KOLYMA (Russian : Колыма́, IPA: ) is a region located in the Russian Far East . It is bounded by the East Siberian Sea and the Arctic Ocean in the north and the Sea of Okhotsk to the south. The region gets its name from the Kolyma River and mountain range , parts of which were not discovered until 1926. Today the region consists roughly of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and the Magadan Oblast .
The area, part of which is within the Arctic Circle , has a subarctic climate with very cold winters lasting up to six months of the year. Permafrost and tundra cover a large part of the region. Average winter temperatures range from −19 °C to −38 °C (even lower in the interior), and average summer temperatures, from +3 °C to +16 °C. There are rich reserves of gold , silver , tin , tungsten , mercury , copper , antimony , coal , oil , and peat . Twenty-nine zones of possible oil and gas accumulation have been identified in the Sea of Okhotsk shelf. Total reserves are estimated at 3.5 billion tons of equivalent fuel, including 1.2 billion tons of oil and 1.5 billion m3 of gas.
The principal town
Magadan has nearly 100,000 inhabitants and is the
largest port in north-eastern Russia. It has a large fishing fleet and
remains open year-round thanks to icebreakers.
Magadan is served by
Sokol Airport . There are many public and private farming
* 1 Prehistory
* 2 History
* 2.1 Emergence of the Gulag camps
* 2.1.1 The Arctic camps * 2.1.2 Dalstroy officials * 2.1.3 Calendar of historical events
* 2.2 Post- Dalstroy developments
* 2.2.1 Industrial and economic evolution * 2.2.2 Last political prisoners
* 3 Ecology
* 3.1 Paleoecology
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
* 8.1 Links to Maps
During archaeological investigations of Paleolithic sites on the Angara, in 1936 the unique Stone Age site of Buret’ was discovered which yielded an anthropomorphic sculpture, skulls of rhinoceroses, and surface and semisubterranean dwellings. The houses were analogous, on one hand, to Paleolithic European houses and, on the other, to ethnographically studied houses of the Eskimos , Chukchi and Koryaks .
The indigenous peoples of this region include the Evens , Koryaks , Yupiks , Chukchis , Orochs , Chuvans and Itelmens , who traditionally lived from fishing along the Sea of Okhotsk coast or from reindeer herding in the River Kolyma valley.
Under Joseph Stalin 's rule, Kolyma became the most notorious region for the Gulag labor camps . Tens of thousands or more people may have died en route to the area or in the Kolyma's series of gold mining , road building, lumbering, and construction camps between 1932 and 1954. It was Kolyma's reputation that caused Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , author of _The Gulag Archipelago _, to characterize it as the "pole of cold and cruelty" in the Gulag system. The Mask of Sorrow monument in Magadan commemorates all those who died in the Kolyma forced-labour camps and the recently dedicated Church of the Nativity remembers the victims in its icons and Stations of the Camps.
EMERGENCE OF THE GULAG CAMPS
The initial efforts to develop the region began in 1932, with the building of the town of Magadan by forced labor . (Many projects in the USSR were already using forced labor, most notably the White Sea-Baltic Canal .) After a gruelling train ride on the Trans-Siberian Railway prisoners were disembarked at one of several transit camps (such as Nakhodka and later Vanino ) and transported across the Sea of Okhotsk to the natural harbor chosen for Magadan's construction. Conditions aboard the ships were harsh. According to a 1987 article in _ Time Magazine _: "During the 1930s the only way to reach Magadan was by ship from Khabarovsk , which created an island psychology and the term Gulag archipelago. Within the crowded prison ships thousands died during transportation. One survivor's memoir recounts that the prison ship _Dzhurma_ was caught in the autumn ice in 1933 while trying to get to the mouth of the Kolyma River. When it reached port the following spring, it carried only crew and guards. All 12,000 prisoners were missing, left dead on the ice." It turns out that this incident, widely reported since it was first mentioned in a book published in 1947, could not have happened as the ship _Dzhurma_ was not in Soviet hands until mid 1935.
In 1932 expeditions pushed their way into the interior of the Kolyma, embarking on the construction of the Kolyma Highway , which was to become known as the Road of Bones. Eventually, about 80 different camps dotted the region of the uninhabited taiga .
The Arctic Camps
Prisoners at a Kolyma gold mine
In 1937, at the height of the Purges, Stalin ordered an intensification of the hardships prisoners were forced to endure. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 's account quotes camp commander Naftaly Frenkel as establishing the new law of the Archipelago: "We have to squeeze everything out of a prisoner in the first three months — after that we don't need him anymore." The system of hard labor and minimal or no food reduced most prisoners to helpless "goners" (_dokhodyaga_, in Russian). Conditions varied depending on the state of the country.
Many of the prisoners in Kolyma were academics or intellectuals. They included Mikhail Kravchuk (Krawtschuk), a Ukrainian mathematician who by the early 1930s had received considerable acclaim in the West. After a summary trial, apparently for reluctance to take part in the accusations of some of his colleagues, he was sent to Kolyma where he died in 1942. Hard work in the labor camp, harsh climate and meager food, poor health as well as accusations and abandonment by most of his colleagues, took their toll. Kravchuk perished in Magadan in Eastern Siberia, about 4,000 miles (6,000 km) from the place where he was born. Kravchuk's last article had appeared soon after his arrest in 1938. However, after this publication, Kravchuk's name was stricken from books and journals.
The prisoner population of Kolyma increased substantially in 1946 with the arrival of thousands of former Soviet POWs liberated by Western Allied forces or the Red Army at the close of World War II. Those judged guilty of collaboration with the enemy frequently received ten or twenty-five year prison sentences to the gulag, including Kolyma.
There were, however, some exceptions. Rumor suggested that Soviet agents seized Léon Theremin , an inventor, in the United States and forced him to return to the Soviet Union ; he actually returned voluntarily . Joseph Stalin had Theremin imprisoned at the Butyrka in Moscow; he later came to work in the Kolyma gold mines. Although rumors of his execution circulated widely, Theremin was, in fact, put to work in a sharashka (a secret research-laboratory), together with other scientists and engineers, including aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev and rocket scientist Sergei Korolyov (also a Kolyma inmate). The Soviet Union rehabilitated Theremin in 1956.
The Kolyma camps switched to using (mostly) free labor after 1954, and in 1956 Nikita Khrushchev ordered a general amnesty that freed many prisoners. Various estimates have put the Kolyma death-toll from 1930 to the mid 1950s between 250,000 and over a million people.
Dalstroy was the agency created to manage exploitation of the Kolyma area, based principally on the use of forced labour.
In the words of Azerbaijani prisoner Ayyub Baghirov, "The entire administration of the Dalstroy – economic, administrative, physical and political — was in the hands of one person who was invested with many rights and privileges." The officials in charge of Dalstroy, i.e., the Kolyma Gulag camps were:
* Eduard Petrovich Berzin , 1932–1937 * Karp Aleksandrovich Pavlov, 1937–1939. * Ivan Fedorovich Nikishev, 1940–1948. * Ivan Grigorevich Petrenko, 1948–1950. * I.L. Mitrakov, from 1950 until Dalstroy was taken over by the Ministry of Metallurgy on 18 March 1953.
Calendar Of Historical Events
A detailed calendar of events:
The Chukot Autonomous Okrug site provides details of developments after the official closure of the camps. In 1953, the Magadan Oblast (or region) was established. Dalstroy was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Metallurgy and later to the Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy.
Industrial And Economic Evolution
Industrial gold-mining started in 1958 leading to the development of mining settlements, industrial enterprises, power plants, hydro-electric dams, power transmission lines and improved roads. By the 1960s, the region's population exceeded 100,000. With the dissolution of Dalstroy, the Soviets adopted new labor policies. While the prison labor was still important, it mainly consisted of common criminals. New manpower was recruited from all Soviet nationalities on a voluntary basis, to make up for the sudden lack of political prisoners . Young men and women were lured to the frontier land of Kolyma with the promise of high earnings and better living. But many decided to leave. The region's prosperity suffered under Soviet liberal policies in the end of the 1980s and 1990s with a considerable reduction in population, apparently by 40% in Magadan. A U.S. report from the late 1990s gives details of the region's economic shortfall citing outdated equipment, bankruptcies of local companies and lack of central support. It does however report substantial investments from the United States and the governor's optimism for future prosperity based on revival of the mining industries.
Last Political Prisoners
Dalstroy and the camps did not close down completely. The Kolyma authority, which was reorganised in 1958/59 (31 December 1958), finally closed in 1968. However the mining activities did not stop. Indeed, government structures still exist today under the Ministry of Natural Resources. In some cases, the same individuals seem to have stayed on over the years under new management. There are indications that the political prisoners were gradually phased out over the years but it was only as a result of Boris Yeltsin 's far reaching reforms in the 1990s that the very last prisoners were released from Kolyma. The Russian author Andrei Amalrik appears to have been one of the last high-profile political prisoners to be sent to Kolyma. In 1970, he published two books: _Will the Soviet Union Survive Until 1984?_ and _Involuntary Journey to Siberia_. As a result, he was arrested for "defaming the Soviet state" in November 1970 and sentenced to hard labour, apparently in Kolyma, for what turned out to be a total of almost five years.
ACCOUNTS OF THE KOLYMA GULAG CAMPS
A detailed description of conditions in the camps is provided by Varlam Shalamov in his _ Kolyma Tales _. In _Dry Rations_ he writes: "Each time they brought in the soup... it made us all want to cry. We were ready to cry for fear that the soup would be thin. And when a miracle occurred and the soup was thick we couldn’t believe it and ate it as slowly as possible. But even with thick soup in a warm stomach there remained a sucking pain; we’d been hungry for too long. All human emotions—love, friendship, envy, concern for one’s fellow man, compassion, longing for fame, honesty — had left us with the flesh that had melted from our bodies...."
During and after the Second World War the region saw major influxes of Ukrainians , Polish , German , Japanese , and Korean prisoners. There is a particularly memorable account written by a Romanian survivor, Michael Solomon, in his book _Magadan_ (see Bibliography below) which gives us a vivid picture of both the transit camps leading to the Kolyma and the region itself. The Hungarian , George Bien , author of the _Lost Years_, also recounts the horrors of Kolyma. His story has also led to a film.
In _Bitter Days of Kolyma_, Ayyub Baghirov, an Azerbaijani accountant who was finally rehabilitated, provides details of his arrest, torture and sentencing to eight (finally to become 18) years imprisonment in a labour camp for refusing to incriminate a fellow official for financial irregularities. Describing the train journey to Siberia, he writes: "The terrible heat, the lack of fresh air, the unbearable overcrowded conditions all exhausted us. We were all half starved. Some of the elderly prisoners, who had become so weak and emaciated, died along the way. Their corpses were left abandoned alongside the railroad tracks."
A vivid account of the conditions in Kolyma is that of Brother Gene Thompson of Kiev's Faith Mission. He recounts how he met Vyacheslav Palman, a prisoner who survived because he knew how to grow cabbages. Palman spoke of how guards read out the names of those to be shot every evening. On one occasion a group of 169 men were shot and thrown into a pit. Their fully clothed bodies were found after the ice melted in 1998.
One of the most famous political prisoners in Kolyma was Vadim Kozin , possibly Russia's most popular romantic tenor , who was sent to the camps in February 1945, apparently for refusing to write a song about Stalin. Although he was initially freed in 1950 and could return to his singing career, he was soon framed by his enemies on charges of homosexuality and sent back to the camps. Though released once again several years later, he was never officially rehabilitated and remained in exile in Magadan where he died in 1994. Speaking to journalists in 1982, he explained how he had been forced to tour the camps: "The Polit bureau formed brigades which would, under surveillance, go on tours of the concentration camps and perform for the prisoners and the guards, including those of the highest rank."
* In July 1993 Vadim Kozin told his story, sang and played his piano probably for the last time in the documentary on the Gulag in the far east of Siberia _GOUD Vergeten in Siberië_ aka _GOLD Lost in Siberia_ www.imdb.com by Dutch author Gerard Jacobs and filmmaker Theo Uittenbogaard
Finally, Ukrainian prisoner Nikolai Getman who spent the years 1945–1953 in Kolyma, records his testimony in pictures rather than words. But he does have a plea: "Some may say that the Gulag is a forgotten part of history and that we do not need to be reminded. But I have witnessed monstrous crimes. It is not too late to talk about them and reveal them. It is essential to do so. Some have expressed fear on seeing some of my paintings that I might end up in Kolyma again — this time for good. But the people must be reminded... of one of the harshest acts of political repression in the Soviet Union. My paintings may help achieve this." The Jamestown Foundation provides access to all 50 of Getman's paintings together with explanations of their significance.
ESTIMATING THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS
The amount of hard evidence in regard to Kolyma is extremely limited. Unfortunately, no reliable archives exist about the total number of victims of Stalinism ; all numbers are estimates. In his book, _Stalin_ (1996), Edvard Radzinsky explains how Stalin, while systematically destroying his comrades-in-arms "at once obliterated every trace of them in history. He personally directed the constant and relentless purging of the archives." That practice continued to exist after the death of the dictator.
In an account of a visit to Magadan by Harry Wu in 1999, there is a reference to the efforts of Alexander Biryukov, a Magadan lawyer to document the terror. He is said to have compiled a book listing every one of the 11,000 people documented to have been shot in Kolyma camps by the state security organ, the NKVD . Biryukov, whose father was in the Gulag at the time he was born, has begun researching the location of graves. He believed some of the bodies were still partially preserved in the permafrost.
It is therefore impossible to provide final figures on the number of victims who died in Kolyma. Robert Conquest, author of _The Great Terror_, now admits that his original estimate of three million victims was far too high. In his article _Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century_, Matthew White estimates the number of those who died at 500,000. In _Stalin's Slave Ships_, Martin Bollinger undertakes a careful analysis of the number of prisoners who could have been transported by ship to Magadan between 1932 and 1953 (some 900,000) and the probable number of deaths each year (averaging 27%). This produces figures significantly below earlier estimates but, as the author emphasizes, his calculations are by no means definitive. In addition to the number of deaths, the dreadful conditions of the camps and the hardships experienced by the prisoners over the years need to be taken into account. In his review of Bollinger's book, Norman Polmar refers to 130,000 victims who died at Kolyma. As Bollinger reports in his book, the 3,000,000 estimate originated with the CIA in the 1950s and appears to be a flawed estimate. This number is also estimated by the last survivors.
Anne Applebaum , a Pulitzer Prize winner, carried out an extensive investigation of the gulags, and explained in a lecture in 2003, that it's extremely difficult not only to document the facts given the extent of the cover-up but to bring the truth home.
This ecoregion encompasses the drainages of Arctic rivers from the Indigirka River eastward to Chaunskaya Guba Bay. In the west, the Indigirka River drainage is separated from the Khroma River and Yana rivers by the spurs of the Polousnyy Kryazh Range and the Cherskogo Range.
The polar bear most likely evolved here.
* Russia portal * Geography portal
* ^ _A_ _B_ " Magadan Region". Kommersant Moscow. 8 March 2004. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Dikov, N.N.; Clark, Gerlad H. (1965). "The Stone Age of Kamchatka and the Chukchi Peninsula in the Light of New Archaeological Data". _Arctic Anthropology_. 3 (1). JSTOR 40315601 . * ^ Icons. magadancatholic.org * ^ Icons by Svetlana Rjanitcyna. magadancatholic.org * ^ "Alaska Notes: communist morality, stalinism, gulag, Kolyma,Magadan". * ^ Jackson, James O. (20 April 1987) Soviet Union. _Time_ * ^ Bollinger, Martin J. (2008). _Stalin's Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag Fleet, and the Role of the West_. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1591140467 . * ^ "Stalin\'s Purges". gendercide.org. * ^ Solzhenitsyn, A. _The Gulag Archipelago _, vol. 2, p. 49. * ^ Krawtchouk story : How a scientist received a job offer from the American Mathematical Society, was accused of being a foreign spy, and sent to GULAG. gmu.edu * ^ _A_ _B_ Conquest, Robert, _Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps_, Viking Press, (1978), ISBN 0-670-41499-9 , pp. 228–229 * ^ Hochschild, Adam (2003) . "17: Beyond the Pole Star". _The Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 237. ISBN 9780547524979 . Retrieved 2017-06-14. Secret police authorities in Kolyma today say there are records - sometimes a complete file, sometime just a name on a list - of two million men and women who were shipped to the territory between 1930 and the mid-1950s. But no one knows, even approximately, how many of these prisoners died. Even historians who have spent years studying Kolyma come up with radically different numbers. I asked four such researchers, who between them have written or edited more than half a dozen books on the _gulag_, what was the total Kolyma death toll. One estimated it at 250,000, another at 300,000, one at 800,000, and one at 'more than 1,000,000.' * ^ История Дальстроя. kolyma.ru * ^ Chukotka as a Part of the Magadan region. chukotka.org * ^ Yakutia ASSR and the Sakha Republic from Cosmic Elk. Retrieved 23 January 2007. * ^ Kuzmichenko, Svetlana (1998) Magadan Region Update, U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service and U.S. Department of State. * ^ John Keep: Andrei Amalrik and "1984", Russian Review , Vol. 30, No.4. (Oct. 1971), pp. 335–345 Archived 2 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved 21 January 2007. * ^ George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the _ Boston Globe _, 22 June 2005 * ^ Documentary film _Walk on Gulagland Kolyma_ by Zoltan Szalkai . Retrieved 17 January 2007. * ^ Thompson, Gene (2002) Kolyma – The Road of Death. missionreporter.org * ^ Vadim Kozin, One Way Trip from Petersburg to Magadan from the Little Russia in US site. Retrieved 13 February 2007. Archived 17 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Goud – Vergeten in Siberië (1994)". _IMDb_. 19 September 1994. * ^ "Theo Uittenbogaard". _IMDb_. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ Nikolai Getman: The Gulag collection. Retrieved 13 February 2007. * ^ White, Matthew (1998) "Worst Massacres of the 20th Century" in _Historical Atlas of the 20th Century_ * ^ Polmar, Norman (2007). "Stalin\'s Slave Ships: Kolyma, the Gulag Fleet, and the Role of the West (review)". _Journal of Cold War Studies _. 9 (3): 180–182. * ^ Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened. Heritage.org (16 October 2003). Retrieved on 2016-12-14. * ^ FEOW. "609: Kolyma". _Freshwater Ecoregions of the World_. Nature Conservancy. Retrieved 25 May 2015. * ^ Boeskorov, G.G. (2009). "Preliminary study of a mummified woolly rhinoceros from the lower reaches of the Kolyma River". _Doklady Biological Sciences_. 424 (1): 53. doi :10.1134/S0012496609010165 . * ^ Kurtén, B. (1964). "The evolution of the polar bear, _Ursus maritimus_ (Phipps)". _Acta Zoologica Fennica_. 108: 1–26.
* Conquest, Robert : _Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps_, Viking Press,
1978, 254 p. ISBN 0-670-41499-9
* Conquest, Robert : _
The Great Terror : Stalin's Purge of the
* Conquest, Robert : _The Great Terror: A Reassessment_, Oxford
University Press, May 1990, hardcover, ISBN 0-19-505580-2 ; trade
paperback, Oxford, September 1991, ISBN 0-19-507132-8
* Getman, Nikolai: _The
Gulag Collection: Paintings of the Soviet
Penal System_, The Jamestown Foundation, 2001, 131 p., ISBN
* Radzinsky, Edvard , Stalin: the first in-depth biography based on
explosive new documents from Russia's secret archives, Hodder the Land
LINKS TO MAPS
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