The Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals , a native Korean system and Sino-Korean system.
* 1 Construction * 2 Numerals (Cardinal) * 3 Pronunciation * 4 Constant suffixes used in Sino-Korean ordinal numerals * 5 Substitution for disambiguation * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 See also
For both native and Sino- KOREAN NUMERALS, the teens (11 through 19) are represented by a combination of tens and the ones places. For instance, 15 would be sib-o (십오; 十五), but not usually il-sib-o in the Sino-Korean system, and yeol-daseot (열다섯) in native Korean. Twenty through ninety are likewise represented in this place-holding manner in the Sino-Korean system, while Native Korean has its own unique set of words, as can be seen in the chart below. The grouping of large numbers in Korean follow the Chinese tradition of myriads (10000) rather than thousands (1000). The Sino-Korean system is nearly entirely based on the Chinese numerals .
The distinction between the two numeral systems is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two systems, but seldom both. Sino-Korean words are sometimes used to mark ordinal usage: yeol beon (열 번) means "ten times" while sip beon (십번; 十番) means "number ten."
When denoting the age of a person, one will usually use sal (살) for the native Korean numerals, and se (세; 歲) for Sino-Korean. For example, seumul-daseot sal (스물다섯 살) and i-sib-o se (이십오 세; 二十五 歲) both mean 'twenty-five-year-old'. See also East Asian age reckoning .
For counting above 100, Sino-Korean words are used, sometimes in combination: 101 can be baek-hana or baeg-il.
Some of the native numbers take a different form in front of measure words :
NUMBER NATIVE KOREAN CARDINALS ATTRIBUTIVE FORMS OF NATIVE KOREAN CARDINALS
HANGUL MCCUNE–REISCHAUER REVISED HANGUL MCCUNE–REISCHAUER REVISED
1 하나 hana 한 han
2 둘 tul dul 두 tu du
3 셋 set 세 se
4 넷 net 네 ne
20 스물 sŭmul seumul 스무 sŭmu seumu
The descriptive forms for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 20 are formed by "dropping the last letter" from the original native cardinal, so to speak. Examples:
* 한 번 han beon ("once")
* 두 개 du gae ("two things")
* 세 시 se si ("three o'clock"), in contrast, in
Something similar also occurs in some Sino-Korean cardinals:
* 오뉴월 onyuwol ("May and June") * 유월 yuwol ("June") * 시월 siwol ("October")
The cardinals for three and four have alternative forms in front of some measure words:
* 석 달 seok dal ("three months") * 넉 잔 neok jan ("four cups")
NUMBER SINO-KOREAN CARDINALS NATIVE KOREAN CARDINALS
HANJA HANGUL LATIN HANGUL LATIN
0 零 /空 영 (N : 령), 공 yeong (N : ryeong), gong — —
1 一 일 il 하나 hana
2 二 이 i 둘 dul
3 三 삼 sam 셋 set
4 四 사 sa 넷 net
5 五 오 o 다섯 daseot
6 六 육 (N : 륙) yuk (N : ryuk) 여섯 yeoseot
7 七 칠 chil 일곱 ilgop
8 八 팔 pal 여덟 yeodeol
9 九 구 gu 아홉 ahop
10 十 십 sip 열 yeol
11 十一 십일 sib-il 열하나 yeol-hana
12 十二 십이 sib-i 열둘 yeol-dul
13 十三 십삼 sip-sam 열셋 yeol-set
14 十四 십사 sip-sa 열넷 yeol-let
15 十五 십오 sib-o 열다섯 yeol-daseot
16 十六 십육 (N : 십륙) sim-nyuk 열여섯 yeol-lyeoseot
17 十七 십칠 sip-chil 열일곱 yeor-ilgop
18 十八 십팔 sip-pal 열여덟 yeol-lyeodeol
19 十九 십구 sip-gu 열아홉 yeor-ahop
20 二十 이십 i-sip 스물 seumul
30 三十 삼십 sam-sip 서른 seoreun
40 四十 사십 sa-sip 마흔 maheun
50 五十 오십 o-sip 쉰 swin
60 六十 육십 (N : 륙십) yuk-sip (N : ryuk-sip) 예순 yesun
70 七十 칠십 chil-sip 일흔 ilheun
80 八十 팔십 pal-sip 여든 yeodeun
90 九十 구십 gu-sip 아흔 aheun
100 百 백 baek 온 on
1,000 千 천 cheon 즈믄 jeumeun
10,000 萬 만 man 드먼 / 골 deumeon / gol
100,000,000 億 억 eok 잘 jal
1012 兆 조 jo 울 ul
1016 京 경 gyeong — —
1020 垓 해 hae — —
1024 秭 자 ja — —
1028 穰 양 yang — —
1032 溝 구 gu — —
1036 澗 간 gan — —
1040 正 정 jeong — —
1044 載 재 jae — —
1048 極 극 geuk — —
1052 or 1056 恒河沙 항하사 hanghasa — —
1056 or 1064 阿僧祇 아승기 aseunggi — —
1060 or 1072 那由他 나유타 nayuta — —
1064 or 1080 不可思議 불가사의 bulgasaui — —
1068 or 1088 無量大數 무량대수 muryangdaesu — —
The initial consonants of measure words and numbers following the native cardinals 여덟 ("eight", only when the ㅂ is not pronounced) and 열 ("ten") become tensed consonants when possible. Thus for example:
* 열둘 yeol-dul (twelve) is pronounced like yeol-DDul * 여덟권 yeodeol-gwon (eight (books)) is pronounced like yeodeol-KKwon
Several numerals have long vowels, namely 둘 (two), 셋 (three) and 넷 (four), but these become short when combined with other numerals / nouns (such as in twelve, thirteen, fourteen and so on).
The usual liaison and consonant-tensing rules apply, so for example, 예순여섯 yesun-yeoseot (sixty-six) is pronounced like (yesun-Nyeoseot) and 칠십 chil-sip (seventy) is pronounced like chil-SSip.
CONSTANT SUFFIXES USED IN SINO-KOREAN ORDINAL NUMERALS
Beon (번; 番), ho (호; 號), cha (차; 次), and hoe (회; 回) are always used with Sino-Korean or Arabic ordinal numerals. For example, Yihoseon (이호선; 二號線) is Line Number Two in a metropolitan subway system. Samsipchilbeongukdo (37번국도; 37番國道) is highway number 37. They cannot be used interchangeably.
906호 (號) is 'Apt #906' in a mailing address. 906 without ho (호) is not used in spoken Korean to imply apartment number or office suite number. The special prefix je (제; 第) is usually used in combination with suffixes to designate a specific event in sequential things such as the Olympics.
SUBSTITUTION FOR DISAMBIGUATION
In commerce or the financial sector, some hanja for each Sino-Korean numbers are replaced by alternative ones to prevent ambiguity or retouching.
English Hangul Regular hanja Financial hanja
one 일 一 壹
two 이 二 貳
three 삼 三 參
four 사 四 肆
five 오 五 伍
six 육 (N: 륙) 六 陸
seven 칠 七 柒
eight 팔 八 捌
nine 구 九 玖
ten 십 十 拾
hundred 백 百 佰
thousand 천 千 仟, 阡
For verbally communicating number sequences such as phone numbers, ID numbers, etc., especially over the phone, native Korean numbers for 1 and 2 are sometimes substituted for the Sino-Korean numbers. For example, o-o-o hana-dul-hana-dul (오오오 하나둘하나둘) instead of o-o-o il-i-il-i (오오오 일이일이) for '555-1212', or sa-o-i-hana (사-오-이-하나) instead of sa-o-i-il (사-오-이-일) for '4521', because of the potential confusion between the two similar-sounding Sino-Korean numbers.
For the same reason, military transmissions are known to use mixed native Korean and Sino-Korean numerals: 공 하나 둘 삼 넷 오 여섯 칠 팔 아홉 (gong hana dul sam net o yeoseot chil pal ahop).
* NOTE 1: ^ Korean assimilation rules apply as if the underlying form were 십륙 sip.ryuk, giving sim-nyuk instead of the expected sib-yuk. * NOTE 2: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ These names are considered archaic, and are not used. * NOTE 3: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The numbers higher than 1020 (hae) are not usually used. * NOTE 4: ^ ^ ^ ^ The names for these numbers are from Buddhist texts; they are not usually used. Dictionaries sometimes disagree on which numbers the names represent.
* J.J. Song The Korean language: Structure, Use and Context (2005 Routledge) pp. 81ff.
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