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The KOPET DAG, KOPET DAGH, or KOPPEH DAGH (Persian : کپه‌داغ‎‎; Turkmen : Köpetdag), also known as the Turkmen-Khorasan Mountain Range is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Iran
Iran
that extends about 650 kilometres (400 mi) along the border southeast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
, stretching northwest-southeast from near the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the northwest to the Harirud River in the southeast. The highest peak of the range in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
is southwest of the capital Ashgabat
Ashgabat
and stands at 2,940 metres (9,646 ft). The highest Iranian summit is Mount Quchan (Kuh-e Quchan) with 3,191 metres (10,469 ft).

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geology * 3 Topography * 4 Archaeology * 5 Ski resort * 6 Plants and animals * 7 See also * 8 References

ETYMOLOGY

The word "kopet" or in Persian "koppeh" means "pile" or "heap", and the word "dag" or "dagh" means "mountain" in Turkic. So "Kopet Dagh" or "Koppeh Dagh" could be defined as "the mountain that is piled or heaped" and therefore the words could mean "piled or hilly mountains" or "low hills" in general.

GEOLOGY

Geologically, the Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
Range is made chiefly of Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks with a smaller portion of Jurassic
Jurassic
rocks in the southeastern parts. The mountains were formed in the Miocene
Miocene
and the Pliocene
Pliocene
during the Alpine orogeny
Alpine orogeny
. As the Tethys Sea was closed and the Arabian Plate
Arabian Plate
collided with the Iranian Plate and was pushed against it and with the clockwise movement of the Eurasian Plate towards the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate was pressed against the Turan Platform. This collision folded the entire rocks that had been deposited in this geosyncline or basin from the Jurassic
Jurassic
to the Miocene
Miocene
and formed the Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
Mountains.

TOPOGRAPHY

The Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
Range is a region characterized by foothills, dry and sandy slopes, mountain plateaus, and steep ravines. The Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
is undergoing tectonic transformation, and is subject to severe earthquakes. Earthquakes exceeding seven on the Richter scale have been recorded. Kopet Dagh from space Kopetdag
Kopetdag
mountains in early spring.

The most western foothills of the Kopetdag
Kopetdag
mountains are known as the 'Kyurendag Ridge'.

ARCHAEOLOGY

The foothills of the Kopet-Dag near Ashgabat
Ashgabat
are the site of the remains of the ancient Parthian city of Nisa (Nessa, Nusaý).

SKI RESORT

This mountain range has a ski resort , officially opened by the former president of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov
Saparmurat Niyazov
. Despite the lack of snow in the Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
mountains, Niyazov was determined to build a major resort there.

PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Kopet Dag
Kopet Dag
Mountains in May.

The woodlands of the region are home to many fruit trees, shrubs, and vines that have proved valuable for human use and selective breeding , including pomegranate (Punica granatum), wild grapes Vitis sylvestris , fig (Ficus carica), wild apple ( Malus turkmenorum ), wild pear ( Pyrus boissieriana ), wild cherries ( <