KOM OMBO (
Arabic : كوم أمبو) (Coptic : ⲙⲃⲱ Mbo; Ancient
Greek : Ὄμβοι Omboi, Ptol. iv. 5. § 73; Steph. B. s. v.; It.
Anton. p. 165) or OMBOS (Juv. xv . 35) or
Latin : AMBO (Not. Imp.
sect. 20) and OMBI – is an agricultural town in
Egypt famous for the
Temple of Kom Ombo . It was originally an Egyptian city called NUBT,
meaning City of Gold (not to be confused with the city north of Naqada
that was also called Nubt/Ombos). Nubt is also known as (Nubet) or
Nubyt (Nbyt). It became a Greek settlement during the Greco-Roman
Period. The town's location on the
Nile , 50 kilometres (31 mi) north
Aswan (Syene), gave it some control over trade routes from
Nile Valley, but its main rise to prominence came with the
erection of the
Temple of Kom Ombo in the 2nd century BC.
* 1 History
* 2 Climate
* 3 Today
* 4 Gallery
* 5 References
* 6 External links
Temple of Kom Ombo
KOM OMBO IN HIEROGLYPHS
Nubet / Nubyt
In antiquity the city was in the
Thebaid , the capital of the Nomos
Ombites , upon the east bank of the Nile; latitude 24° 6' north.
Ombos was a garrison town under every dynasty of Egypt, Pharaonic,
Macedonian , and Roman , and was celebrated for the magnificence of
its temples and its hereditary feud with the people of
Sobek at the
Temple of Kom Ombo .
Ombos was the first city below Syene at which any remarkable remains
of antiquity occur. The Nile, indeed, at this portion of its course,
was ill-suited to a dense population in antiquity. It runs between
steep and narrow banks of sandstone, and deposits but little of its
fertilizing slime upon the dreary and barren shores. There are two
temples at Ombos, constructed of the stone obtained from the
neighboring quarries of Hadjar-selseleh. The more magnificent of two
stands upon the top of a sandy hill, and appears to have been a
species of Pantheon, since, according to extant inscriptions, it was
dedicated to Aroeres (
Apollo ) and the other deities of the Ombite
nome by the soldiers quartered there. The smaller temple to the
northwest was sacred to the goddess
Isis . Both, indeed, are of an
imposing architecture, and still retain the brilliant colors with
which their builders adorned them. They are, however, of the Ptolemaic
age, with the exception of a doorway of sandstone, built into a wall
of brick. This was part of a temple built by
Tuthmosis III in honor of
the crocodile-headed god
Sobek . The monarch is represented on tress,
the doorjambs, holding the measuring reed and chisel, the emblems of
construction, and in the act of dedicating the temple. The Ptolemaic
portions of the larger temple present an exception to an almost
universal rule in Egyptian architecture. It has no propylon or dromos
in front of it, and the portico has an uneven number of columns, in
all fifteen, arranged in a triple row. Of these columns, thirteen are
still erect. As there are two principal entrances, the temple would
seem to be two united in one, strengthening the supposition that it
was the Pantheon of the Ombite nome. On a cornice above the doorway of
one of the adyta, there is a Greek inscription, recording the
erection, or perhaps the restoration of the sekos by
Philometor and his sister-wife Cleopatra II , 180-145 BC. The hill on
which the Ombite temples stand has been considerably excavated at its
base by the river, which here strongly inclines to the Arabian bank.
The crocodile was held in especial honor by the people of Ombos; and
in the adjacent catacombs are occasionally found mummies of the sacred
animal. Juvenal, in his 15th satire , has given a lively description
of a fight, of which he was an eye-witness, between the Ombitae and
the inhabitants of
Tentyra , who were hunters of the crocodile. On
this occasion the men of Ombos had the worst of it; and one of their
number, having stumbled in his flight, was caught and eaten by the
Tentyrites. The satirist, however, has represented Ombos as nearer to
Tentyra than it actually is, these towns, in fact, being nearly 100
miles (160 km) from each other. The Roman coins of the Ombite nome
exhibit the crocodile and the effigy of the crocodile-headed god
Kom Ombo there is a rare engraved image of what is thought to be
the first representation of medical instruments for performing surgery
, including scalpels , curettes , forceps , dilator , scissors and
medicine bottles dating from the days of Roman
At this site there is another
Nilometer used to measure the level of
the river waters. On the opposite side of the
Nile was a suburb of
Ombos, called Contra-Ombos.
The city was a bishopric before the
Muslim conquest, and under the
name Ombi is included in the
Catholic Church 's list of titular sees .
Karol Wojtyła (the future
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II ) was titular bishop of
Ombi from 1958 until 1963, when he was appointed Archbishop of Kraków
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its
climate as hot desert (BWh).
CLIMATE DATA FOR KOM OMBO
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
Today, irrigated sugar cane and corn account for most of the
Most of the 60,000 villagers are native Egyptians, although there is
a large population of Nubians (including many Magyarabs ) who were
displaced from their land upon the creation of
Lake Nasser .
In 2010, plans to construct a new $700m 100 MW (130,000 hp) solar
power plant near the city were unveiled by the Egyptian government.
Cleopatra VII image at the Temple of Kom Ombo.
Medical instruments image at the Temple of Kom Ombo, showing
scapels, forceps , scissors, plus prescriptions and two goddesses
sitting on birthing chairs .
A painting from the ceiling of the temple at Kom Ombo.
* ^ Omboi (Kom Ombo),
Egypt - 1st Upper Egyptian nome (Elephantine,
Kom Ombo) (U01)
* ^ "Ombi".
Catholic-Hierarchy.org . David M. Cheney. Retrieved 23
* ^ "Climate:
Kom Ombo - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate
table". Climate-Cata.org. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
* ^ Lassányi, Gábor; Gergely Lantai-Csont (2014). Eltűnő
Núbia: Válogatás Lantai-Csont Gergely szudáni fotóiból .
Translated by Zsolt Magyar. Budapest: BTM. pp. 16–23. ISBN
* ^ "The Guardian, July 12, 2010". London: Guardian. 2010-07-12.
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
public domain : Smith, William , ed. (1854–1857). "Kom Ombo".
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography . London: John Murray.
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