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Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί [komniˈni]), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185,[1] and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461). Through intermarriages with other noble families, notably the Doukai, Angeloi, and Palaiologoi, the Komnenos
Komnenos
name appears among most of the major noble houses of the late Byzantine world.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Founding the dynasty 3 Komnenoi as emperors 4 Later family 5 Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe 6 References 7 Sources

Origins[edit] Michael Psellos
Michael Psellos
reports that the family originated from the village of Komne in Thrace—usually identified with the "Fields of Komnene" (Κομνηνῆς λειμῶνας) mentioned in the 14th century by John Kantakouzenos—a view commonly accepted by modern scholarship.[2][3] The first known member of the family, Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, acquired extensive estates at Kastamon
Kastamon
in Paphlagonia, which became the stronghold of the family in the 11th century.[2][4] The family thereby quickly became associated with the powerful and prestigious military aristocracy (dynatoi) of Asia
Asia
Minor, so that despite its Thracian origins it came to be considered "eastern".[5] The 17th-century scholar Du Cange
Du Cange
suggested that the family descended from a Roman noble family that followed Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
to Constantinople, but although such mythical genealogies were common—and are indeed attested for the closely related Doukas clan—the complete absence of any such assertion in the Byzantine sources argues against Du Cange's view.[6] The Romanian historian George Murnu suggested in 1924 that the Komnenoi were of Aromanian descent, but this view too is now rejected.[6] Modern scholars consider the family to have been entirely of Greek origin.[6] Manuel Erotikos Komnenos was the father of Isaac I Komnenos
Isaac I Komnenos
(reigned 1057-1059) and grandfather, through Isaac's younger brother John Komnenos, of Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
(reigned 1081-1118). Founding the dynasty[edit] Isaac I Komnenos, a Stratopedarch
Stratopedarch
of the East under Michael VI, founded the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty of Byzantine emperors. In 1057 Isaac led a coup against Michael and was proclaimed emperor. Although his reign lasted only till 1059, when his courtiers pressured him to abdicate and become a monk, Isaac initiated many useful reforms. The dynasty returned to the throne with the accession of Alexios I Komnenos, Isaac I's nephew, in 1081. By this time, descendants of all the previous dynasties of Byzantium seem to have disappeared from the realm, such as the important Scleros and Argyros families. Descendants of those emperors lived abroad, having married into the royal families of Georgia, Russia, France, Persia, Italy, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary
Hungary
and Serbia; this made it easier for the Komnenos
Komnenos
family to ascend to the throne. Upon their rise to the throne, the Komnenoi became intermarried with the previous Doukas
Doukas
dynasty: Alexios I married Irene Doukaina, the grandniece of Constantine X Doukas, who had succeeded Isaac I in 1059. Thereafter the combined clan often was referred as "Komnenodoukai" (Latinized "Comnenoducae") and several individuals used both surnames together.[7] Several families descended from the Komnenodoukai, such as Palaiologos, Angelos, Vatatzes and Laskaris. Alexios and Irene's youngest daughter Theodora ensured the future success of the Angelos family by marrying into it: Theodora's grandsons became the emperors Isaac II Angelos (reigned 1185–1195 and 1203–1204) and Alexios III Angelos (reigned 1195-1203). Komnenoi as emperors[edit]

Alexios I Komnenos.

Under Alexios I and his successors the Empire was fairly prosperous and stable. Alexios moved the imperial palace to the Blachernae section of Constantinople. Much of Anatolia
Anatolia
was recovered from the Seljuk Turks, who had captured it just prior to Alexios' reign. Alexios also saw the First Crusade
First Crusade
pass through Byzantine territory, leading to the establishment of the Crusader states
Crusader states
in the east. The Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty was very much involved in crusader affairs, and also intermarried with the reigning families of the Principality of Antioch and the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
- Theodora Komnene, niece of Manuel I Komnenos, married Baldwin III of Jerusalem, and Maria, grandniece of Manuel, married Amalric I of Jerusalem. Remarkably, Alexios ruled for 37 years, and his son John II ruled for 25, after uncovering a conspiracy against him by his sister, the chronicler Anna Komnene, and her husband Nikephoros Bryennios. John's son Manuel ruled for another 37 years. The Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty produced a number of branches. As imperial succession was not in a determined order but rather depended on personal power and the wishes of one's predecessor, within a few generations several relatives were able to present themselves as claimants. After Manuel I's reign the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty fell into conspiracies and plots like many of its predecessors (and the various contenders within the family sought power and often succeeded in overthrowing the preceding kinsman); Alexios II, the first Komnenos
Komnenos
to ascend as a minor, ruled for three years and his conqueror and successor Andronikos I ruled for two, overthrown by the Angelos family under Isaac II who was dethroned and blinded by his own brother Alexios III. The Angeloi were overthrown during the Fourth Crusade
Crusade
in 1204, by Alexios Doukas, a relative from the Doukas
Doukas
family. Later family[edit] Several weeks before the occupation of Constantinople
Constantinople
by crusaders in 1204, one branch of the Komnenoi fled back to their homelands in Paphlagonia, along the eastern Black Sea
Black Sea
and its hinterland in the Pontic Alps, where they established the Empire of Trebizond. Their first 'emperor', named Alexios I, was the grandson of Emperor Andronikos I.[8] These emperors – the "Grand Komnenoi" (Megaloi Komnenoi or Megalokomnenoi) as they were known – ruled in Trebizond for over 250 years, until 1461, when David Komnenos
Komnenos
was defeated and executed by the Ottoman sultan
Ottoman sultan
Mehmed II.[9] Mehmed himself claimed descent from the Komnenos
Komnenos
family via John Tzelepes Komnenos. The Trapezutine branch of the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty also held the name of Axouchos as descendants of John Axouch, a Byzantine nobleman and minister to the Byzantine Komnenian Dynasty. A princess of the Trebizond branch is said to have been the mother of prince Yahya (born 1585), who reportedly became a Christian yet spent much of his life attempting to gain the Ottoman throne.[citation needed] Another branch of the family founded the Despotate of Epirus
Despotate of Epirus
in 1204, under Michael I Komnenos
Komnenos
Doukas, great-grandson of Emperor Alexios I. Helena Doukaina Komnene, a child of that branch of the family, married Guy I de la Roche
Guy I de la Roche
thereby uniting the Komnenos
Komnenos
and the de la Roche houses, with Komnenos
Komnenos
family members eventually becoming Dukes of Athens. One renegade member of the family, also named Isaac, established a separate "empire" on Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1184, which lasted until 1191, when the island was taken from him by Richard I of England
Richard I of England
during the Third Crusade. When the eastern Empire was restored in 1261 at Constantinople, it was ruled by a family closely related to the Komnenoi, the Palaiologos family. The Palaiologoi
Palaiologoi
ruled until the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The last descendant of the dynasty is often considered to have been John Komnenos
Komnenos
Molyvdos,[10] a distinguished Ottoman Greek scholar and physician, who became metropolitan bishop of Side and Dristra, and died in 1719. His claims to descent from the imperial dynasty of Trebizond, however, are most likely a fabrication. Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe[edit] Irene Angelina, daughter of Isaac II Angelos and a thus a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos, married Philip of Swabia, the King of Germany. From this union many of the royal and aristocratic families of Western Europe can trace a line of descent.[11] References[edit]

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Comnenus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 793.  ^ a b ODB, "Komnenos" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 1143–1144. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 25. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, pp. 25–26. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 26 (note 8). ^ a b c Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 26. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 27. ^ A. A. Vasiliev, "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1222)", Speculum, 11 (1936), pp. 3-37 ^ Discussed by Ruth Macrides, "What's in the name 'Megas Komnenos'?" Archeion Pontou, 35 (1979), pp. 236-245 ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 32. ^ Bruno W. Häuptli: IRENE (Angelou) von Byzanz, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL), vol. 28, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-413-7, pp. 858–862

Sources[edit]

Cameron, Averil (Ed.) (2003) Fifty Years of Prosopography: The Later Roman Empire, Byzantium and Beyond, Oxford University Press. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Varzos, Konstantinos (1984). Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών [The Genealogy of the Komnenoi] (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. , Vols. A1, A2 & B

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The Info List - Komnenos Dynasty


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Komnenos
Komnenos
(Greek: Κομνηνός), Latinized Comnenus, plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί [komniˈni]), is a noble family who ruled the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
from 1081 to 1185,[1] and later, as the Grand Komnenoi (Μεγαλοκομνηνοί, Megalokomnenoi) founded and ruled the Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
(1204–1461). Through intermarriages with other noble families, notably the Doukai, Angeloi, and Palaiologoi, the Komnenos
Komnenos
name appears among most of the major noble houses of the late Byzantine world.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Founding the dynasty 3 Komnenoi as emperors 4 Later family 5 Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe 6 References 7 Sources

Origins[edit] Michael Psellos
Michael Psellos
reports that the family originated from the village of Komne in Thrace—usually identified with the "Fields of Komnene" (Κομνηνῆς λειμῶνας) mentioned in the 14th century by John Kantakouzenos—a view commonly accepted by modern scholarship.[2][3] The first known member of the family, Manuel Erotikos Komnenos, acquired extensive estates at Kastamon
Kastamon
in Paphlagonia, which became the stronghold of the family in the 11th century.[2][4] The family thereby quickly became associated with the powerful and prestigious military aristocracy (dynatoi) of Asia
Asia
Minor, so that despite its Thracian origins it came to be considered "eastern".[5] The 17th-century scholar Du Cange
Du Cange
suggested that the family descended from a Roman noble family that followed Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
to Constantinople, but although such mythical genealogies were common—and are indeed attested for the closely related Doukas clan—the complete absence of any such assertion in the Byzantine sources argues against Du Cange's view.[6] The Romanian historian George Murnu suggested in 1924 that the Komnenoi were of Aromanian descent, but this view too is now rejected.[6] Modern scholars consider the family to have been entirely of Greek origin.[6] Manuel Erotikos Komnenos was the father of Isaac I Komnenos
Isaac I Komnenos
(reigned 1057-1059) and grandfather, through Isaac's younger brother John Komnenos, of Alexios I Komnenos
Alexios I Komnenos
(reigned 1081-1118). Founding the dynasty[edit] Isaac I Komnenos, a Stratopedarch
Stratopedarch
of the East under Michael VI, founded the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty of Byzantine emperors. In 1057 Isaac led a coup against Michael and was proclaimed emperor. Although his reign lasted only till 1059, when his courtiers pressured him to abdicate and become a monk, Isaac initiated many useful reforms. The dynasty returned to the throne with the accession of Alexios I Komnenos, Isaac I's nephew, in 1081. By this time, descendants of all the previous dynasties of Byzantium seem to have disappeared from the realm, such as the important Scleros and Argyros families. Descendants of those emperors lived abroad, having married into the royal families of Georgia, Russia, France, Persia, Italy, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary
Hungary
and Serbia; this made it easier for the Komnenos
Komnenos
family to ascend to the throne. Upon their rise to the throne, the Komnenoi became intermarried with the previous Doukas
Doukas
dynasty: Alexios I married Irene Doukaina, the grandniece of Constantine X Doukas, who had succeeded Isaac I in 1059. Thereafter the combined clan often was referred as "Komnenodoukai" (Latinized "Comnenoducae") and several individuals used both surnames together.[7] Several families descended from the Komnenodoukai, such as Palaiologos, Angelos, Vatatzes and Laskaris. Alexios and Irene's youngest daughter Theodora ensured the future success of the Angelos family by marrying into it: Theodora's grandsons became the emperors Isaac II Angelos (reigned 1185–1195 and 1203–1204) and Alexios III Angelos (reigned 1195-1203). Komnenoi as emperors[edit]

Alexios I Komnenos.

Under Alexios I and his successors the Empire was fairly prosperous and stable. Alexios moved the imperial palace to the Blachernae section of Constantinople. Much of Anatolia
Anatolia
was recovered from the Seljuk Turks, who had captured it just prior to Alexios' reign. Alexios also saw the First Crusade
First Crusade
pass through Byzantine territory, leading to the establishment of the Crusader states
Crusader states
in the east. The Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty was very much involved in crusader affairs, and also intermarried with the reigning families of the Principality of Antioch and the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
- Theodora Komnene, niece of Manuel I Komnenos, married Baldwin III of Jerusalem, and Maria, grandniece of Manuel, married Amalric I of Jerusalem. Remarkably, Alexios ruled for 37 years, and his son John II ruled for 25, after uncovering a conspiracy against him by his sister, the chronicler Anna Komnene, and her husband Nikephoros Bryennios. John's son Manuel ruled for another 37 years. The Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty produced a number of branches. As imperial succession was not in a determined order but rather depended on personal power and the wishes of one's predecessor, within a few generations several relatives were able to present themselves as claimants. After Manuel I's reign the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty fell into conspiracies and plots like many of its predecessors (and the various contenders within the family sought power and often succeeded in overthrowing the preceding kinsman); Alexios II, the first Komnenos
Komnenos
to ascend as a minor, ruled for three years and his conqueror and successor Andronikos I ruled for two, overthrown by the Angelos family under Isaac II who was dethroned and blinded by his own brother Alexios III. The Angeloi were overthrown during the Fourth Crusade
Crusade
in 1204, by Alexios Doukas, a relative from the Doukas
Doukas
family. Later family[edit] Several weeks before the occupation of Constantinople
Constantinople
by crusaders in 1204, one branch of the Komnenoi fled back to their homelands in Paphlagonia, along the eastern Black Sea
Black Sea
and its hinterland in the Pontic Alps, where they established the Empire of Trebizond. Their first 'emperor', named Alexios I, was the grandson of Emperor Andronikos I.[8] These emperors – the "Grand Komnenoi" (Megaloi Komnenoi or Megalokomnenoi) as they were known – ruled in Trebizond for over 250 years, until 1461, when David Komnenos
Komnenos
was defeated and executed by the Ottoman sultan
Ottoman sultan
Mehmed II.[9] Mehmed himself claimed descent from the Komnenos
Komnenos
family via John Tzelepes Komnenos. The Trapezutine branch of the Komnenos
Komnenos
dynasty also held the name of Axouchos as descendants of John Axouch, a Byzantine nobleman and minister to the Byzantine Komnenian Dynasty. A princess of the Trebizond branch is said to have been the mother of prince Yahya (born 1585), who reportedly became a Christian yet spent much of his life attempting to gain the Ottoman throne.[citation needed] Another branch of the family founded the Despotate of Epirus
Despotate of Epirus
in 1204, under Michael I Komnenos
Komnenos
Doukas, great-grandson of Emperor Alexios I. Helena Doukaina Komnene, a child of that branch of the family, married Guy I de la Roche
Guy I de la Roche
thereby uniting the Komnenos
Komnenos
and the de la Roche houses, with Komnenos
Komnenos
family members eventually becoming Dukes of Athens. One renegade member of the family, also named Isaac, established a separate "empire" on Cyprus
Cyprus
in 1184, which lasted until 1191, when the island was taken from him by Richard I of England
Richard I of England
during the Third Crusade. When the eastern Empire was restored in 1261 at Constantinople, it was ruled by a family closely related to the Komnenoi, the Palaiologos family. The Palaiologoi
Palaiologoi
ruled until the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The last descendant of the dynasty is often considered to have been John Komnenos
Komnenos
Molyvdos,[10] a distinguished Ottoman Greek scholar and physician, who became metropolitan bishop of Side and Dristra, and died in 1719. His claims to descent from the imperial dynasty of Trebizond, however, are most likely a fabrication. Komnenian ancestry in Western Europe[edit] Irene Angelina, daughter of Isaac II Angelos and a thus a descendant of Alexios I Komnenos, married Philip of Swabia, the King of Germany. From this union many of the royal and aristocratic families of Western Europe can trace a line of descent.[11] References[edit]

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Comnenus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 793.  ^ a b ODB, "Komnenos" (A. Kazhdan), pp. 1143–1144. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 25. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, pp. 25–26. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 26 (note 8). ^ a b c Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 26. ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 27. ^ A. A. Vasiliev, "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1222)", Speculum, 11 (1936), pp. 3-37 ^ Discussed by Ruth Macrides, "What's in the name 'Megas Komnenos'?" Archeion Pontou, 35 (1979), pp. 236-245 ^ Varzos 1984, Vol. A, p. 32. ^ Bruno W. Häuptli: IRENE (Angelou) von Byzanz, in: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL), vol. 28, Bautz, Nordhausen 2007, ISBN 978-3-88309-413-7, pp. 858–862

Sources[edit]

Cameron, Averil (Ed.) (2003) Fifty Years of Prosopography: The Later Roman Empire, Byzantium and Beyond, Oxford University Press. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Varzos, Konstantinos (1984). Η Γενεαλογία των Κομνηνών [The Genealogy of the Komnenoi] (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki. , Vols. A1, A2 & B

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
topics

History

Preceding

Roman Empire

Dominate

(330–717) Early

Constantinian-Valentinian era ( Constantinian dynasty - Valentinian dynasty) Theodosian era Leonid era Justinian era Heraclian era Twenty Years' Anarchy

(717–1204) Middle

Isaurian era Nikephorian era Amorian era Macedonian era Doukid era Komnenian era Angelid era

(1204–1453) Late

Fourth Crusade Frankokratia
Frankokratia
represented by Latin Empire Byzantine Successor States (Nicaea / Epirus–Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond) Palaiologan era Decline of the Byzantine Empire Fall of Constantinople

Governance

Central

Emperors

Basileus Autokrator

Senate Imperial bureaucracy Eparch

Early

Praetorian prefects Magister officiorum Comes sacrarum largitionum Comes rerum privatarum Quaestor sacri palatii

Middle

Logothetes tou dromou Sakellarios Logothetes tou genikou Logothetes tou stratiotikou Chartoularios tou sakelliou Chartoularios tou vestiariou Epi tou eidikou Protasekretis Epi ton deeseon

Late

Megas logothetes Mesazon

Provincial

Early

Praetorian prefectures Dioceses Provinces Quaestura exercitus Exarchate of Ravenna Exarchate of Africa

Middle

Themata Kleisourai Bandon Catepanates

Late

Kephale Despotates

Diplomacy

Treaties Diplomats

Military

Army

Battle tactics Military manuals Wars Battles Revolts Siege warfare Generals Mercenaries

Early

Late Roman army East Roman army

Foederati Bucellarii Scholae Palatinae Excubitors

Middle

Themata Kleisourai Tourma Droungos Bandon Tagmata Domestic of the Schools Hetaireia Akritai Varangian Guard

Late

Komnenian army

Pronoia Vestiaritai

Palaiologan army

Allagion Paramonai

Grand Domestic

Navy

Karabisianoi Maritime themata

Cibyrrhaeot Aegean Sea Samos

Dromon Greek fire Droungarios of the Fleet Megas doux Admirals Naval battles

Religion and law

Religion

Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Rite Ecumenical councils Saints Patriarchate of Constantinople Arianism Monophysitism Paulicianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Bogomilism Hesychasm Mount Athos Missionary activity

Bulgaria Moravia Serbs Kievan Rus'

Jews Muslims

Law

Codex Theodosianus Corpus Juris Civilis Ecloga Basilika Hexabiblos Mutilation

Culture and society

Architecture

Secular Sacred

Cross-in-square Domes

Constantinople

Great Palace of Constantinople Blachernae
Blachernae
Palace Hagia Sophia Hagia Irene Chora Church Pammakaristos Church City Walls

Thessalonica

Arch of Galerius and Rotunda Hagios Demetrios Hagia Sophia Panagia Chalkeon

Ravenna

San Vitale Sant'Apollinare in Classe Sant'Apollinare Nuovo

Other locations

Daphni Monastery Hosios Loukas Nea Moni of Chios Saint Catherine's Monastery Mystras

Art

Icons Enamel Glass Mosaics Painters Macedonian period art Komnenian renaissance

Economy

Agriculture Coinage Mints Trade

silk Silk Road Varangians

Dynatoi

Literature

Novel Acritic songs

Digenes Akritas

Alexander romance Historians

Everyday life

Calendar Cuisine Dance Dress Flags and insignia Hippodrome Music

Octoechos

People

Byzantine Greeks

Slavery Units of measurement

Science Learning

Encyclopedias Inventions Medicine Philosophy

Neoplatonism

Scholars University

Impact

Byzantine commonwealth Byzantine studies Museums Byzantinism Cyrillic script Neo-Byzantine architecture Greek scholars in the Renaissance Third Rome Megali Idea

Byzan

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