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Korabl-Sputnik 2[2] (Russian: Корабль-Спутник 2 meaning Ship- Satellite
Satellite
2), also known incorrectly as Sputnik 5 in the West,[3] was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft. It was the first spaceflight to send animals into orbit and return them safely back to Earth. Launched on 19 August 1960, it paved the way for the first human orbital flight, Vostok 1, which was launched less than eight months later. Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
was the second attempt to launch a Vostok capsule with dogs on board. The first try on 28 July, carrying a pair named Bars (Snow Leopard aka. Chaika (Seagull)) and Lisichka (Foxie)), had been unsuccessful after the Blok G strap-on suffered a fire and breakdown in one of the combustion chambers, followed by its breaking off of the booster 19 seconds after launch. Around 30 seconds, the launch vehicle disintegrated, the core and strap-ons flying in random directions and crashing into the steppe. Flight controllers sent a command to jettison the payload shroud and separate the descent module, but due to the low altitude, the parachutes only deployed partially, and the dogs were killed on impact with the ground. It was believed that the combustion chamber disintegration was due to longitudinal vibrations. This created a considerable uproar, as the problem, which had plagued earlier 8K72 launches, had supposedly been corrected. It was ultimately traced to deficient manufacturing practices at the R-7 assembly plant.[citation needed] The accident also encouraged the development of an ejector seat for the cosmonaut to escape from the capsule in the event of a launch failure, since the parachutes in the descent module would not be able to open properly until around 40 seconds into launch. This occurred, ironically, one day before the US program suffered a serious setback with the loss of a Mercury capsule. A commonly circulated film clip depicting a Vostok booster lifting followed by the movement of its shadow on the ground is often assumed to be from Vostok 1's launch; however, it was actually the ill-fated flight of 28 July 1960. The launch of Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
occurred on 19 August 1960, using a Vostok-L
Vostok-L
carrier rocket. Official sources reported the launch time to have been 08:44:06 UTC; however, Sergei Voevodin gave it as 08:38:24.[citation needed] A radio station in Bonn, West Germany, was among the first to pick up signals from the spacecraft, which were confirmed on the third orbit by a Swedish radio station. The spacecraft carried two dogs, Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants, as well as a television camera, which took images of the dogs. One of its objectives was to intercept the US Echo 1A satellite, which was a passive, nitrogen-filled balloon covered in reflective foil and thus highly visible as it passed overhead. Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
passed near Echo on the second orbit, and the radio system returned audio of the dogs barking as they saw it out the window. The spacecraft returned to Earth at 06:00:00 UTC on 20 August, the day after its launch. Telemetry revealed that one dog had suffered seizures during the fourth orbit, and it was decided to limit the first manned flight to three orbits. All of the animals were recovered safely, and a year later Strelka had a litter of puppies, one of which was sent to First Lady of the US Jacqueline Kennedy
Jacqueline Kennedy
as a goodwill present from the Soviet Union. President Kennedy's advisers initially opposed taking the dog for fear that the Soviets might have planted microphones in its body to listen in on national defense meetings. Strelka and Belka were both taxidermied after their deaths and placed on display in the Moscow Museum of Space and Aeronautics. See also[edit]

Spaceflight portal Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal

Soviet space dogs

References[edit]

^ "Korabl'-Sputnik-2 - Orbit". Heavens Above. Retrieved 2 November 2015.  ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 27 July 2010.  ^ Wade, Mark. "Vostok". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 

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Vostok programme

Unmanned

Korabl-Sputnik 1 Vostok-1K No.1 Korabl-Sputnik 2 Korabl-Sputnik 3 Vostok-1K No.4 Korabl-Sputnik 4 Korabl-Sputnik 5

Manned

Vostok 1 Vostok 2 Vostok 3 Vostok 4 Vostok 5 Vostok 6

Cancelled

Vostok 7 to 13 (incorporated into Voskhod programme)

v t e

← 1959  ·  Orbital launches in 1960  ·  1961 →

Discoverer 9 Discoverer 10 Midas 1 Pioneer 5
Pioneer 5
S-46 TIROS-1
TIROS-1
Transit 1B · Solrad Discoverer 11
Discoverer 11
Luna E-3 No.1 Luna E-3 No.2 Echo 1
Echo 1
Korabl-Sputnik 1
Korabl-Sputnik 1
Midas 2 Transit 2A · Solrad 1 Discoverer 12
Discoverer 12
Vostok-1K No.1 Discoverer 13
Discoverer 13
Echo 1A
Echo 1A
Courier 1A Discoverer 14
Discoverer 14
Korabl-Sputnik 2
Korabl-Sputnik 2
Discoverer 15
Discoverer 15
Pioneer P-30
Pioneer P-30
Courier 1B
Courier 1B
Mars 1M No.1
Mars 1M No.1
Samos 1
Samos 1
Mars 1M No.2
Mars 1M No.2
Discoverer 16 Explorer 8
Explorer 8
Discoverer 17 TIROS-2
TIROS-2
Transit 3A · Solrad 2 Korabl-Sputnik 3
Korabl-Sputnik 3
Explorer S-55 Discoverer 18 Pioneer P-31
Pioneer P-31
Discoverer 19 Vostok-1K No.4

Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted

.