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KOLYMA (Russian : Колыма́, IPA: ) is a region located in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
. It is bounded by the East Siberian Sea
East Siberian Sea
and the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north and the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
to the south. The region gets its name from the Kolyma River
Kolyma River
and mountain range , parts of which were not discovered until 1926. Today the region consists roughly of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
and the Magadan Oblast
Magadan Oblast
.

The area, part of which is within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
, has a subarctic climate with very cold winters lasting up to six months of the year. Permafrost
Permafrost
and tundra cover a large part of the region. Average winter temperatures range from −19 °C to −38 °C (even lower in the interior), and average summer temperatures, from +3 °C to +16 °C. There are rich reserves of gold , silver , tin , tungsten , mercury , copper , antimony , coal , oil , and peat . Twenty-nine zones of possible oil and gas accumulation have been identified in the Sea of Okhotsk shelf. Total reserves are estimated at 3.5 billion tons of equivalent fuel, including 1.2 billion tons of oil and 1.5 billion m3 of gas.

The principal town Magadan
Magadan
has nearly 100,000 inhabitants and is the largest port in north-eastern Russia. It has a large fishing fleet and remains open year-round thanks to icebreakers. Magadan
Magadan
is served by the nearby Sokol Airport . There are many public and private farming enterprises. Gold
Gold
mines, pasta and sausage factories, fishing companies, and a distillery form the city's industrial base.

CONTENTS

* 1 Prehistory

* 2 History

* 2.1 Emergence of the Gulag
Gulag
camps

* 2.1.1 The Arctic camps * 2.1.2 Dalstroy officials * 2.1.3 Calendar of historical events

* 2.2 Post- Dalstroy developments

* 2.2.1 Industrial and economic evolution * 2.2.2 Last political prisoners

* 2.3 Accounts of the Kolyma
Kolyma
Gulag
Gulag
camps * 2.4 Estimating the number of victims

* 3 Ecology

* 3.1 Paleoecology

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading

* 8 External links

* 8.1 Links to Maps

PREHISTORY

During archaeological investigations of Paleolithic sites on the Angara, in 1936 the unique Stone Age site of Buret’ was discovered which yielded an anthropomorphic sculpture, skulls of rhinoceroses, and surface and semisubterranean dwellings. The houses were analogous, on one hand, to Paleolithic European houses and, on the other, to ethnographically studied houses of the Eskimos , Chukchi and Koryaks .

The indigenous peoples of this region include the Evens
Evens
, Koryaks , Yupiks , Chukchis
Chukchis
, Orochs
Orochs
, Chuvans and Itelmens
Itelmens
, who traditionally lived from fishing along the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
coast or from reindeer herding in the River Kolyma
Kolyma
valley.

HISTORY

Under Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
's rule, Kolyma
Kolyma
became the most notorious region for the Gulag
Gulag
labor camps . Tens of thousands or more people may have died en route to the area or in the Kolyma's series of gold mining , road building, lumbering, and construction camps between 1932 and 1954. It was Kolyma's reputation that caused Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
, author of The Gulag
Gulag
Archipelago , to characterize it as the "pole of cold and cruelty" in the Gulag
Gulag
system. The Mask of Sorrow monument in Magadan
Magadan
commemorates all those who died in the Kolyma
Kolyma
forced-labour camps and the recently dedicated Church of the Nativity remembers the victims in its icons and Stations of the Camps.

EMERGENCE OF THE GULAG CAMPS

Gold
Gold
and platinum were discovered in the region in the early 20th century. During the time of the USSR
USSR
's industrialization (beginning with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
's First Five-Year Plan , 1928–1932) the need for capital to finance economic development was great. The abundant gold resources of the area seemed tailor-made to provide this capital. A government agency Dalstroy (Russian : Дальстрой, acronym for Far North Construction Trust) was formed to organize the exploitation of the area. Prisoners were being drawn into the Soviet penal system in large numbers during the initial period of Kolyma's development, most notably from the so-called anti- Kulak campaign and the government's internal war to force collectivization on the USSR's peasantry. These prisoners formed a readily available workforce. Butugychag Tin
Tin
Mine – A Gulag
Gulag
camp in the Kolyma
Kolyma
area

The initial efforts to develop the region began in 1932, with the building of the town of Magadan
Magadan
by forced labor . (Many projects in the USSR
USSR
were already using forced labor, most notably the White Sea-Baltic Canal .) After a gruelling train ride on the Trans-Siberian Railway prisoners were disembarked at one of several transit camps (such as Nakhodka and later Vanino ) and transported across the Sea of Okhotsk to the natural harbor chosen for Magadan's construction. Conditions aboard the ships were harsh. According to a 1987 article in Time Magazine
Time Magazine
: "During the 1930s the only way to reach Magadan
Magadan
was by ship from Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
, which created an island psychology and the term Gulag
Gulag
archipelago. Within the crowded prison ships thousands died during transportation. One survivor's memoir recounts that the prison ship Dzhurma was caught in the autumn ice in 1933 while trying to get to the mouth of the Kolyma
Kolyma
River. When it reached port the following spring, it carried only crew and guards. All 12,000 prisoners were missing, left dead on the ice." It turns out that this incident, widely reported since it was first mentioned in a book published in 1947, could not have happened as the ship Dzhurma was not in Soviet hands until mid 1935.

In 1932 expeditions pushed their way into the interior of the Kolyma, embarking on the construction of the Kolyma Highway , which was to become known as the Road of Bones. Eventually, about 80 different camps dotted the region of the uninhabited taiga .

The original director of the Kolyma
Kolyma
camps was Eduard Berzin , a Cheka officer. Berzin was later removed (1937) and shot during the period of the Great Purges in the USSR.

The Arctic Camps

Prisoners at a Kolyma
Kolyma
gold mine

In 1937, at the height of the Purges, Stalin ordered an intensification of the hardships prisoners were forced to endure. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
's account quotes camp commander Naftaly Frenkel as establishing the new law of the Archipelago: "We have to squeeze everything out of a prisoner in the first three months — after that we don't need him anymore." The system of hard labor and minimal or no food reduced most prisoners to helpless "goners" (dokhodyaga, in Russian). Conditions varied depending on the state of the country.

Many of the prisoners in Kolyma
Kolyma
were academics or intellectuals. They included Mikhail Kravchuk (Krawtschuk), a Ukrainian mathematician who by the early 1930s had received considerable acclaim in the West. After a summary trial, apparently for reluctance to take part in the accusations of some of his colleagues, he was sent to Kolyma
Kolyma
where he died in 1942. Hard work in the labor camp, harsh climate and meager food, poor health as well as accusations and abandonment by most of his colleagues, took their toll. Kravchuk perished in Magadan
Magadan
in Eastern Siberia, about 4,000 miles (6,000 km) from the place where he was born. Kravchuk's last article had appeared soon after his arrest in 1938. However, after this publication, Kravchuk's name was stricken from books and journals.

The prisoner population of Kolyma
Kolyma
increased substantially in 1946 with the arrival of thousands of former Soviet POWs liberated by Western Allied forces or the Red Army at the close of World War II. Those judged guilty of collaboration with the enemy frequently received ten or twenty-five year prison sentences to the gulag, including Kolyma.

There were, however, some exceptions. Rumor suggested that Soviet agents seized Léon Theremin
Léon Theremin
, an inventor, in the United States
United States
and forced him to return to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
; he actually returned voluntarily . Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
had Theremin imprisoned at the Butyrka in Moscow; he later came to work in the Kolyma
Kolyma
gold mines. Although rumors of his execution circulated widely, Theremin was, in fact, put to work in a sharashka (a secret research-laboratory), together with other scientists and engineers, including aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev and rocket scientist Sergei Korolyov
Sergei Korolyov
(also a Kolyma
Kolyma
inmate). The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
rehabilitated Theremin in 1956.

The Kolyma
Kolyma
camps switched to using (mostly) free labor after 1954, and in 1956 Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
ordered a general amnesty that freed many prisoners. Various estimates have put the Kolyma
Kolyma
death-toll from 1930 to the mid 1950s between 250,000 and over a million people.

Dalstroy Officials

Dalstroy was the agency created to manage exploitation of the Kolyma area, based principally on the use of forced labour.

In the words of Azerbaijani prisoner Ayyub Baghirov, "The entire administration of the Dalstroy – economic, administrative, physical and political — was in the hands of one person who was invested with many rights and privileges." The officials in charge of Dalstroy, i.e., the Kolyma
Kolyma
Gulag
Gulag
camps were:

* Eduard Petrovich Berzin , 1932–1937 * Karp Aleksandrovich Pavlov, 1937–1939. * Ivan Fedorovich Nikishev, 1940–1948. * Ivan Grigorevich Petrenko, 1948–1950. * I.L. Mitrakov, from 1950 until Dalstroy was taken over by the Ministry of Metallurgy on 18 March 1953.

Calendar Of Historical Events

Soviet NKVD ticket for Polish prisoner (journalist and writer Anatol Krakowiecki (pl)) released from Kolyma
Kolyma
GULAG camp- spring 1942

A detailed calendar of events:

* 1928–1929: Gold
Gold
mines established in the Kolyma River
Kolyma River
region. Commencement of regular mining operations * 13 November 1931: Establishment of Dalstroy * 4 February 1932: Eduard Berzin , Manager of Dalstroy, arrives with the first 10 prisoners. * 1934: The headcount increases to 30,000 inmates. * 1937: The number of inmates increases to over 70.000; 51,500 kg of gold mined * June 1937: Stalin reprimands the Kolyma
Kolyma
commandants for their undue leniency towards the inmates. * December 1937: Berzin is charged with espionage and subsequently tried and shot in August 1938. * 4 March 1938: Dalstroy is put under the jurisdiction of NKVD , USSR. * December 1938: Osip Mandelstam , an eminent Russian poet, dies in a transit camp en route to Kolyma. * 1939: Number of inmates now 138,200. * 11 October 1939: Commandants Pavlov ( Dalstroy ) and Stepan Garanin (ru) ( Sevvostlag ) sacked from their posts. Garanin subsequently shot. * 1941: Headcount of inmates reaches 190,000. Also some 3,700 Dalstroy contract workers. * 23 May 1944: US Vice President Henry A. Wallace arrives for a NKVD-hosted 25-day tour of Magadan, Kolyma, and the Russian Far East. * October 1945: Camp for the Japanese prisoners of war is established in Magadan, to provide extra labour. * 1952: 199,726 inmates, the highest ever in the history of the Kolyma
Kolyma
camps and Dalstroy. * May 1952: According to commandant Mitrakov, Sevvoslag is dissolved, Dalstroy transformed into the General Board of Labour Camps * March 1953: After Stalin's death, Dalstroy transferred to the Ministry of Metallurgy, camp units come under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Ministry of Justice. * September 1953: Dalstroy camp units taken over by the newly established Management Board of the North-Eastern Corrective Labour Camps. Harsh camp regime gradually relaxed. * 1953–1956: Period of mass amnesties and the release of most political prisoners. Some camp closures begin. * 1957: Dalstroy liquidated. Many of the former prisoners continued to work in the mines with a modified status and a few new prisoners arrived, at least until the early 1970s.

POST-DALSTROY DEVELOPMENTS

The Chukot Autonomous Okrug site provides details of developments after the official closure of the camps. In 1953, the Magadan
Magadan
Oblast (or region) was established. Dalstroy was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Metallurgy and later to the Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy.

Industrial And Economic Evolution

Industrial gold-mining started in 1958 leading to the development of mining settlements, industrial enterprises, power plants, hydro-electric dams, power transmission lines and improved roads. By the 1960s, the region's population exceeded 100,000. With the dissolution of Dalstroy, the Soviets adopted new labor policies. While the prison labor was still important, it mainly consisted of common criminals. New manpower was recruited from all Soviet nationalities on a voluntary basis, to make up for the sudden lack of political prisoners . Young men and women were lured to the frontier land of Kolyma
Kolyma
with the promise of high earnings and better living. But many decided to leave. The region's prosperity suffered under Soviet liberal policies in the end of the 1980s and 1990s with a considerable reduction in population, apparently by 40% in Magadan. A U.S. report from the late 1990s gives details of the region's economic shortfall citing outdated equipment, bankruptcies of local companies and lack of central support. It does however report substantial investments from the United States
United States
and the governor's optimism for future prosperity based on revival of the mining industries.

Last Political Prisoners

Dalstroy and the camps did not close down completely. The Kolyma authority, which was reorganised in 1958/59 (31 December 1958), finally closed in 1968. However the mining activities did not stop. Indeed, government structures still exist today under the Ministry of Natural Resources. In some cases, the same individuals seem to have stayed on over the years under new management. There are indications that the political prisoners were gradually phased out over the years but it was only as a result of Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
's far reaching reforms in the 1990s that the very last prisoners were released from Kolyma. The Russian author Andrei Amalrik
Andrei Amalrik
appears to have been one of the last high-profile political prisoners to be sent to Kolyma. In 1970, he published two books: Will the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Survive Until 1984? and Involuntary Journey to Siberia. As a result, he was arrested for "defaming the Soviet state" in November 1970 and sentenced to hard labour, apparently in Kolyma, for what turned out to be a total of almost five years.

ACCOUNTS OF THE KOLYMA GULAG CAMPS

A detailed description of conditions in the camps is provided by Varlam Shalamov in his Kolyma
Kolyma
Tales . In Dry Rations he writes: "Each time they brought in the soup... it made us all want to cry. We were ready to cry for fear that the soup would be thin. And when a miracle occurred and the soup was thick we couldn’t believe it and ate it as slowly as possible. But even with thick soup in a warm stomach there remained a sucking pain; we’d been hungry for too long. All human emotions—love, friendship, envy, concern for one’s fellow man, compassion, longing for fame, honesty — had left us with the flesh that had melted from our bodies...."

During and after the Second World War
Second World War
the region saw major influxes of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
, Polish , German , Japanese , and Korean prisoners. There is a particularly memorable account written by a Romanian survivor, Michael Solomon, in his book Magadan
Magadan
(see Bibliography below) which gives us a vivid picture of both the transit camps leading to the Kolyma
Kolyma
and the region itself. The Hungarian , George Bien , author of the Lost Years, also recounts the horrors of Kolyma. His story has also led to a film.

Soviet Gold, the first autobiographical book written by Vladimir Nikolayevich Petrov , is almost entirely a description of the author's life in Magadan
Magadan
and the Kolyma
Kolyma
gold fields.

In Bitter Days of Kolyma, Ayyub Baghirov, an Azerbaijani accountant who was finally rehabilitated, provides details of his arrest, torture and sentencing to eight (finally to become 18) years imprisonment in a labour camp for refusing to incriminate a fellow official for financial irregularities. Describing the train journey to Siberia, he writes: "The terrible heat, the lack of fresh air, the unbearable overcrowded conditions all exhausted us. We were all half starved. Some of the elderly prisoners, who had become so weak and emaciated, died along the way. Their corpses were left abandoned alongside the railroad tracks."

A vivid account of the conditions in Kolyma
Kolyma
is that of Brother Gene Thompson of Kiev's Faith Mission. He recounts how he met Vyacheslav Palman, a prisoner who survived because he knew how to grow cabbages. Palman spoke of how guards read out the names of those to be shot every evening. On one occasion a group of 169 men were shot and thrown into a pit. Their fully clothed bodies were found after the ice melted in 1998.

One of the most famous political prisoners in Kolyma
Kolyma
was Vadim Kozin , possibly Russia's most popular romantic tenor , who was sent to the camps in February 1945, apparently for refusing to write a song about Stalin. Although he was initially freed in 1950 and could return to his singing career, he was soon framed by his enemies on charges of homosexuality and sent back to the camps. Though released once again several years later, he was never officially rehabilitated and remained in exile in Magadan
Magadan
where he died in 1994. Speaking to journalists in 1982, he explained how he had been forced to tour the camps: "The Polit bureau formed brigades which would, under surveillance, go on tours of the concentration camps and perform for the prisoners and the guards, including those of the highest rank."

* In July 1993 Vadim Kozin told his story, sang and played his piano probably for the last time in the documentary on the Gulag
Gulag
in the far east of Siberia
Siberia
GOUD Vergeten in Siberië aka GOLD Lost in Siberia www.imdb.com by Dutch author Gerard Jacobs and filmmaker Theo Uittenbogaard

Finally, Ukrainian prisoner Nikolai Getman who spent the years 1945–1953 in Kolyma, records his testimony in pictures rather than words. But he does have a plea: "Some may say that the Gulag
Gulag
is a forgotten part of history and that we do not need to be reminded. But I have witnessed monstrous crimes. It is not too late to talk about them and reveal them. It is essential to do so. Some have expressed fear on seeing some of my paintings that I might end up in Kolyma again — this time for good. But the people must be reminded... of one of the harshest acts of political repression in the Soviet Union. My paintings may help achieve this." The Jamestown Foundation provides access to all 50 of Getman's paintings together with explanations of their significance.

ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS

The amount of hard evidence in regard to Kolyma
Kolyma
is extremely limited. Unfortunately, no reliable archives exist about the total number of victims of Stalinism
Stalinism
; all numbers are estimates. In his book, Stalin (1996), Edvard Radzinsky explains how Stalin, while systematically destroying his comrades-in-arms "at once obliterated every trace of them in history. He personally directed the constant and relentless purging of the archives." That practice continued to exist after the death of the dictator.

In an account of a visit to Magadan
Magadan
by Harry Wu
Harry Wu
in 1999, there is a reference to the efforts of Alexander Biryukov, a Magadan
Magadan
lawyer to document the terror. He is said to have compiled a book listing every one of the 11,000 people documented to have been shot in Kolyma
Kolyma
camps by the state security organ, the NKVD . Biryukov, whose father was in the Gulag
Gulag
at the time he was born, has begun researching the location of graves. He believed some of the bodies were still partially preserved in the permafrost.

It is therefore impossible to provide final figures on the number of victims who died in Kolyma. Robert Conquest, author of The Great Terror, now admits that his original estimate of three million victims was far too high. In his article Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century, Matthew White estimates the number of those who died at 500,000. In Stalin's Slave Ships, Martin Bollinger undertakes a careful analysis of the number of prisoners who could have been transported by ship to Magadan
Magadan
between 1932 and 1953 (some 900,000) and the probable number of deaths each year (averaging 27%). This produces figures significantly below earlier estimates but, as the author emphasizes, his calculations are by no means definitive. In addition to the number of deaths, the dreadful conditions of the camps and the hardships experienced by the prisoners over the years need to be taken into account. In his review of Bollinger's book, Norman Polmar refers to 130,000 victims who died at Kolyma. As Bollinger reports in his book, the 3,000,000 estimate originated with the CIA in the 1950s and appears to be a flawed estimate. This number is also estimated by the last survivors.

Anne Applebaum , a Pulitzer Prize winner, carried out an extensive investigation of the gulags, and explained in a lecture in 2003, that it's extremely difficult not only to document the facts given the extent of the cover-up but to bring the truth home.

ECOLOGY

This ecoregion encompasses the drainages of Arctic rivers from the Indigirka River eastward to Chaunskaya Guba Bay. In the west, the Indigirka River drainage is separated from the Khroma River and Yana rivers by the spurs of the Polousnyy Kryazh Range and the Cherskogo Range.

PALEOECOLOGY

During the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
this part of Beringia
Beringia
the ecology was quite different than now with the extinct Wooly mammoth and the wooly rhinoceros present.

The polar bear most likely evolved here.

SEE ALSO

* Russia portal * Geography portal

REFERENCES

* ^ A B " Magadan
Magadan
Region". Kommersant Moscow. 8 March 2004. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Dikov, N.N.; Clark, Gerlad H. (1965). "The Stone Age of Kamchatka and the Chukchi Peninsula in the Light of New Archaeological Data". Arctic Anthropology. 3 (1). JSTOR
JSTOR
40315601 . * ^ Icons. magadancatholic.org * ^ Icons by Svetlana Rjanitcyna. magadancatholic.org * ^ "Alaska Notes: communist morality, stalinism, gulag, Kolyma,Magadan". * ^ Jackson, James O. (20 April 1987) Soviet Union. Time * ^ Bollinger, Martin J. (2008). Stalin's Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag
Gulag
Fleet, and the Role of the West. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591140467 . * ^ "Stalin\'s Purges". gendercide.org. * ^ Solzhenitsyn, A. The Gulag
Gulag
Archipelago , vol. 2, p. 49. * ^ Krawtchouk story : How a scientist received a job offer from the American Mathematical Society, was accused of being a foreign spy, and sent to GULAG. gmu.edu * ^ A B Conquest, Robert, Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps, Viking Press, (1978), ISBN 0-670-41499-9 , pp. 228–229 * ^ Hochschild, Adam (2003) . "17: Beyond the Pole Star". The Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 237. ISBN 9780547524979 . Retrieved 2017-06-14. Secret police authorities in Kolyma
Kolyma
today say there are records - sometimes a complete file, sometime just a name on a list - of two million men and women who were shipped to the territory between 1930 and the mid-1950s. But no one knows, even approximately, how many of these prisoners died. Even historians who have spent years studying Kolyma come up with radically different numbers. I asked four such researchers, who between them have written or edited more than half a dozen books on the gulag, what was the total Kolyma
Kolyma
death toll. One estimated it at 250,000, another at 300,000, one at 800,000, and one at 'more than 1,000,000.' * ^ История Дальстроя. kolyma.ru * ^ Chukotka as a Part of the Magadan
Magadan
region. chukotka.org * ^ Yakutia ASSR and the Sakha Republic from Cosmic Elk. Retrieved 23 January 2007. * ^ Kuzmichenko, Svetlana (1998) Magadan
Magadan
Region Update, U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service and U.S. Department of State. * ^ John Keep: Andrei Amalrik
Andrei Amalrik
and "1984", Russian Review , Vol. 30, No.4. (Oct. 1971), pp. 335–345 Archived 2 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 21 January 2007. * ^ George Bien, Gulag
Gulag
Survivor in the Boston Globe , 22 June 2005 * ^ Documentary film Walk on Gulagland Kolyma
Kolyma
by Zoltan Szalkai . Retrieved 17 January 2007. * ^ Thompson, Gene (2002) Kolyma
Kolyma
– The Road of Death. missionreporter.org * ^ Vadim Kozin, One Way Trip from Petersburg to Magadan
Magadan
from the Little Russia in US site. Retrieved 13 February 2007. Archived 17 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Goud – Vergeten in Siberië (1994)". IMDb. 19 September 1994. * ^ "Theo Uittenbogaard". IMDb. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ Nikolai Getman: The Gulag
Gulag
collection. Retrieved 13 February 2007. * ^ White, Matthew (1998) "Worst Massacres of the 20th Century" in Historical Atlas of the 20th Century * ^ Polmar, Norman (2007). "Stalin\'s Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag
Gulag
Fleet, and the Role of the West (review)". Journal of Cold War Studies . 9 (3): 180–182. * ^ Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened. Heritage.org (16 October 2003). Retrieved on 2016-12-14. * ^ FEOW. "609: Kolyma". Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 25 May 2015. * ^ Boeskorov, G.G. (2009). "Preliminary study of a mummified woolly rhinoceros from the lower reaches of the Kolyma
Kolyma
River". Doklady Biological Sciences. 424 (1): 53. doi :10.1134/S0012496609010165 . * ^ Kurtén, B. (1964). "The evolution of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus (Phipps)". Acta Zoologica Fennica. 108: 1–26.

SOURCES

* Conquest, Robert : Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps, Viking Press, 1978, 254 p. ISBN 0-670-41499-9 * Conquest, Robert : The Great Terror : Stalin's Purge of the Thirties. 1968. * Conquest, Robert : The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press, May 1990, hardcover, ISBN 0-19-505580-2 ; trade paperback, Oxford, September 1991, ISBN 0-19-507132-8 * Getman, Nikolai: The Gulag
Gulag
Collection: Paintings of the Soviet Penal System, The Jamestown Foundation, 2001, 131 p., ISBN 0-9675009-1-5 * Radzinsky, Edvard , Stalin: the first in-depth biography based on explosive new documents from Russia's secret archives, Hodder the Land of Gold
Gold
and Death A personal on-line account in nine chapters by Stanislaw J. Kowalski, a Polish prisoner in Kolyma, with numerous references * The Soviet Gulag
Gulag
Era in Pictures, 1927–1953 Photographs, several of Kolyma, collected by James Duncan * Kolyma
Kolyma
– Stalin\'s Notorious Prison Camps in Siberia, Personal Account by Ayyub Baghirov in Azerbaijan International, Vol. 14:1 (Spring 2006), pp. 58–71. * Work in the Gulag
Gulag
from the Stalin's Gulag
Gulag
section of the Online Gulag
Gulag
Museum with a short description and images of Kolyma * Italian-American artist Thomas Sgovio (1916–1997) created a series of drawings and paintings, based on his life as a prisoner in the Soviet Gulag * Shalamv Kolyma
Kolyma
Tales * Gold- lost in Siberia
Siberia
(1994) a documentary by Theo Uittenbogaard and Gerard Jacobs

LINKS TO MAPS

* Detailed Russian map of the Kolyma
Kolyma
Gulag
Gulag
from the site Jewish Community in Magadan * Russian Map of the Gulag
Gulag
camps across the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the Memorial site

Coordinates : 65°0′N 152°0′E / 65.000°N 152.000°E / 65.000; 152.000 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Kolyma
Kolyma
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