Kolyma (Russian: Колыма́, IPA: [kəɫɨˈma]) is a region
located in the Russian Far East. It is bounded by the East Siberian
Sea and the
Arctic Ocean in the north and the
Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk to the
south. The region gets its name from the
Kolyma River and mountain
range, parts of which were not discovered until 1926.
Today the region consists roughly of the
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and
The area, part of which is within the Arctic Circle, has a subarctic
climate with very cold winters lasting up to six months of the year.
Permafrost and tundra cover a large part of the region. Average winter
temperatures range from −19 °C to −38 °C (even lower
in the interior), and average summer temperatures, from +3 °C to
+16 °C. There are rich reserves of gold, silver, tin, tungsten,
mercury, copper, antimony, coal, oil, and peat. Twenty-nine zones of
possible oil and gas accumulation have been identified in the Sea of
Okhotsk shelf. Total reserves are estimated at 3.5 billion tons of
equivalent fuel, including 1.2 billion tons of oil and 1.5 billion m3
The principal town
Magadan has nearly 100,000 inhabitants and is the
largest port in north-eastern Russia. It has a large fishing fleet and
remains open year-round thanks to icebreakers.
Magadan is served by
the nearby Sokol Airport. There are many public and private farming
Gold mines, pasta and sausage factories, fishing
companies, and a distillery form the city's industrial base.
2.1 Emergence of the
2.1.1 The Arctic camps
2.1.3 Calendar of historical events
2.2.1 Industrial and economic evolution
2.2.2 Last political prisoners
2.3 Accounts of the
2.4 Estimating the number of victims
4 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
8.1 Links to Maps
During archaeological investigations of Paleolithic sites on the
Angara, in 1936 the unique Stone Age site of Buret’ was discovered
which yielded an anthropomorphic sculpture, skulls of rhinoceroses,
and surface and semisubterranean dwellings. The houses were analogous,
on one hand, to Paleolithic European houses and, on the other, to
ethnographically studied houses of the Eskimos, Chukchi and
The indigenous peoples of this region include the Evens, Koryaks,
Yupiks, Chukchis, Orochs,
Chuvans and Itelmens, who traditionally
lived from fishing along the
Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk coast or from reindeer
herding in the River
Under Joseph Stalin's rule,
Kolyma became the most notorious region
Gulag labor camps. Tens of thousands or more people may have
died en route to the area or in the Kolyma's series of gold mining,
road building, lumbering, and construction camps between 1932 and
1954. It was Kolyma's reputation that caused Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn,
author of The
Gulag Archipelago, to characterize it as the "pole of
cold and cruelty" in the
Gulag system. The
Mask of Sorrow
Mask of Sorrow monument in
Magadan commemorates all those who died in the
camps and the recently dedicated Church of the Nativity remembers the
victims in its icons and Stations of the Camps.
Emergence of the
Main article: Sevvostlag
Gold and platinum were discovered in the region in the early 20th
century. During the time of the USSR's industrialization (beginning
with Joseph Stalin's first five-year plan, 1928–1932) the need for
capital to finance economic development was great. The abundant gold
resources of the area seemed tailor-made to provide this capital. A
Dalstroy (Russian: Дальстрой, acronym for
Far North Construction Trust) was formed to organize the exploitation
of the area. Prisoners were being drawn into the Soviet penal system
in large numbers during the initial period of Kolyma's development,
most notably from the so-called anti-
Kulak campaign and the
government's internal war to force collectivization on the USSR's
peasantry. These prisoners formed a readily available workforce.
Tin Mine – A
Gulag camp in the
The initial efforts to develop the region began in 1932, with the
building of the town of
Magadan by forced labor. (Many projects in
USSR were already using forced labor, most notably the White
Sea-Baltic Canal.) After a gruelling train ride on the Trans-Siberian
Railway prisoners were disembarked at one of several transit camps
Nakhodka and later Vanino) and transported across the Sea of
Okhotsk to the natural harbor chosen for Magadan's construction.
Conditions aboard the ships were harsh. According to a 1987 article
in Time Magazine: "During the 1930s the only way to reach
by ship from Khabarovsk, which created an island psychology and the
Gulag archipelago. Within the crowded prison ships thousands died
during transportation. One survivor's memoir recounts that the prison
ship Dzhurma was caught in the autumn ice in 1933 while trying to get
to the mouth of the
Kolyma River. When it reached port the following
spring, it carried only crew and guards. All 12,000 prisoners were
missing, left dead on the ice." It turns out that this incident,
widely reported since it was first mentioned in a book published in
1947, could not have happened as the ship Dzhurma was not in Soviet
hands until mid 1935.
In 1932 expeditions pushed their way into the interior of the Kolyma,
embarking on the construction of the
Kolyma Highway, which was to
become known as the Road of Bones. Eventually, about 80 different
camps dotted the region of the uninhabited taiga.
The original director of the
Kolyma camps was Eduard Berzin, a Cheka
officer. Berzin was later removed (1937) and shot during the period of
the Great Purges in the USSR.
The Arctic camps
Prisoners at a
Kolyma gold mine
At the height of the Purges, around 1937, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's
account quotes camp commander
Naftaly Frenkel as establishing the new
law of the Archipelago: "We have to squeeze everything out of a
prisoner in the first three months — after that we don't need
him anymore." The system of hard labor and minimal or no food
reduced most prisoners to helpless "goners" (dokhodyaga, in Russian).
Conditions varied depending on the state of the country.
Many of the prisoners in
Kolyma were academics or intellectuals. They
Mikhail Kravchuk (Krawtschuk), a Ukrainian mathematician who
by the early 1930s had received considerable acclaim in the West.
After a summary trial, apparently for reluctance to take part in the
accusations of some of his colleagues, he was sent to
Kolyma where he
died in 1942. Hard work in the labor camp, harsh climate and meager
food, poor health as well as accusations and abandonment by most of
his colleagues, took their toll. Kravchuk perished in
Eastern Siberia, about 4,000 miles (6,000 km) from the place
where he was born. Kravchuk's last article had appeared soon after his
arrest in 1938. However, after this publication, Kravchuk's name was
stricken from books and journals.
The prisoner population of
Kolyma increased substantially in 1946 with
the arrival of thousands of former Soviet POWs liberated by Western
Allied forces or the Red Army at the close of World War II. Those
judged guilty of collaboration with the enemy frequently received ten
or twenty-five year prison sentences to the gulag, including
There were, however, some exceptions. Rumor suggested that Soviet
agents seized Léon Theremin, an inventor, in the
United States and
forced him to return to the Soviet Union; he actually returned
Joseph Stalin had Theremin imprisoned at the
Moscow; he later came to work in the
Kolyma gold mines. Although
rumors of his execution circulated widely, Theremin was, in fact, put
to work in a sharashka (a secret research-laboratory), together with
other scientists and engineers, including aircraft designer Andrei
Tupolev and rocket scientist
Sergei Korolyov (also a
Soviet Union rehabilitated Theremin in 1956.
Kolyma camps switched to using (mostly) free labor after 1954, and
Nikita Khrushchev ordered a general amnesty that freed many
prisoners. Various estimates have put the
Kolyma death-toll from 1930
to the mid 1950s between 250,000 and over a million people.
Dalstroy was the agency created to manage exploitation of the Kolyma
area, based principally on the use of forced labour.
In the words of Azerbaijani prisoner Ayyub Baghirov, "The entire
administration of the
Dalstroy – economic, administrative, physical
and political — was in the hands of one person who was invested
with many rights and privileges." The officials in charge of Dalstroy,
Gulag camps were:
Eduard Petrovich Berzin, 1932–1937
Karp Aleksandrovich Pavlov, 1937–1939.
Ivan Fedorovich Nikishev, 1940–1948.
Ivan Grigorevich Petrenko, 1948–1950.
I.L. Mitrakov, from 1950 until
Dalstroy was taken over by the Ministry
of Metallurgy on 18 March 1953.
Calendar of historical events
NKVD ticket for Polish prisoner (journalist and writer Anatol
Krakowiecki (pl)) released from
Kolyma GULAG camp- spring 1942
A detailed calendar of events:
Gold mines established in the
Kolyma River region.
Commencement of regular mining operations
13 November 1931: Establishment of Dalstroy
4 February 1932: Eduard Berzin, Manager of Dalstroy, arrives with the
first 10 prisoners.
1934: The headcount increases to 30,000 inmates.
1937: The number of inmates increases to over 70.000; 51,500 kg
of gold mined
June 1937: Stalin reprimands the
Kolyma commandants for their undue
leniency towards the inmates.
December 1937: Berzin is charged with espionage and subsequently tried
and shot in August 1938.
4 March 1938:
Dalstroy is put under the jurisdiction of NKVD, USSR.
December 1938: Osip Mandelstam, an eminent Russian poet, dies in a
transit camp en route to Kolyma.
1939: Number of inmates now 138,200.
11 October 1939: Commandants Pavlov (Dalstroy) and Stepan
Garanin (ru) (Sevvostlag) sacked from their posts. Garanin
1941: Headcount of inmates reaches 190,000. Also some 3,700 Dalstroy
23 May 1944: US Vice President
Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace arrives for a
NKVD-hosted 25-day tour of Magadan, Kolyma, and the Russian Far East.
October 1945: Camp for the Japanese prisoners of war is established in
Magadan, to provide extra labour.
1952: 199,726 inmates, the highest ever in the history of the Kolyma
camps and Dalstroy.
May 1952: According to commandant Mitrakov, Sevvoslag is dissolved,
Dalstroy transformed into the General Board of Labour Camps
March 1953: After Stalin's death,
Dalstroy transferred to the Ministry
of Metallurgy, camp units come under the jurisdiction of the Soviet
Ministry of Justice.
Dalstroy camp units taken over by the newly
established Management Board of the North-Eastern Corrective Labour
Camps. Harsh camp regime gradually relaxed.
1953–1956: Period of mass amnesties and the release of most
political prisoners. Some camp closures begin.
Dalstroy liquidated. Many of the former prisoners continued to
work in the mines with a modified status and a few new prisoners
arrived, at least until the early 1970s.
The Chukot Autonomous Okrug site provides details of developments
after the official closure of the camps. In 1953, the
(or region) was established.
Dalstroy was transferred to the
jurisdiction of the Ministry of Metallurgy and later to the Ministry
of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy.
Industrial and economic evolution
Industrial gold-mining started in 1958 leading to the development of
mining settlements, industrial enterprises, power plants,
hydro-electric dams, power transmission lines and improved roads. By
the 1960s, the region's population exceeded 100,000. With the
dissolution of Dalstroy, the Soviets adopted new labor policies. While
the prison labor was still important, it mainly consisted of common
criminals. New manpower was recruited from all Soviet nationalities on
a voluntary basis, to make up for the sudden lack of political
prisoners. Young men and women were lured to the frontier land of
Kolyma with the promise of high earnings and better living. But many
decided to leave. The region's prosperity suffered under Soviet
liberal policies in the end of the 1980s and 1990s with a considerable
reduction in population, apparently by 40% in Magadan.[unreliable
source?] A U.S. report from the late 1990s gives details of the
region's economic shortfall citing outdated equipment, bankruptcies of
local companies and lack of central support. It does however report
substantial investments from the
United States and the governor's
optimism for future prosperity based on revival of the mining
Last political prisoners
Dalstroy and the camps did not close down completely. The Kolyma
authority, which was reorganised in 1958/59 (31 December 1958),
finally closed in 1968. However the mining activities did not stop.
Indeed, government structures still exist today under the Ministry of
Natural Resources. In some cases, the same individuals seem to have
stayed on over the years under new management. There are indications
that the political prisoners were gradually phased out over the years
but it was only as a result of Boris Yeltsin's far reaching reforms in
the 1990s that the very last prisoners were released from Kolyma. The
Andrei Amalrik appears to have been one of the last
high-profile political prisoners to be sent to Kolyma. In 1970, he
published two books: Will the
Soviet Union Survive Until 1984? and
Involuntary Journey to Siberia. As a result, he was arrested for
"defaming the Soviet state" in November 1970 and sentenced to hard
labour, apparently in Kolyma, for what turned out to be a total of
almost five years.
Accounts of the
A detailed description of conditions in the camps is provided by
Varlam Shalamov in his
Kolyma Tales. In Dry Rations he writes: "Each
time they brought in the soup... it made us all want to cry. We were
ready to cry for fear that the soup would be thin. And when a miracle
occurred and the soup was thick we couldn’t believe it and ate it as
slowly as possible. But even with thick soup in a warm stomach there
remained a sucking pain; we’d been hungry for too long. All human
emotions—love, friendship, envy, concern for one’s fellow man,
compassion, longing for fame, honesty — had left us with the
flesh that had melted from our bodies...."
During and after the
Second World War
Second World War the region saw major influxes of
Ukrainians, Polish, German, Japanese, and Korean prisoners. There is a
particularly memorable account written by a Romanian survivor, Michael
Solomon, in his book
Magadan (see Bibliography below) which gives us a
vivid picture of both the transit camps leading to the
Kolyma and the
region itself. The Hungarian, George Bien, author of the Lost Years,
also recounts the horrors of Kolyma. His story has also led to a
Soviet Gold, the first autobiographical book written by Vladimir
Nikolayevich Petrov, is almost entirely a description of the author's
Magadan and the
Kolyma gold fields.
In Bitter Days of Kolyma, Ayyub Baghirov, an Azerbaijani accountant
who was finally rehabilitated, provides details of his arrest, torture
and sentencing to eight (finally to become 18) years imprisonment in a
labour camp for refusing to incriminate a fellow official for
financial irregularities. Describing the train journey to Siberia, he
writes: "The terrible heat, the lack of fresh air, the unbearable
overcrowded conditions all exhausted us. We were all half starved.
Some of the elderly prisoners, who had become so weak and emaciated,
died along the way. Their corpses were left abandoned alongside the
A vivid account of the conditions in
Kolyma is that of Brother Gene
Thompson of Kiev's Faith Mission. He recounts how he met Vyacheslav
Palman, a prisoner who survived because he knew how to grow cabbages.
Palman spoke of how guards read out the names of those to be shot
every evening. On one occasion a group of 169 men were shot and thrown
into a pit. Their fully clothed bodies were found after the ice melted
One of the most famous political prisoners in
Kolyma was Vadim Kozin,
possibly Russia's most popular romantic tenor, who was sent to the
camps in February 1945, apparently for refusing to write a song about
Stalin. Although he was initially freed in 1950 and could return to
his singing career, he was soon framed by his enemies on charges of
homosexuality and sent back to the camps. Though released once again
several years later, he was never officially rehabilitated and
remained in exile in
Magadan where he died in 1994. Speaking to
journalists in 1982, he explained how he had been forced to tour the
camps: "The Polit bureau formed brigades which would, under
surveillance, go on tours of the concentration camps and perform for
the prisoners and the guards, including those of the highest
In July 1993
Vadim Kozin told his story, sang and played his piano
probably for the last time in the documentary on the
Gulag in the far
Siberia GOUD Vergeten in Siberië aka GOLD Lost in Siberia
www.imdb.com[unreliable source?] by Dutch author Gerard Jacobs and
filmmaker Theo Uittenbogaard[unreliable source?]
Finally, Ukrainian prisoner
Nikolai Getman who spent the years
1945–1953 in Kolyma, records his testimony in pictures rather than
words. But he does have a plea: "Some may say that the
Gulag is a
forgotten part of history and that we do not need to be reminded. But
I have witnessed monstrous crimes. It is not too late to talk about
them and reveal them. It is essential to do so. Some have expressed
fear on seeing some of my paintings that I might end up in Kolyma
again — this time for good. But the people must be reminded...
of one of the harshest acts of political repression in the Soviet
Union. My paintings may help achieve this." The Jamestown Foundation
provides access to all 50 of Getman's paintings together with
explanations of their significance.
Estimating the number of victims
The amount of hard evidence in regard to
Kolyma is extremely limited.
Unfortunately, no reliable archives exist about the total number of
victims of Stalinism; all numbers are estimates. In his book, Stalin
Edvard Radzinsky explains how Stalin, while systematically
destroying his comrades-in-arms "at once obliterated every trace of
them in history. He personally directed the constant and relentless
purging of the archives." That practice continued to exist after the
death of the dictator.
In an account of a visit to
Harry Wu in 1999, there is a
reference to the efforts of Alexander Biryukov, a
Magadan lawyer to
document the terror. He is said to have compiled a book listing every
one of the 11,000 people documented to have been shot in
by the state security organ, the NKVD. Biryukov, whose father was in
Gulag at the time he was born, has begun researching the location
of graves. He believed some of the bodies were still partially
preserved in the permafrost.
It is therefore impossible to provide final figures on the number of
victims who died in Kolyma. Robert Conquest, author of The Great
Terror, now admits that his original estimate of three million victims
was far too high. In his article Death Tolls for the
Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century, Matthew White estimates
the number of those who died at 500,000. In Stalin's Slave Ships,
Martin Bollinger undertakes a careful analysis of the number of
prisoners who could have been transported by ship to
1932 and 1953 (some 900,000) and the probable number of deaths each
year (averaging 27%). This produces figures significantly below
earlier estimates but, as the author emphasizes, his calculations are
by no means definitive. In addition to the number of deaths, the
dreadful conditions of the camps and the hardships experienced by the
prisoners over the years need to be taken into account. In his
review of Bollinger's book,
Norman Polmar refers to 130,000
victims who died at Kolyma. As Bollinger reports in his book, the
3,000,000 estimate originated with the CIA in the 1950s and appears to
be a flawed estimate. This number is also estimated by the last
Anne Applebaum, a Pulitzer Prize winner, carried out an extensive
investigation of the gulags, and explained in a lecture in 2003, that
it's extremely difficult not only to document the facts given the
extent of the cover-up but to bring the truth home.
This ecoregion encompasses the drainages of Arctic rivers from the
Indigirka River eastward to Chaunskaya Guba Bay. In the west, the
Indigirka River drainage is separated from the
Khroma River and Yana
rivers by the spurs of the Polousnyy Kryazh Range and the Cherskogo
Pleistocene this part of
Beringia the ecology was quite
different than now with the extinct
Wooly mammoth and the wooly
The polar bear most likely evolved here.
^ a b "
Magadan Region". Kommersant Moscow. 8 March 2004. Archived from
the original on 25 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ Dikov, N.N.; Clark, Gerlad H. (1965). "The Stone Age of Kamchatka
and the Chukchi Peninsula in the Light of New Archaeological Data".
Arctic Anthropology. 3 (1). JSTOR 40315601.
^ Icons. magadancatholic.org
^ Icons by Svetlana Rjanitcyna. magadancatholic.org
^ "Alaska Notes: communist morality, stalinism, gulag,
^ Jackson, James O. (20 April 1987) Soviet Union. Time
^ Bollinger, Martin J. (2008). Stalin's Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag
Fleet, and the Role of the West. Naval Institute Press.
^ Solzhenitsyn, A. The
Gulag Archipelago, vol. 2, p. 49.
^ Krawtchouk story : How a scientist received a job offer from
the American Mathematical Society, was accused of being a foreign spy,
and sent to GULAG. gmu.edu
^ a b Conquest, Robert, Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps, Viking Press,
(1978), ISBN 0-670-41499-9, pp. 228–229
^ Hochschild, Adam (2003) . "17: Beyond the Pole Star". The
Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt. p. 237. ISBN 9780547524979. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
Secret police authorities in
Kolyma today say there are records -
sometimes a complete file, sometime just a name on a list - of two
million men and women who were shipped to the territory between 1930
and the mid-1950s. But no one knows, even approximately, how many of
these prisoners died. Even historians who have spent years studying
Kolyma come up with radically different numbers. I asked four such
researchers, who between them have written or edited more than half a
dozen books on the gulag, what was the total
Kolyma death toll. One
estimated it at 250,000, another at 300,000, one at 800,000, and one
at 'more than 1,000,000.'
^ История Дальстроя. kolyma.ru
^ Chukotka as a Part of the
Magadan region. chukotka.org
^ Yakutia ASSR and the Sakha Republic from Cosmic Elk. Retrieved 23
^ Kuzmichenko, Svetlana (1998)
Magadan Region Update, U.S. &
Foreign Commercial Service and U.S. Department of State.
^ John Keep:
Andrei Amalrik and "1984", Russian Review, Vol. 30, No.4.
(Oct. 1971), pp. 335–345 Archived 2 May 2006 at the Wayback
Machine.. Retrieved 21 January 2007.
^ George Bien,
Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, 22 June 2005
^ Documentary film Walk on Gulagland
Kolyma Archived 28 November 2006
at the Wayback Machine. by Zoltan Szalkai. Retrieved 17 January 2007.
^ Thompson, Gene (2002)
Kolyma – The Road of Death.
^ Vadim Kozin, One Way Trip from Petersburg to
Magadan from the Little
Russia in US site. Retrieved 13 February 2007. Archived 17 October
2006 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Goud – Vergeten in Siberië (1994)". IMDb. 19 September
^ "Theo Uittenbogaard". IMDb.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009.
Retrieved 16 July 2010.
^ Nikolai Getman: The
Gulag collection Archived 30 December 2011 at
the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
^ White, Matthew (1998) "Worst Massacres of the 20th Century" in
Historical Atlas of the 20th Century
^ Polmar, Norman (2007). "Stalin's Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag
Fleet, and the Role of the West (review)". Journal of Cold War
Studies. 9 (3): 180–182.
^ Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened. Heritage.org
(16 October 2003). Retrieved on 2016-12-14.
^ FEOW. "609: Kolyma". Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. Nature
Conservancy. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25
^ Boeskorov, G.G. (2009). "Preliminary study of a mummified woolly
rhinoceros from the lower reaches of the
Kolyma River". Doklady
Biological Sciences. 424 (1): 53. doi:10.1134/S0012496609010165.
^ Kurtén, B. (1964). "The evolution of the polar bear, Ursus
maritimus (Phipps)". Acta Zoologica Fennica. 108: 1–26.
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254 p. ISBN 0-670-41499-9
Conquest, Robert: The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties.
Conquest, Robert: The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University
Press, May 1990, hardcover, ISBN 0-19-505580-2; trade paperback,
Oxford, September 1991, ISBN 0-19-507132-8
Getman, Nikolai: The
Gulag Collection: Paintings of the Soviet Penal
System, The Jamestown Foundation, 2001, 131 p.,
Radzinsky, Edvard, Stalin: the first in-depth biography based on
explosive new documents from Russia's secret archives, Hodder &
Stoughton, 1996, 594 p., ISBN 0-340-60619-3
Kolyma Tales, Penguin Books, 1995, 528 pp.,
Solomon, Michel, Magadan, Princeton, Auerbach Publishers, 1971, 243
p. ISBN 0-87769-085-5
Applebaum, Anne, Gulag: A History, Broadway Books, 2003, hardcover,
720 pp., ISBN 0-7679-0056-1.
Bardach, Janusz / Gleeson, Kathleen
Man Is Wolf to Man : Surviving the
Gulag, University of California Press, c1998, 392 p.,
Ginzburg, Eugenia, Journey into the Whirlwind, Harvest/HBJ Book, 2002,
432 pp., ISBN 0-15-602751-8.
Ginzburg, Eugenia, Within the Whirlwind, Harvest/HBJ Book, 1982, 448
pp., ISBN 0-15-697649-8.
Jacobs, Gerard, Goudkoorts aka Goldfever (in Dutch), Contact Books,
Amsterdam, 1993, ISBN 90-254-0357-3
Kizny, Tomasz, Gulag, Firefly Books, 2004, 495
p. ISBN 1-55297-964-4
Khlevniuk, Oleg, The History of the Gulag: From Collectivization to
the Great Terror, Yale University Press, c2004, 418 p.,
MacCannon, John: Red Arctic: Oxford University Press, 1998,
OstEuropa, various authors (in German): Das Lager schreiben, Varlam
Šalamov und die Aufarbeitung des Gulag. Berlin (BWV) 2007 (=
Osteuropa 6/2007), 440 p., ISBN 978-3-8305-1219-6
Medvedev, Roy: Let History Judge: the origins and consequences of
Stalinism, New York, Vintage Books 1973, c1971,
Michael Shields, Martyrs of Magadan: Memories of the Gulag, Aid to the
Church in Need (UK), 2007, 312 pp., ISBN 978-0-9553339-4-1
Tzouliadis, Tim, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia,
Penguin Books, 2008, ISBN 978-014-3115427
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kolyma.
Kolyma; the Land of
Gold and Death A personal on-line account in nine
chapters by Stanislaw J. Kowalski, a Polish prisoner in Kolyma, with
Gulag Era in Pictures, 1927–1953 Photographs, several of
Kolyma, collected by James Duncan
Kolyma – Stalin's Notorious Prison Camps in Siberia, Personal
Account by Ayyub Baghirov in Azerbaijan International, Vol. 14:1
(Spring 2006), pp. 58–71.
Work in the
Gulag from the Stalin's
Gulag section of the Online Gulag
Museum with a short description and images of Kolyma
Italian-American artist Thomas Sgovio (1916–1997) created a series
of drawings and paintings, based on his life as a prisoner in the
 Gold- lost in
Siberia (1994) a documentary by Theo Uittenbogaard
and Gerard Jacobs
Links to Maps
Detailed Russian map of the
Gulag from the site Jewish
Community in Magadan
Russian Map of the
Gulag camps across the
Soviet Union from the
Coordinates: 65°0′N 152°0′E / 65.000°N 152.000°E