Act, Korea Post officially changed the older address system from lot-based district subdivisions to a street-based system that regularly utilizes hyphenation in order to disambiguate.[1] The Ministry of the Interior also provided the public with various service announcements and websites forewarning of the change toward a clear and complete signage system classifying all streets and individual addresses with romanization (of which hyphenation is a systematic part).[2]

McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
(MR; 1937?), the first transcription to gain some acceptance. A slightly modified version of MR was the official system for Korean in South Korea
South Korea
from 1984 to 2000, and yet a different modification is still the official system in North Korea. MR uses breves, apostrophes and diereses, the latter two indicating orthographic syllable boundaries in cases that would otherwise be ambiguous.

Several variants of MR, often also called "McCune's and Reischauer's", differ from the original mostly in whether word endings are separated from the stem by a space, by a hyphen or not at all; and if a hyphen or space is used, whether sound change is reflected in a stem's last and an ending's first consonant letter (e.g. pur-i vs. pul-i). Although mostly irrelevant when transcribing uninflected words, these variants are so widespread that any mention of "McCune-Reischauer romanization" may not necessarily refer to the original system as published in the 1930s. MR-based romanizations have been common in popular literature until 2000.

The ALA-LC / U.S. Library of Congress system is based on but deviates from MR. Unlike in MR, it addresses word division in seven pages of detail. Syllables of given names are always separated with a hyphen, which is expressly never done by MR. Sound changes are ignored more often than in MR. ALA-LC also distinguishes between ‘ and ’.[3] Yale (1942): This system has become the established standard romanization for Korean among linguists. Vowel length in old or dialectal pronunciation is indicated by a macron. In cases that would otherwise be ambiguous, orthographic syllable boundaries are indicated with a period. Indicates disappearance of consonants. ISO/TR 11941
ISO/TR 11941
(1996): This actually is two different standards under one name: one for North Korea
North Korea
(DPRK) and the other for South Korea (ROK). The initial submission to the ISO was based heavily on Yale and was a joint effort between both states, but they could not agree on the final draft. A superficial comparison between the two is available here: [1] Lukoff romanization, developed 1945–47 for his Spoken Korean coursebooks[4] Romanization
Romanization
of Korean: Chosŏn Sahoe Kwahagwŏn (Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국사회과학원, Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國社會科學院) romanization

McCune–Reischauer-based transcriptions and the Revised Romanization differ from each other mainly in the choice of how to represent certain hangul letters. Both attempt to match a word's spelling to how it would be written if it were an English word, so that an English speaker would come as close as possible to its Korean pronunciation by pronouncing it naturally. Hence, the same hangul letter may be represented by different Roman letters, depending on its pronunciation in context. The Yale system, on the other hand, represents each Korean letter by always the same Roman letter(s) context-independently, thus not indicating the hangul letters' context-specific pronunciation. Even in texts that claim to follow one of the above, aberrations are a common occurrence and a major obstacle, e.g. when conducting an automated search on the Internet, as the searcher must check all possible spelling variants, a considerable list even without such aberrations. In addition to these systems, many people spell names or other words in an ad hoc manner, producing more variations (e.g. 이/리 (李), which is variously romanized as Lee, Yi, I, or Rhee). For more details, see:Naming conventions (Korean). SKATS
SKATS
is a transliteration system that does not attempt to use letters of a similar function in Western languages. A similar approach is to transliterate by hitting the keys that would produce a Korean word on a keyboard with 2[du]-beolsik layout. This can often be seen on the internet, for example in usernames. Examples[edit]

English Hangul (Hanja) IPA RR (RR transliteration in brackets) McC-Rsr Yale SKATS

wall 벽 [pjʌk̚] byeok (byeog) pyŏk pyek wsl

on the wall 벽에 [pjʌ.ɡe̞] byeoge (byeog-e) pyŏge pyek ey wsl ktu

outside (uninflected) 밖 [pak̚] bak (bakk) pak pakk well

outside 밖에 [pa.k͈e̞] bakke (bakk-e) pakke pakk ey well ktu

kitchen 부엌 [pu.ʌk̚] bueok (bueok) puŏk puekh wh ktx

to the kitchen/in the kitchen 부엌에 [pu.ʌ.kʰe̞] bueoke (bueok-e) puŏk'e puekh ey wh ktx ktu

Wikipedia 위키백과 [ɥi.cʰi.bɛ̝k̚.k͈wa] wikibaekgwa (wikibaeggwa) wikibaekkwa wikhi payk.kwa khu xu weul lae

Hangul 한글 [han.ɡɯl] hangeul or han-geul (hangeul) han'gŭl hānkul jef ldv

character, letter 글자 [kɯl.t͈ɕa] geulja (geulja) kŭlcha kulqca ldv pe

(an) easy (+ noun) 쉬운 … [ɕɥi.un] swiun … (swiun …) shwiun … swīwun … ghu khf

Korea has four distinct seasons. 한국은 네 계절이 뚜렷하다. [han.ɡu.ɡɯn ne̞ cje̞.dʑʌ.ɾi t͈u.ɾjʌ.tʰa.da] Hangugeun ne gyejeori tturyeotada. (Hangug-eun ne gyejeol-i ttulyeoshada.) Hangugŭn ne kyejŏri tturyŏthada. Hānkuk un nēy kyēycel i ttwulyes hata. jef lhl kdf ftu lsu ptv ku bbh vsg je be

Just check the line color and width you want. 원하시는 선 색깔과 굵기에 체크하시면 됩니다. [wʌn.ɦa.ɕi.nɯn sʌn sɛ̝k̚.k͈al.ɡwa kul.c͈i.e̞ tɕʰe̞.kʰɯ.ɦa.ɕi.mjʌn twe̞m.ɲi.da] Wonhasineun seon saekkkalgwa gulkkie chekeuhasimyeon doemnida. (Wonhasineun seon saegkkalgwa gulggie chekeuhasimyeon doebnida.) Wŏnhasinŭn sŏn saekkalgwa kulkie ch'ek'ŭhasimyŏn toemnida. Wēn hasinun sen sayk.kkal kwa kwulk.ki ey cheykhu hasimyen toypnita. khtf je gu fdf gtf geul llev lae lhvl lu ktu ctu xd je gu msf bauw fu be

See also[edit]

Cyrillization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization
Romanization
of Korean Revised Romanization List of Korea-related topics

References[edit]

^ "메세지 페이지". www.koreapost.go.kr.  ^ http://www.juso.go.kr/openEngPage.do ^ "ALA-LC Romanization
Romanization
Tables" (PDF).  ^ "Korean Romanization
Romanization
Reference". 

External links[edit]

Comparison tables of the different systems:

Comparison table of ISO TR/11941, North Korean national system (1992), Revised Romanization, McCune-Reischauer, Yale (PDF file from UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names Working Group on Romanization Systems) Comparison table of IPA, Yale, McCune-Reischauer, Lukoff, South Korea Ministry of Education, Joseon Gwahagwon, Revised Romanization
Romanization
(PDF file from Glossika Inc.)

Lukoff's system (simple table) Gangmun Romanization Online transliteration tool Online Roman to Korean transliteration

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