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KONRAD HEIDEN (7 August 1901 – 18 June 1966) was a German -American journalist and historian of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and Nazi eras, most noted for the first influential biographies of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
. Often, he wrote under the pseudonym "Klaus Bredow."

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 Selected works * 4 See also * 5 References

LIFE

Heiden was born in Munich
Munich
, Bavaria . He spent his youth in Frankfurt , where his father worked as a union organizer and member of the municipal council, while his mother had a Jewish background. Having obtained his high school Abitur
Abitur
, he returned to Munich
Munich
to study law and economics at the Ludwig Maximilian University . At the university, he organized a republican and democratic student body and, like his father, became a member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). He graduated in 1923 and began his career as a journalist.

In the political turmoils of the Weimar
Weimar
Republic, Heiden was one of the first critical observers of the rise of Nazism
Nazism
in Germany
Germany
after he attended a party's meeting in Munich
Munich
in 1921. He worked for the Frankfurter Zeitung
Frankfurter Zeitung
and the Vossische Zeitung , from 1930 as a correspondent in Berlin
Berlin
, but became a freelancer in 1932. In the same year, he published his first book History of National Socialism, released by Rowohlt Verlag with a circulation of 5,000 copies. Upon the Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power
in January 1933, he fled into exile; first to the Saar territory, then moved to Zurich
Zurich
in Switzerland
Switzerland
from June to December 1933, and again to Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
where he published two writings on the coming Saar status referendum . After the vote in favour of Nazi Germany
Germany
in January 1935, he moved to France .

In Zurich, Heiden published his book Birth of the Third Reich
Third Reich
in 1934. He, together with other emigrants like Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
, Heinrich Mann
Heinrich Mann
and Thomas Mann
Thomas Mann
struggled for the liberation of Carl von Ossietzky imprisoned at Esterwegen concentration camp
Esterwegen concentration camp
and began a campaign for awarding him the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
. Upon his flight to France, he worked as editor in chief of the German-language exile magazine Das Neue Tage-Buch published by Leopold Schwarzschild . In 1937, his German citizenship was withdrawn and his property confiscated.

Upon the outbreak of World War II
World War II
, Heiden was at first interned by the French authorities. During the German occupation of France in 1940, he managed to escape to the United States
United States
via Lisbon
Lisbon
with the help of Varian Fry
Varian Fry
and the International Rescue Committee . He arrived in New York City
New York City
in late October. In 1944, Heiden published his highly successful biography Der Führer – Hitler's Rise to Power, released by Houghton Mifflin and reprinted by both the US Book of the Month Club and the UK Left Book Club . In the same year, he identified Matvei Golovinski
Matvei Golovinski
as an author of the Protocols .

After the war, Heiden travelled back to West Germany
Germany
from December 1951 to May 1952. He published several articles and contributions in Süddeutscher Rundfunk and Radio Bremen broadcasts and continued to write for Life magazine. He finally received US citizenship.

Heiden's last years were affected by deteriorating Parkinson\'s disease . He died at the Beth Abraham Hospital in New York City
New York City
on 18 June 1966, having resided in the United States
United States
for 26 years after fleeing from Germany.

WORK

Heiden's book, The New Inquisition, published jointly by Modern Age Books, Inc. and Alliance Book Corporation, in New York in 1939, with a translation from German by Heinz Norden , includes a series of personal, but necessarily anonymous accounts by German Jews of violent persecution under the Nazi regime accelerating from the time of the fall of 1938 and a prediction of the Final Solution
Final Solution
planned by the Nazi regime:

To drive 600,000 people by robbery into hunger, by hunger into desperation, by desperation into wild outbreaks, and by such outbreaks into the waiting knife -- such is the cooly calculated plan. Mass murder is the goal, a massacre such as history has not seen -- certainly not since Tamerlane
Tamerlane
and Mithridates . We can only venture guesses as to the technical forms these mass executions are to take.

Heiden's book includes some of the earliest firsthand reports popularly read in America from Jews who fell victim to torture and internment at Dachau
Dachau
near Munich, Sachsenhausen or Oranienburg near Berlin
Berlin
, or Buchenwald
Buchenwald
near Weimar
Weimar
following the mass arrests of 1938.

SELECTED WORKS

* History of National Socialism ( Berlin
Berlin
, 1932) * Birth of the Third Reich
Third Reich
( Zürich
Zürich
, 1934) * Hitler: A Biography ( Zürich
Zürich
, appeared in two volumes, 1936–1937) * The New Inquisition ( New York City
New York City
, 1939) * Der Führer