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Kochi
Kochi
([koˈtʃːi ] ( listen)), also known as Cochin (/ˈkoʊtʃɪn/ KOH-chin), is a major port city on the south-west coast of India
India
bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam
Ernakulam
in the state of Kerala
Kerala
and is often referred to as Ernakulam. The city has a corporation limit population of 612,343,[8] and a metropolitan population of 2.1 million, making it the largest urban agglomeration in Kerala. Kochi
Kochi
city is also part of the Greater Cochin region[9][10] and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India. The civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, which was constituted in the year 1967, and the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority[11] (GCDA) and the Goshree Islands Development Authority (GIDA).[12] Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi
Kochi
was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India
India
from the 14th century onward, and maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era. Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi
Kochi
was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India
India
until 1530, when Goa
Goa
was chosen instead. The city was later occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi
Kochi
ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala.[13][14] Kochi
Kochi
has been ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India
India
according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine.[15] Kochi
Kochi
was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute.[16] Kochi
Kochi
is known as the financial,[17][18] commercial[19][20] and industrial[21][22] capital of Kerala. It is the home to Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
and the state headquarters[23][24] of the Indian Coast Guard
Indian Coast Guard
with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.[25] Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi
Kochi
Refinery[26] and the Kochi
Kochi
Marina. Kochi
Kochi
is also home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, companies like HMT, Cyber City, Kinfra Hi-Tech Park, chemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL[27] and Kochi
Kochi
Refineries, electrical companies like TELK,[28] and industrial parks like the Cochin Special
Special
Economic Zone, Smart City and Infopark. Kochi
Kochi
is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval physical and oceanographic laboratory (NPOL), Indian Maritime University, Sree sankara Sanskrit University and the Cochin University
Cochin University
of Science and Technology. Kochi
Kochi
is also home to Kerala's National Law School, The National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi
Kochi
has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi- Muziris
Muziris
Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.[29]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Civic administration

4.1 Law and order 4.2 Politics

5 Economy 6 Transport

6.1 Air 6.2 Road 6.3 Public transport

6.3.1 Road 6.3.2 Rail 6.3.3 Metro 6.3.4 Water

7 Demographics 8 Culture 9 Healthcare 10 Education

10.1 Secondary education 10.2 Higher education

11 Social service organisations 12 Media 13 Sports 14 Navy 15 Sister cities 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Etymology Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym, Cochin, and Kochi.[30] The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin as Kogin (קוגין), which is seen in the seal of the synagogue[31] owned by the community. The origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam
Malayalam
word kochu azhi, meaning 'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi
Kochi
is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour".[32] Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti (15th century), and Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea.[33] After the arrival of the Portuguese, and later the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation. The city reverted to a closer Anglicization of its original Malayalam
Malayalam
name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court later dismissed the plea.[34] History Main article: History of Kochi See also: Kingdom of Cochin Kochi
Kochi
was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, and was known to the Yavanas
Yavanas
(Greeks and Romans) as well as Jews, Syrians, Arabs, and Chinese since ancient times.[35] It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris
Muziris
around Kodungallur (Cranganore) was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341.[36] The earliest documented references to Kochi
Kochi
occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan
Ma Huan
during his visit to Kochi
Kochi
in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet.[37] There are also references to Kochi
Kochi
in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi
Kochi
in 1440.[38]

Kochi
Kochi
City around 1635

Paradesi Synagogue
Paradesi Synagogue
Inscription

St. Francis CSI Church built in 1503, is the oldest European church in India.[30]

According to many historians, the precursor state to Kingdom of Kochi came into existence in the early 12th century, after the fall of the Chera Kingdom.[32] The reign of the Kingdom was hereditary, and the family that ruled over the region was known as the Perumpadappu Swaroopam in the local vernacular. Portuguese navigator, Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
founded the first European settlement in India
India
at Kochi
Kochi
in 1500.[39] From 1503 to 1663, Fort Kochi
Kochi
(Fort Emmanuel) was ruled by Portugal. This Portuguese period was a harrowing time for the Saint Thomas Christians
Saint Thomas Christians
and the Jews, as the Inquisition was active in Portuguese India. Kochi
Kochi
hosted the grave of Vasco da Gama, the first European explorer to set sail for India, who was buried at St. Francis Church until his remains were returned to Portugal
Portugal
in 1539.[40] The Portuguese rule was followed by that of the Dutch who renamed Fort Immanuel as Fort Stormsburg. In meantime, the Royal Family of Kochi
Kochi
relocated the capital of Kochi
Kochi
Kingdom to Thrissur, leaving nominal authority over Islands of Kochi. In 1664, Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
Municipality was established by Dutch, making it the first municipality in Indian subcontinent, which got dissolved when Dutch authority got weaker in the 18th century. The remaining part of Kochi were governed by governors of Kochi
Kochi
Kingdom. By 1773, the Mysore
Mysore
ruler Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
extended his conquest in the Malabar region
Malabar region
to Kochi
Kochi
forcing it to become a tributary of Mysore. The hereditary Prime Ministership of Kochi
Kochi
held by the Paliath Achans ended during this period.[41] Meanwhile, the Dutch, fearing an outbreak of war on the United Provinces, signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 with the United Kingdom, under which Kochi
Kochi
was ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for the island of Bangka. However, there are evidences of English habitation in the region even before the signing of the treaty.[42] In 1866, Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
municipality was reinstalled and its first Municipal Council seating contest was conducted in 1883. In 1896, H.H. Rama Varma XV, The Maharaja
Maharaja
of Cochin, initiated local administration by forming town councils in Mattancherry
Mattancherry
and Ernakulam. In 1907, the Governor of the Madras Presidency, Sir Arthur Lawley
Arthur Lawley
and his brother, Beilby Lawley, 3rd Baron Wenlock, Governor of Madras, 1891 to 1896, left for an official tour of Cochin and Travancore, which lasted from 25 January to 14 February. On 26 January, they were met by His Highness the Rajah of Cochin who gave a State Dinner in their honour at Ernakulam.[43][44][45][46] By the 1870s, the capital of Kochi Kingdom was relocated again to Kochi
Kochi
Suburb of Tripunithura. In 1910, Ernakulam
Ernakulam
became the administrative capital of Kochi
Kochi
Kingdom with establishment of Royal Secretariat and State Durbar. The Offices of Diwan and High court were soon moved into Ernakulam.[47] In 1925, Kochi
Kochi
legislative assembly was constituted due to public pressure on the state. Towards the early 20th century, trade at the port had increased substantially, and the need to develop the port was greatly felt. Harbour engineer Robert Bristow was brought to Kochi
Kochi
in 1920 under the direction of Lord Willingdon, then the Governor of Madras. In a span of 21 years, he transformed Kochi
Kochi
as one of the safest harbours in the peninsula, where ships berthed alongside the newly reclaimed inner harbour equipped with a long array of steam cranes.[48] In 1947, when India
India
gained independence from the British colonial rule, Cochin was the first princely state to join the Indian Union willingly.[32] In 1949, Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
state came into being with the merger of Cochin and Travancore. The King of Travancore
Travancore
was the Rajpramukh
Rajpramukh
of the Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
Union from 1949 to 1956. Travancore-Cochin, was in turn merged with the Malabar district
Malabar district
of the Madras State. Finally, the Government of India's States Reorganisation Act (1956) inaugurated a new state—Kerala—incorporating Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
(excluding the four southern Taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), Malabar District, and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.[49] On 9 July 1960 the Mattancherry
Mattancherry
council passed a resolution—which was forwarded to the government—requesting the formation of a municipal corporation by combining the existing municipalities of Fort Kochi, Mattancherry, and Ernakulam. The government appointed a commission to study the feasibility of the suggested merger. Based on its report, the Kerala
Kerala
Legislative Assembly approved the corporation's formation. On 1 November 1967, exactly eleven years since the establishment of the state of Kerala, the Kochi Municipal Corporation came into existence. The merger leading to the establishment of the corporation, was between the municipalities of Ernakulam, Mattancherry
Mattancherry
and Fort Kochi, along with that of the Willingdon Island, four panchayats (Palluruthy, Vennala, Vyttila
Vyttila
and Edappally), and the small islands of Gundu and Ramanthuruth.[50] Kochi and Ernakulam district
Ernakulam district
formed on 1 April 1958 carving areas of erstwhile Travancore-Kochi-Malabar kingdoms. Major portion of the district is from the Kochi
Kochi
kingdom.[3] The city's economic growth gathered momentum after economic reforms in India
India
introduced by the central government in the early-1990s. Since 2000, the service sector has energised the city's economy. The establishment of several industrial parks based on IT and other port based infrastructure triggered a construction and realty boom in the city. Over the years, Kochi
Kochi
has witnessed rapid commercialisation, and has today grown into the commercial hub of Kerala.[51] Geography and climate

A view of Thevara
Thevara
from Kundannur bridge

Geography Main article: Geography of Kochi Kochi
Kochi
is located on the southwest coast of India
India
at 9°58′N 76°13′E / 9.967°N 76.217°E / 9.967; 76.217, with a corporation limit area of 94.88 km2 (36.63 sq mi).[52] Over the years, the city has expanded considerably outside the corporation limit set in 1967, although the official city limits hasn't yet been increased.[53][54] The city straddles the backwaters, encompassing the northern end of a peninsula, several islands and a portion of the mainland. To the west lies the Laccadive Sea, and to the east is the urbanised region in the rest of the mainland area. Much of Kochi
Kochi
lies at sea level, with a coastline of 48 km.[32] The current metropolitan limits of Kochi
Kochi
include the mainland Ernakulam, Fort Kochi, the suburbs of Edapally, Kalamassery
Kalamassery
and Kakkanad
Kakkanad
to the northeast; Tripunithura
Tripunithura
to the southeast; and a group of islands closely scattered in the Vembanad Lake. The state government and the GCDA have plans to include Mala and Kodungallur
Kodungallur
in Thrissur
Thrissur
district, Angamaly, Perumbavoor, Piravom
Piravom
and Kolenchery
Kolenchery
in Ernakulam
Ernakulam
district, Thalayolaparambu
Thalayolaparambu
and Vaikom
Vaikom
in Kottayam
Kottayam
and Cherthala
Cherthala
in Alappuzha district
Alappuzha district
within Kochi
Kochi
metropolitan limits. The newly formed metropolis would be put under the charge of a new authority called Kochi
Kochi
Metropolitan Regional Development Authority.[55][56] However, The Hindu
Hindu
reported that the state government is yet to take any concrete steps in this regard.[57] Soil consists of sediments such as alluvium, teris, brown sands, etc. Hydromorphic saline soils are also found in the areas surrounding the backwaters.[32] Predominant rock types found here are Archaean-basic dykes, Charnockites and Gneisses. An ecologically sensitive area, the Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary
Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary
is located in the central part of the city. It has a wide range of mangrove species and is a nesting ground for a vast variety of migratory birds.[58] Kochi's water needs are entirely dependent on ground water and the two rivers flowing through the district viz., Periyar and Muvattupuzha. Periyar serves the entire northern part of the city[59] whereas Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
river under the JnNurm project covers the western part.[60] Climate Under the Köppen climate classification, Kochi
Kochi
features a tropical monsoon climate (Am). Kochi's proximity to the equator along with its coastal location results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity. Annual temperatures range between 23 and 31 °C (73 and 88 °F) with the record high being 36.5 °C (97.7 °F), and record low 16.3 °C (61.3 °F).[61] From June to September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains as Kochi
Kochi
lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kochi
Kochi
receives lighter (yet significant) rain from the northeast monsoon, as it lies on the leeward side. Average annual rainfall is 2,978.0 mm (117.24 in), with an annual average of 125 rainy days.[62]

Climate data for Kochi
Kochi
(1971–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 36.4 (97.5) 35.7 (96.3) 36.0 (96.8) 36.5 (97.7) 35.2 (95.4) 34.2 (93.6) 33.1 (91.6) 32.5 (90.5) 34.2 (93.6) 34.6 (94.3) 35.6 (96.1) 34.8 (94.6) 36.5 (97.7)

Average high °C (°F) 31.7 (89.1) 31.9 (89.4) 32.5 (90.5) 32.9 (91.2) 32.3 (90.1) 30.1 (86.2) 29.3 (84.7) 29.3 (84.7) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 31.2 (88.2) 31.8 (89.2) 31.1 (88)

Average low °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 24.0 (75.2) 25.3 (77.5) 25.9 (78.6) 25.7 (78.3) 24.1 (75.4) 23.7 (74.7) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 24.1 (75.4) 24.0 (75.2) 23.1 (73.6) 24.2 (75.6)

Record low °C (°F) 16.5 (61.7) 16.3 (61.3) 21.6 (70.9) 21.3 (70.3) 21.1 (70) 20.4 (68.7) 17.6 (63.7) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 19.2 (66.6) 19.2 (66.6) 17.7 (63.9) 16.3 (61.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.3 (0.917) 25.9 (1.02) 30.8 (1.213) 94.8 (3.732) 282.8 (11.134) 705.8 (27.787) 593.6 (23.37) 403.1 (15.87) 279.6 (11.008) 320.3 (12.61) 174.9 (6.886) 43.2 (1.701) 2,978 (117.244)

Average rainy days 1.0 1.2 2.3 6.2 10.7 23.2 22.3 20.0 13.8 14.3 7.8 1.9 124.7

Source: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[61][62]

Civic administration

Kochi
Kochi
City officials

Mayor Soumini Jain

Deputy Mayor T J Vinod

Police Commissioner M.P.Dinesh IPS

Kochi Municipal Corporation
Kochi Municipal Corporation
Town Hall

The High Court of Kerala
Kerala
located in the city is the highest court in Kerala

The city is governed by the Kochi
Kochi
Corporation, headed by a mayor. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 74 wards,[63] from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years. Earlier; Fort Kochi, Mattancherry
Mattancherry
and Ernakulam
Ernakulam
were the three Municipalities
Municipalities
in Cochin area, which was later merged to form the Cochin Corporation. The Corporation has its headquarters in Ernakulam, and zonal offices at Fort Kochi, Mattancherry, Palluruthy, Edappally and Pachalam.[64] The general administration of the city is handled by the Personnel Department and the Council Standing committee Section.[65] Other departments include that of town planning, health, engineering, revenue and accounts. The corporation is also responsible for waste disposal and sewage management. The city produces more than 600 tons of waste per day and a large portion of waste is decomposed at Brahmapuram Soild Waste plant into organic manure.[65] The supply of potable water, sourced from the Periyar River
Periyar River
is handled by Kerala Water Authority with support of Water works department of Kochi Corporation.[66] Electricity is provided by the Kerala
Kerala
State Electricity Board. The GCDA and GIDA are the government agencies initiating and monitoring the development of Greater Cochin
Greater Cochin
area, mainly in developing infrastructure facilities for the city.[67] Law and order Kochi
Kochi
is the seat of High Court of Kerala, the highest judicial body in the state of Kerala. The Kochi City Police
Kochi City Police
is headed by a Police Commissioner, an Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(IPS) officer. The city is divided into five zones and each zone under a circle officer. Apart from regular law & order, the city police comprises the Traffic Police, Narcotics Cell, Riot horse, Armed Reserve Camps, District Crime Records Bureau and a Women's Police station.[68] It operates 19 police stations functioning under the Home Ministry of Government of Kerala. An anti-corruption branch of the Central Bureau of Investigation also operates out of the city. CISF maintains 3 squadrons for providing security to various central and state heavy industries, airport and seaport zones. Other major central agencies are NIA, DRI and Indian Customs due to the presence of major port. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), Kochi
Kochi
reported significant increase of 193.7 per cent IPC crimes in 2010 compared to 2009, and reported a crime rate of 1,897.8 compared to the 424.1 in whole Kerala.[69] However, the city police commissioner defended that in major crimes such as murders and kidnapping, the city registered a low crime rate even behind other cities in the state.[70] Politics Kochi
Kochi
is part of the Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Lok Sabha constituency in Indian Parliament. The current elected Member of Parliament representing the constituency is Prof. K. V. Thomas
K. V. Thomas
of Indian National Congress.[71] The Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Lok Sabha constituency elects six members to the state Legislative Assembly. Out of this, five constituencies, namely Kochi, Ernakulam, Thripunithura, Thrikkakara and Kalamassery
Kalamassery
represent the city. The elected representative to the state Legislative Assembly from Kochi
Kochi
is K. J. Maxi, Ernakulam
Ernakulam
is Hibi Eden, Thripunithura is M. Swaraj, Thrikkakara is P. T. Thomas and Kalamassery
Kalamassery
is V. K. Ibrahim Kunju.[72] Economy Main article: Economy of Kochi Kochi
Kochi
is widely referred to as the financial[17] and commercial[19] capital of Kerala. Kochi
Kochi
is home to Cochin Stock Exchange, the only stock exchange in Kerala. Federal Bank, the fourth-largest Private-sector bank in India
India
is located in Aluva
Aluva
which is a suburb of Kochi. Being a major online trading centre in the country, Kochi
Kochi
has a newly opened SEBI
SEBI
office.[73]

The Greater Cochin Development Authority
Greater Cochin Development Authority
is the statutory body overseeing the development of the city

Established in 1926, the Cochin Port Trust
Cochin Port Trust
overlooks the activities of Cochin Port

Wonderla
Wonderla
amusement park, Kochi

Kakkanad
Kakkanad
is a major industrial center and is home to the Cochin Special
Special
Economic Zone, Infopark and Smart City

Availability of electricity, fresh water, long coastline, backwaters, good banking facilities, presence of a major port, container trans-shipment terminal, harbour terminal and an international air terminal are some of the factors which accelerated the industrial growth in the city and its adjoining district.[51] In recent years the city has witnessed heavy investment, thus making it one of the fastest-growing second-tier metro cities in India.[74][75] Sales tax income generated in the Kochi metropolitan area
Kochi metropolitan area
contributes heavily to state revenue.[76][77]

Kochi
Kochi
LNG Terminal

Vembanad Rail Bridge
Vembanad Rail Bridge
is the longest railway bridge in India

Vallarpadam
Vallarpadam
Terminal is the first transshipment terminal in India

The Kochi
Kochi
International Marina is the only marina in India

TCS centre at Infopark

The district contributes the highest portion, 41.74%, of the state's GDP.[78] Construction and manufacturing industries combined contributes 37% of the district's total GDP, and trade, tourism and hospitality industries together provides another 20%. Major business sectors include construction, manufacturing, shipbuilding, transportation/shipping, seafood and spices exports, chemical industries, information technology (IT), tourism, health services, and banking. Kochi
Kochi
is recognised as one of the seventeen major industrial cities of India
India
by the World Bank
World Bank
Group. However, in the 2009 rankings of ease to start and operate a business, among the 17 Indian cities selected, Kochi
Kochi
was rated as the second most difficult city to start business and was ranked 16th, above Kolkata.[79] As in most of Kerala, remittances from non-resident Indians (NRI)s is a major source of income.[80] Eloor, situated 13 kilometres (8.1 miles) north of the city-centre, is the largest industrial belt in Kerala, with more than 250 factories manufacturing a range of products including chemical and petrochemical products, pesticides, rare earth elements, rubber processing chemicals, fertilisers, zinc and chromium compounds, and leather products.[81] Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore
Travancore
Limited (FACT), one of the oldest fertilizers and chemical industry in Kerala
Kerala
is located in Kochi.[82] Kochi Refineries
Kochi Refineries
of (BPCL) at Ambalamugal is the largest state owned refinery in India. Petronet India
India
has now almost completed Kochi
Kochi
LNG Terminal, for importing and storing natural gas, for energy and fuelling needs.[83] Central Government establishments like the Coconut
Coconut
Development Board, the Coir Board and the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) have head offices located in the city. Kalamassery
Kalamassery
which is situated around 16.5 km from the City Center is one of the major Industrial areas. Leading factories like FACT, HMT and IT/Biotechnology park like KINFRA Hi-Tech Park are located here. The headquarters of Neera Development Center is located at Kalamassery . The Cochin University of Science and Technology
Cochin University of Science and Technology
is located at Kalamassery. Irimpanam is another major industrial area in Kochi. The Seaport-Airport Road (SPAP Road) passes through this place and oil giants like Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum
Bharat Petroleum
and Hindustan Petroleum have plants here.[84][85][86] Like elsewhere in Kerala, tourism is one of the major contributors of the local economy. Ernakulam
Ernakulam
district, in which Kochi
Kochi
is situated, ranks first in the total number of domestic tourists visiting Kerala,[14] and thus contributes to the economy of the city. The tourist enclave at Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
and presence of several historical monuments, museums etc. as well as natural attractions like the Vembanad lake and the backwaters attract large number of tourists to the city. Presence of several leading hospitality brands have been a major source of employment for locals. The Kochi Port
Kochi Port
is one of the leading ports where international cruisers call on regularly.[87] The city has the first marina facility[88] in the country, Kochi
Kochi
Marina which attracts large number of yacht-totters. Real Estate industry is also one industry which is contributing a lot to the economy of Kochi. Many players have entered the market and have developed residential properties. Kochi
Kochi
is the headquarters of the Southern Naval Command, the primary training centre of the Indian Navy.[89] The Cochin Shipyard, contributes to the economy of the city.[90][91] The fishing harbour at Thoppumpady
Thoppumpady
is a minor fishing port in the state and supplies fish to local and export markets. To further tap the potential of the all-season harbour at Kochi, an international cruise terminal was also constructed.[92] Exports and allied activities are also important contributors to the city's economy. The Cochin Port
Cochin Port
currently handles export and import of container cargo at its terminal at Willingdon Island. The International Container Transshipment Terminal operating out of Vallarpadam, is India's largest transshipment terminal.[93][94][95][96] Cochin Port Trust
Cochin Port Trust
also planning to build an Outer Harbour near Puthuvype.[97] Kochi's historical reliance on trade continues into modern times, as the city is a major exporter of spices and is home to the International Pepper Exchange, where black pepper is globally traded. The Spices
Spices
Board of India
India
and World Spice Organisation are headquartered in Kochi. The IT and ITES related industries are growing up in Kochi. Availability of cheap bandwidth through undersea cables and lower operational costs compared to other major cities in India, has been to its advantage. Various technology and industrial campuses including the government promoted InfoPark, Cochin Special Economic Zone
Cochin Special Economic Zone
and KINFRA Export Promotion Industrial Park operate in the outskirts of the city. Several new industrial campuses are under construction in the suburbs of the city. SmartCity at Kakkanad
Kakkanad
is one of the prominent projects.[98] Cyber City at Kalamassery
Kalamassery
is another integrated IT township SEZ being planned in the private sector.[99] Kochi
Kochi
has an established electronics hardware industry with companies such as V-Guard Industries, OEN India
India
Limited, FCI OEN Connectors and SFO Technologies. The Government of Kerala
Kerala
has announced a project to build an industrial park named Electronic City[100] spanning an area of 340 acres (140 ha), to cater to the electronic hardware industries. The private operator NeST[101] is building a Special Economic Zone specifically for electronics hardware spanning an area of 30 acres (12 ha). The Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
is in the process of setting up an aerotropolis at Nedumbassery.[102][103] Transport Main article: Transport in Kochi

A panoramic view of Vyttila
Vyttila
Mobility Hub

Air The air gateway to Kochi
Kochi
is the Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
(CIAL) located at Nedumbassery, which is about 28 km (17 mi) north of Kochi
Kochi
city, and handles both domestic and international flights.[104] It is the first international airport in India
India
to be built without Central Government funds[105] and is the world's first fully solar energy powered airport. The Cochin airport provides direct connectivity to popular international destinations in the Middle East, Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
and Singapore
Singapore
and to most major Indian cities apart from tourist destinations like Lakshadweep. Kochi
Kochi
is also the headquarters of the Air India
India
Express service. With a terminal area of 840,000 sq ft (78,000 m2), and a passenger capacity of 2200 (international and domestic), it is the largest and busiest airport in the state.[106] It is also the fourth busiest airport in India
India
in terms of international passenger traffic, and seventh busiest overall.[107][108]

The Cochin International Airport
Cochin International Airport
is one of the busiest airports in the country and the first fully solar powered airport in the world

A KSRTC Double-decker bus
Double-decker bus
doing service in the city

Kochi Metro
Kochi Metro
is the fastest completed metro project in India

Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Boat Jetty
Jetty
is one of the main boat jetties in the city

Ferry Service boat at Kochi
Kochi
backwaters

Road Kochi
Kochi
is well connected to neighbouring cities and states via several highways. It is a node in the North-South Corridor of the National Highway system.[109][110] The road infrastructure in Kochi
Kochi
has not been able to meet the growing traffic demand and hence traffic congestion is a major problem in the city.[111] Kochi
Kochi
is served by National Highway 66, National Highway 544, National Highway 966A and National Highway 966B.[112][113][114] Several state highways also connect Kochi
Kochi
with other parts of Kerala.[115] SH 15, Ettumanoor- Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Road, connects the city to Kottayam, Pala, Kumily, Changanacherry, Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
etc. SH 41, Palarivattom-Thekkady Road, provides a corridor to the eastern parts of the district. SH 63, Vypeen Pallipuram Road and SH 66, Alappuzha – Thoppumpady
Thoppumpady
road are coastal roads that serve the narrow sliver of land between the backwaters and the sea. The main arterial roads of the city are the Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Road and Sahodaran Ayyappan
Sahodaran Ayyappan
Road in Ernakulam, constructed in 1925 & 1962 respectively which runs parallel & perpendicular to the coast and having the proposed Metro Rail connectivity. The Seaport-Airport Road is another major road and connects the Cochin Seaport to the Cochin International Airport. The Infopark Expressway in Kakkanad
Kakkanad
is connected to the Seaport-Airport Road and stretches all the way to Infopark. Other major roads include Chittoor
Chittoor
Road, Banerji Road, Shanmugham Road, Kochi
Kochi
Bypass, Kaloor- Kadavanthra
Kadavanthra
Road, Park Avenue etc. A new ring road is proposed for Kochi
Kochi
city by the state government for which a project study is being currently undertaken by NATPAC.[116] Public transport Road The primary form of public transport within the city is largely dependent on privately owned bus networks. The state-run also operates its services in the city through the Thirukochi service. The major bus terminals in the city are Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Town, Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Jetty
Jetty
and the private bus terminal at Kaloor. An integrated transit terminal namely The Mobility Hub at Vytilla
Vytilla
is under 2nd phase of construction. The terminal acts as a hub for long distance bus services away from the city centre, and also a converging point for different modes of public transport, namely bus, metro and ferry.[117] Kochi
Kochi
is one of the few cities to be granted the new generation air-conditioned low floor and non-air-conditioned semi low-floor buses under the JNNURM city transport development project. KURTC and private buses operate frequent schedules to neighbouring areas of Nedumbassery, Perumbavoor, Aluva, Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam, Cherthala
Cherthala
and Poochakkal
Poochakkal
. Call taxis and auto rickshaws (called autos) are available for hire throughout the day. Development of road infrastructure not keeping pace with the increase in traffic is a major problem faced by Kochi, like most other parts of Kerala.[118] Rail The city has four major railway stations – Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Junction, Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Town (locally known as the South and North railway stations respectively), Aluva
Aluva
and Tripunithura
Tripunithura
followed by smaller stations, Edapally
Edapally
and Kalamassery. There is also the Cochin Harbour Terminus providing rail connectivity to the southern segment of the Port of Kochi. The terminus is currently under renovation for the suburban rail networks in the city. The main rail transport system in Kochi
Kochi
is operated by the Southern Railway Zone of Indian Railways, and comes under Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Railway division. The South station is one of the busiest railway stations in South India, with more than 128 scheduled train services daily.[119] The North station situated on the northern side of the city, caters mostly to long distance services that bypass the South station, and also is an additional halt station for many trains. There is also a historic station named as Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Terminus(station code:ERG) situated behind the High Court. Great personalities like Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and The British Viceroy
British Viceroy
have visited Cochin through this old railway station. Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Terminus was the first station to serve the city but had to be abandoned in the early 1960s. Now this station operates as a goods depot of Southern Railway.[120] Metro Main article: Kochi
Kochi
Metro The Kochi Metro
Kochi Metro
is a metro rapid transit system serving the city of Kochi, intended to considerably ease traffic congestion in the city and its surrounding metropolitan area.[121] It is being set up at an overall estimated cost of ₹5,146 crore (US$790 million). The Phase-1 of the metro system will have 22 stations connecting the suburban towns of Aluva
Aluva
and Pettah while passing through downtown.[122] The first half of the Phase-1 of Kochi Metro
Kochi Metro
was inaugurated on 17 June 2017 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Currently Kochi Metro
Kochi Metro
is operational from Aluva
Aluva
till Maharaja's College along the Kalamassery
Kalamassery
- Edappally
Edappally
- Kaloor
Kaloor
- MG Road stretch, covering a total of 18.4 km with 16 operational metro stations.[123] Water See also: Kochi
Kochi
Water Metro Kochi
Kochi
ranks among India's major seaports, partly due to being one of the safest harbours in the Indian Ocean.[124] The port, administered by a statutory autonomous body known as the Cochin Port
Cochin Port
Trust, offers facilities for bunkering, handling cargo and passenger ships and storage accommodation. The port is a complex of three islands, one of which is man-made.[125] It also operates passenger ships to Colombo
Colombo
and Lakshadweep. Boat services are operated by Kerala
Kerala
Shipping and Inland Navigation Corporation, the State Water Transport Department and private firms from various boat jetties in the city. The junkar ferry for the transshipment of vehicles and passengers between the islands are operated between Ernakulam
Ernakulam
and Vypin, and between Vypin
Vypin
and Fort Kochi. However, with the construction of the Goshree bridges
Goshree bridges
(which links Kochi's islands), ferry transport has become less essential. The main boat jetties are Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Main Boat Jetty
Jetty
near Park Avenue, High Court Jetty
Jetty
in Banerjee Road, Embarkation Jetty
Jetty
in Willingdon Island and Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
Jetty.[126] Demographics

Religions in Kochi

Religion

Percentage

Hindu

47%

Christian

35%

Muslim

17%

Others

1%

See also: Cochin Jews, Saint Thomas Christians, and Latin Church Kochi
Kochi
has the second highest population density parameter in Kerala with 6340 people per km2.

The Santa Cruz Basilica
Santa Cruz Basilica
at Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
is one of the eight Basilicas in India

As of 2011[update], Kochi
Kochi
had a metropolitan area population of 2,117,990. The female-to-male ratio is 1,028:1,000, significantly higher than the all- India
India
average of 933:1,000. Kochi's literacy rate is 97.5%. The female literacy rate lags that of males by 1.1%, amongst the lowest such gaps in India.

Dharmanath Jain Temple at Mattancherry

Kochi's major religions are Hinduism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Buddhism, with smaller followings, are also practised in Kochi. Though 47% practice Hinduism, Christianity's large following (35%) makes Kochi
Kochi
a city with one of the largest Christian populations in India.[127][128][129] The majority of the city's residents are Malayalis. However, there are significant ethnic minority communities including Tamils, Gujaratis, Jews, Anglo-Indians, Sikhs
Sikhs
and Konkanis[130][131] Malayalam
Malayalam
is the main language of communication and medium of instruction for primary education, although a number of schools do offer English medium education. The higher education is invariably in English medium, and it is the preferred language in business circles. Tamil and Hindi
Hindi
are widely understood—albeit rarely spoken. Like other fast-growing cities in the developing world, Kochi
Kochi
suffers from major urbanisation problems. The city was ranked 10th among Indian cities in terms of house-cost and availability, urban household crowding and household incomes.[132] The government has plans to make the city slum-free by 2016.[133] According to the National Crime Records Bureau, the city holds the fourth position in the number of recorded crimes in India.[134][135][136] In 2009, the city recorded an average crime rate of 646.3 against the national average of 181.4.[135] But Kochi
Kochi
City Police Commissioner
Police Commissioner
later clarified that this anomaly was due to higher reporting rates of minor crimes in Kochi
Kochi
than in other Indian cities.[70] The State Crime Records Bureau (SCRB) report gives further credence to this as it finds that Kochi
Kochi
has the least number of crime against women in the state of Kerala.[137] According to the 2011 CII/Institute of Competitiveness report on Liveability,[138] Kochi stands first in the state, and 6th in the country. Kochi
Kochi
is ranked seventh in the list of the top ten most affluent cities in India
India
by 2009 study by Nielsen Company.[139] Kochi
Kochi
was ranked the fourth cleanest city in India
India
in the Swachch Bharat rankings for cities. It was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
flagship Smart Cities Mission.[140] Culture Main article: Culture of Kochi See also: Cuisine of Kerala
Kerala
and List of Tourist attractions in Kochi

Marine Drive, Kochi

As a result of successive waves of migration over the course of several centuries, the population of the city is a mix of people from all parts of Kerala
Kerala
and most of India. The pan-Indian nature is highlighted by the substantial presence of various ethnic communities from different parts of the country.[141]

Pedestrians can stroll along the Marine Drive, a waterfront promenade of Kochi

LuLu Mall is the largest shopping mall in India

The Kettuvallom Bridge at Marine Drive

Kochi
Kochi
has a diverse, multicultural, and secular community consisting of Malayalis, Konkanis,[142][143] Gujaratis,[130] Bengalis,[144] Marathis,[145] Punjabis,[131][146] Tamilians, kannadigas, Biharias, Anglo Indians and a few families of Jews
Jews
among other denominations, all living in peaceful co-existence. The city once had a large Jewish community, known as the Malabar Yehuden—and now increasingly as Cochin Jews— who figured prominently in Kochi's business and economic strata [147] and owned several Synagogues across Kochi
Kochi
and nearby areas such as Chendamangalam, Paravur or Mala. Kochi
Kochi
was one among the seven diocese of Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite Syrian Christian
Christian
Church) in Kerala
Kerala
formed in 1876. The seat of the Bishop is at St George Cathedral, Karingachira. Also At Mary's Cathedral Elamkulam, seat of bishop of Simhasana churches of Jacobites is in the City. The seat of Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Cathedral of Kerala's first Archdiocese Archdiocese of Verapoly
Archdiocese of Verapoly
and the first diocese Diocese of Cochin are located in the city. The Syro-Malabar Church, one of the 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
and a part of the Saint Thomas Christian
Christian
community, has its seat at Ernakulam. Prominent places of Christian
Christian
worship include the St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, St. Francis Assisi Roman Catholic Cathedral, Ernakulam, Basilica of Our Lady of Ransom, Vallarpadam-Ernakulam, Santa Cruz Basilica
Santa Cruz Basilica
Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Cathedral, Fort Kochi, St. Antony's Shrine at Kaloor, St. George Forane Church, Edappally
Edappally
and . Appropriate to its multi-ethnic composition, Kochi celebrates traditional Kerala
Kerala
festivals like Onam
Onam
and Vishu
Vishu
along with North Indian Hindu
Hindu
festivals like Holi
Holi
with great fervour. Christian and Islamic festivals like Christmas, Easter, Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
and Milad-e-sherif
Milad-e-sherif
are also celebrated. A merry making fest called the Cochin Carnival
Cochin Carnival
is celebrated at Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
during the last ten days of December.[148] The residents of Kochi
Kochi
are known as Kochiites; they are an important part of the South Indian culture. However, the city's culture is rapidly evolving with Kochiites generally becoming more cosmopolitan in their outlook.[75] The people are also increasingly fashion-conscious, often deviating from the traditional Kerala
Kerala
wear to western clothing. Kochiites generally partake of Keralite cuisine, which is generally characterised by an abundance of coconut and spices. Other South Indian cuisines, as well as Chinese and North Indian cuisines are popular. Fast food culture is also very prominent.[149] Being a tourist hotspot, Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
have a number of restaurants that offer international cuisine, like Italian, French, Mexican etc. Being close to the ocean and the backwaters, Kochi
Kochi
has an abundance of seafood, which reflects in the cuisine. A service known as You Buy, We Cook is available at the waterfront of Fort Kochi, where the fresh seafood purchased from the nets is cooked as per the customers needs.[150] Arabian food joints that serve Shawarma
Shawarma
and roasted chicken are a new addition to the fast food scene in the city. Kochi
Kochi
also has a number of shopping malls including Oberon Mall, Gold Souk Grande, Bay Pride Mall, Centre Square Mall, Abad Nucleus Mall
Abad Nucleus Mall
and LuLu Mall, which is the largest shopping mall in India
India
in terms of total leasable area of 17 acres (7 ha).[151][152][153] Various shopping malls are expected to open in the city in the near future including Forum Thomsun Mall.[154] Kochi
Kochi
also has the most number of five star hotels in the state. These include international hotel brands like Crowne Plaza,[155] Marriott,[156] Grand Hyatt,[157] Le Méridien,[158] Radisson Blu,[159] Holiday Inn,[160] Ramada,[161] Ibis,[162] Taj Malabar,[163] The Gateway[164] etc. Kochi
Kochi
was home to some of the most influential figures in Malayalam literature, including Changampuzha Krishna Pillai,[165] Kesari Balakrishna Pillai,[166] G. Sankara Kurup,[167] and Vyloppilli Sreedhara Menon.[168] Prominent social reformers such as Sahodaran Ayyappan[169] and Pandit Karuppan[170] also are from Kochi. The Kochi International Book Festival is an annual event. The Maharajas of Kochi
Kochi
(then Cochin) were scholars who knew the epics and encouraged the arts. The paintings at the Hill Palace
Hill Palace
and the Dutch Palace
Dutch Palace
are testimony to their love for arts. Kochiites are known for their enthusiasm in sports, especially football and cricket.[171] The Jawaharlal Nehru International Stadium in Kochi
Kochi
is one of the largest stadiums in India
India
with floodlights for Cricket
Cricket
and Football
Football
matches.[172] The Regional Sports Centre is an important centre of sporting activity in the city. Kochi
Kochi
is reportedly the 6th best city in India
India
according to the livability index of 2011.[173] Healthcare

Aster Medcity
Aster Medcity
is one of the largest hospitals in the country

With a large number of advanced tertiary/quaternary care facilities, Kochi
Kochi
has one of the best healthcare facilities in India. It is the prime destination for people seeking advanced healthcare facilities from across Kerala.[174][175] In recent times, it has attracted a large number of patients from all over India, Middle East, African nations as well as from Europe and United States
United States
looking for relatively inexpensive advanced medical care. Kochi
Kochi
is the only city from Kerala
Kerala
that have carried out successful heart transplantations.[176] Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Sunrise Hospital, Specialist Hospital, Medical Trust Hospital, PVS Memorial Hospital, Renai Medicity, Lakeshore Hospital, Lisie Hospital, Aster Medcity,[177] Rajagiri Institute of Medical Sciences are some of the advanced tertiary/quaternary healthcare facilities in Kochi.[178] Other reputed institutions in the city include Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Medical Centre, KIMS Hospital, Gautham Hospital, Lourdes Hospital, Kochi
Kochi
Medical College, and Saraf Hospital. Some of the reputed fertility related treatment centres in India
India
– like Vijaya Hospital, Bourn Hall Clinic[179] and CIMAR – are located in Kochi. General Hospital, Ernakulam
Ernakulam
is the only notable medical institution in the government sector in Kochi. Education See also: Education in India, Education in Kerala, and Educational Institutions in Ernakulam
Ernakulam
District

Established in 1875, the Maharaja's College is one of the oldest colleges in the state

The main building of Model Engineering College
Model Engineering College
was inspired from India's first satellite, Aryabhatta

The Cochin University of Science and Technology
Cochin University of Science and Technology
is one of the top educational institutions in the country

Rajagiri
Rajagiri
College of Social Sciences at Kalamassery

Secondary education The pattern of primary education is essentially the same all over the state. There are government owned schools and government aided schools, which are affiliated to the Kerala
Kerala
State Education Board. A few privately owned schools are also affiliated to the system. Most of the schools owned by private organisations or individuals are affiliated to the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE).[180] Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) have some schools affiliated to them as well.[181] The state education board offers both Malayalam
Malayalam
and English medium instruction, while the other boards offer English medium alone. There are a few schools that follow international curricula, such as IB and IGCSE.[182] There 34 government schools, 67 private aided schools and 31 unaided schools affiliated to the Kerala
Kerala
State Education Board in the city and suburbs.[183] There are 62 CBSE Schools, 2 IGCSE and 9 ICSE Schools as well.[184][185] The notable schools in the government sector are Sree Rama Varma High School, Edappally
Edappally
High School, Government School- Kochi
Kochi
and Govt Girls Higher Secondary School, Ernakulam. There are Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Mission
Chinmaya Mission
and Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
run several quasi-private charter schools within the city limits, as well as in the suburbs. There are several private schools (both aided & unaided0 that are owned by secular and religious trusts which are of particular renown, such as:St. Albert's HSS, Ernakulam, St. Teresa's CGHSS, St. Mary's CGHSS Ernakulam, St. Antony's CGHSS, Model Technical Higher Secondary School, Kaloor
Kaloor
The Delta Study, Rajagiri
Rajagiri
Public School, Campion School, Assisi Vidyaniketan, Cochin Refineries School, Gregorian Public School, Greets Public School, Toc-H Public School, Navy Children School, Global Public School, Choice School, Vidyodaya School, Mar Thoma Public School, Nava Nirman Public School and St. Pauls International School, Kalamassery, The Charter School Kochi.[186] Higher education The Cochin University of Science and Technology
Cochin University of Science and Technology
(CUSAT) is a major university named after the city. Most of the colleges in Kochi offering tertiary education are affiliated either with the Mahatma Gandhi University or with the Cochin University. Kochi
Kochi
has one of the campuses of the Indian Maritime University
Indian Maritime University
at Willingdon Island. Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit in Kalady
Kalady
is a research oriented university located at the outskirts. Other national educational institutes include the Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies, the National Institute of Oceanography and the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.[187][188][189] Kochi
Kochi
has some of the leading B-Schools in the region. The Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode
Kozhikode
(IIMK) has set up its first satellite campus at Athulya building in InfoPark, Kochi.[190] Cochin University's School of Management Studies (SMS) is the first and oldest managerial education institution in South India. SCMS Cochin is one of the emerging B-Schools in the country.[191] Another major B-School XIME is opening a new campus in Kochi.[192] Other leading managerial institutions include Rajagiri
Rajagiri
Centre for Business Studies, Kochi
Kochi
Business School, Amrita School of Business, Albertian Institute of Management and Toc-H B school. The city and outskirts are home to four medical schools—Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre at Ponekkara, Cochin Medical College at Kalamassery, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, and M.O.S.C. Medical College, Kolenchery. Some of the prestigious general colleges are Maharaja's College, St. Albert's College, St. Teresa's College, Sacred Hearts College, Bharata Matha College, Aquina's College, De Paul Institute of Science & Technology (DIST) and Cochin College. The major Engineering and Technology colleges in the city are School of Engineering CUSAT, SCMS School of Engineering and Technology at Kalamassery, Model Engineering College, Rajagiri
Rajagiri
School of Engineering & Technology and FISAT (Federal Institute of Science & Technology).[193] Being the seat of the High Court of Kerala, several top legal education institutes are here. The Government Law College- Ernakulam
Ernakulam
is one of the oldest law schools in Kerala.[194] The School of Legal Studies (SLS), CUSAT
CUSAT
is one of the leading graduate, post-graduate, and research institutes in the country. The National University of Advanced Legal Studies (NUALS) is located in the city, which is a premier law university in India
India
and the only Law college listed in CLAT (Common Law Admission Test) in Kerala. Social service organisations Some of the main orphanages and rehabilitation shelters in Cochin City are Palluruthy
Palluruthy
Relief Settlement in Palluruthy
Palluruthy
Veli, Don Bosco
Don Bosco
Sneha Bhavan, Don Bosco
Don Bosco
Big Boys, Crescent Girls Orphanage, YMCA
YMCA
Boys Home, Bal Bhavan, Valsalya Bhavan.[195] Palluruthy
Palluruthy
Relief Settlement is under Kochi Municipal Corporation
Kochi Municipal Corporation
and managed in association with Peoples Council for Social Justice. There are about 300 inmates and many of them are mentally ill.[196] The night shelter for women run by Kochi Municipal Corporation
Kochi Municipal Corporation
near Kerala State Road Transport Corporation bus stand provides free and safe accommodation.[197] Peoples Council for Social Justice was found in 1985 under the patronage of Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer
V. R. Krishna Iyer
with the aim to work for human rights protection, free legal aid and to strive for social justice.[198][199] The orphanages for children under Don Bosco
Don Bosco
Sneha Bhavan Cochi are Sneha Bhavan Annexe, SnehaBhavan, Valsalya Bhavan, Don Bosco
Don Bosco
and Bosco Nilayam. The Childline India
India
project in Cochin is taken in collaboration with Don Bosco. Children in distress and in need of help can contact in '1098' (toll free number).[200] Sneha Bhavan Annexe is the first point of contact with children and children can stay as a safe night shelter.[201] Sneha Bhavan is a home for the children from the streets and for those from unhealthy and risky situations. The Valsalya Bhavan centre is solely for the girls who are rescued from the streets. Runaways, street children, children of sex workers, abused children and child labourers all live here. Along with primary and high school education at a local school, the centre provides shelter, food, clothing and educational support.[202] There are also people doing independent social services within the city. The Italian Sister Fabiola conducts a home at Fort Kochi
Fort Kochi
known as "Ashwasa Bhavan", for young orphaned children.[203] Br. Judson run his own "Mobile Bath Service" in his vehicle for the abandoned.[204][205] Media

Akshara Mandiram at Marine Drive

Major Malayalam
Malayalam
newspapers published in Kochi
Kochi
include Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Siraj Daily, Madhyamam, Deshabhimani, Deepika, Kerala
Kerala
Kaumudi, Janmabhumi, etc. Popular English newspapers include The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Times of India, The Pioneer and The Deccan Chronicle. A number of evening papers are also published from the city.[206] Newspapers in other regional languages like Hindi, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu are also available. A number of financial publications are also published in the city. These include The Economic Times, Business Line, The Business Standard and The Financial Express. Prominent magazines and religious publications like the Sathyadeepam, The Week and Vanitha
Vanitha
are also published from the city. Kochi
Kochi
houses several leading Malayalam
Malayalam
television channels like Asianet
Asianet
Plus, Flowers, Jeevan TV, Mazhavil Manorama, Kairali We, Manorama News
Manorama News
and Reporter TV as well as major news bureaus of Asianet, Kairali TV, Amrita TV
Amrita TV
and Doordarshan. Prasar Bharati maintains its earth station and broadcasting centre in Kakkanad, Kochi. Satellite television services are available through DD Direct+, Dish TV, Airtel digital TV, Reliance DTH, Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct DTH
and Tata Sky. FM radio channels broadcast from Kochi[207] are Rainbow FM (AIR) 101.9 MHz, AIR Kochi
Kochi
102.3 MHz, Club FM 94.3
Club FM 94.3
MHz,[208] Radio Mango 91.9 MHz,[209] Red FM 93.5 MHz,[210] Radio Mirchi 104.0 MHz.[211] Kochi
Kochi
is considered to be the hub of the vibrant Malayalam
Malayalam
movie industry,[212] especially new generation Malayalam
Malayalam
movies. The rise of Kochi
Kochi
to the centre stage of the entertainment industry occurred coinciding with the economic boom of the last couple of decades. A large number of movies are shot in Kochi
Kochi
every year.[213] Kochi
Kochi
also has a host of state-of-the-art production and post production facilities.[214][215][216][217][218] Due to these reasons, major section of film personalities including of actors, technical experts and other related workers reside in Kochi.[219][220] There are over 50 cinema halls that screen movies in Malayalam, Tamil, English and Hindi. The city hosts Kerala's first cine multiplex, at the Oberon Mall with four screens. Gold Souk Grande also has a cine multiplex operated by Q cinemas with four screens. PVR with 9 screens is another national multiplex brand that has presence in Kochi
Kochi
and is based out of LuLu International Shopping Mall. Cinepolis
Cinepolis
at Centre Square Mall with 11 screens is the first international megaplex brand in the state. 16 more multiplex screens are expected in the city in the near future. The district has the largest number of telephone connections in Kerala.[221] Telephony
Telephony
services are provided by various private sector players like Aircel, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Vodafone, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Docomo, Jio, Tata Indicom
Tata Indicom
and the state owned BSNL. All the private sector telecom companies have their headquarters for Kerala
Kerala
circle located in Kochi. Sports Like elsewhere in Kerala, football is the most passionate sport among locals. Kochi
Kochi
is home to two of India's major professional football teams, FC Kochin
FC Kochin
and Chirag United Kerala
Kerala
and also teams like Josco FC since 2008.[222][223] In 2014, cricketer Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
and PVP Ventures won the bid to own Kochi
Kochi
based football team, Kerala
Kerala
Blasters FC in the Indian Super League. Blasters reached the finals of Indian Super League in the debut season as well as in the 2016 season, finishing as runners-up on both occasions.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is one of the largest stadiums in India

The Regional Sports Centre at Kadavanthra
Kadavanthra
houses the Mahesh Bhupathi Tennis Academy

India's third largest stadium and second largest cricket stadium, the Jawaharlal Nehru International Stadium located in Kaloor, is a major facility for football and cricket.[224][225] Recently, the stadium was renovated to facilitate more cricket tournaments as well as for hosting IPL Matches. Kochi
Kochi
was home to the Indian Premier League cricket team, the Kochi Tuskers
Kochi Tuskers
which won franchise rights to play IPL which participated in the 2011 edition of IPL. Kochi
Kochi
is selected as one of the six host cities for the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
to be held in India.[226] Because of this selection, huge investments and business opportunities are expected to come to the city. The Maharaja's Stadium located on MG Road in the heart of the city, is the major athletic facility in the state with synthetic tracks and turf grass as per international standards.[227] The Ambedkar stadium, maintained by GCDA, will be developed exclusively for Football
Football
with funds from Government of Kerala
Kerala
and FIFA.[228] Spanish club Real Madrid has proposed to set up a football school in Kochi.[229] The Rajiv Gandhi Sports Complex at Kadavanthra
Kadavanthra
is a major indoor stadium, mainly used for conducting badminton, tennis and basketball tournaments. The 25m X 10m swimming pool[230] at the centre is one of the larger water sports facility in the state, where regular swimming competitions and coaching are conducted. The FACT Grounds at Udyogamandal, Sacred Heart's College Grounds, HMT Grounds at Kalamassery
Kalamassery
and St. Albert's College
St. Albert's College
Grounds are the other major training facilities for various games like volleyball, badminton, cricket etc. Kochi
Kochi
has two golf courses in the city, and one in the suburbs. The oldest golf club is located at Bolgatty Palace constructed in 1903, which is a nine-hole facility run by Cochin Golf Club society.[231] The Cochin Golf and Country Club located near to Cochin Airport, operated by CIAL, is Kerala's first 18-hole golf course with a playing area of over 7,200 yards. The first phase of the all-weather golf course comprising nine holes was opened in May 2010 for members and public. The expansion to an 18-hole course is progressing, which is scheduled to be open in September 2012.[232][233] Being surrounded by water bodies, the city is ideal for Yachting. The Kerala
Kerala
Yachting
Yachting
Association and[234] the Cochin Yacht Club[235] are located in the city. Both organisations conduct regular yachting tournaments. Kochi
Kochi
was the only Indian city chosen for stopover during the Volvo Ocean Race 2008. Navy Main article: Southern Naval Command The Southern Naval Command, one of the three main formations of the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
has its headquarters in Kochi
Kochi
at INS Venduruthy. It is commanded by the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief. The Southern Naval Command consists of Flag Officer Sea Training (FOST), a training squadron, training establishments and bases, and land forces and survey ships. It has a naval air station, and a ship repair yard.[236][237] The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
Day is also celebrated here. It is a week-long event showcasing warships, planes, helicopters etc. of the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
at INS Venduruthy. It is a public event attended in large numbers.[238][239] The close by located Cochin Shipyard
Cochin Shipyard
Limited is the largest shipbuilding and maintenance facility in India.[240] Presently it is building the first indigenous aircraft carrier for the Indian Navy. Sister cities See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in India Kochi
Kochi
is twinned with:

Norfolk, Virginia, United States[241] Menlo Park, California, United States[242] Pyatigorsk, Russia[243]

See also

Neighbourhoods of Kochi List of tallest buildings in Kochi List of tourist attractions in Kochi Pilgrimage centres near Ernakulam
Ernakulam
city

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unearths bonded Labor". Childlineindia.org.in. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ "Palluruthy". dbbangalore.org. 26 May 1974. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ " Don Bosco
Don Bosco
Sneha Bhavan, Street Children, Young at Risk, Welfare, Palluruthy, Kochi". Dbsnehabhavan.org. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ "Q & A with Sr. Fabiola Fabbri, bringing love to orphans in southern India". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ Catholic Online (17 April 2006). "Indian Catholic's 'mobile bathroom' serves sick, abandoned - International - Catholic Online". Catholic.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ "'Mobile bath' serves the sick and abandoned in southern Indian city. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 5 May 2006. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ "Keeping Kochi
Kochi
updated". The Hindu. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 7 May 2005. Retrieved 2 June 2006.  ^ "Online Radio " Vipindas.co.nr". Vipinmpd08.wordpress.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ "Club FM". Club FM. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ "Radio Mango Cochin". Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ "RED FM Kochi". Kal Radio Limited. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.  ^ " Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
Kochi
Kochi
Launches". Archived from the original on 19 April 2016.  ^ Subin Mananthavady
Mananthavady
(31 March – 30 April 2011). "Mollywood comes to Kochi". Passline Business Magazine. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ " Kochi
Kochi
takes centrestage in Mollywood". The Times of India. 5 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ G. KRISHNAKUMAR (15 September 2006). "Filmmakers' hotspot". Filmmakers' hotspot. Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ "Megamedia Films launches post-production facility in Kochi". Post Production Buyer's Guide. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ "Chithranjali unit coming to city". The New Indian Express. 6 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ "Chithranjali opens studio in Kochi". The Hindu. 7 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ " Kochi
Kochi
sizzling onscreen". The New Indian Express. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 26 May 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2013.  ^ "Making the right move". Deccan Chronicle. 10 October 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ "Kamal in Kochi". Malayala Manorama. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2013.  ^ "PRD Kerala". Communications. Public Relations Department, Kerala. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ "First Soccer
Soccer
City in Kochi
Kochi
Kochi
Kochi
Cochin News". Cochinsquare.com. 30 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ "Metro Plus Kochi : A home for Josco". The Hindu. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ "Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium". 35th National Games. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ "Nehru Stadium". Hindustantimes.com. 11 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2011.  ^ " Kochi
Kochi
to host U-17 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup matches". Manoramaonline. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.  ^ "New International Stadium Confirmed To Come In Ernakulam
Ernakulam
(Cochin) – Cochin". Zimbio. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2010.  ^ "'Development should go beyond city limits'". The Hindu. 26 March 2012. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012.  ^ " Real Madrid
Real Madrid
plan to open football school in Kerala- Football- IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ "Swimming pool complex". Rajiv Gandhi Sports Centre. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ " Kochi
Kochi
Golf Club and Golf Course, Bolgatty". Cochin Golf Club Society. Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2010.  ^ "18-Hole Golf Course To Be Opened Next Year". The Hindu. 5 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 December 2011.  ^ "Cochin Golf Cup". The Hindu. 15 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2010.  ^ " Kerala
Kerala
Yachting
Yachting
Association, Kochi". Kerala
Kerala
Yachting
Yachting
Association. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ "Cochin Yacht Club". Cochin Yacht Club. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.  ^ "Organisation of Southern Naval Command, Kochi". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ "INS Grauda (Aviation Establishment)". Indian Navy. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ "Navy Day celebrations". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ "Navy Week celebration in Kochi
Kochi
from November 28". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 13 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.  ^ "Welcome to Cochin Shipyard : ISO 9001 Certified Shipyard of the Millenium". Cochinshipyard.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15.  ^ "Kochi, India
India
- Norfolk Sister City Association". Norfolk Sister City Association. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2018.  ^ "Kochi, Menlo Park sign agreement on cultural and economic exchange". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.  ^ "Association with Pyatigorsk". Centre for Heritage, Environment and Development. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 

Further reading

Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 Plunkett, R, Cannon, T, Davis, P, Greenway, P & Harding, P (2001), Lonely Planet South India, Lonely Planet, ISBN 1-86450-161-8 Manorama Yearbook 2003 (English Edition) ISBN 81-900461-8-7 Robert Charles Bristow. Cochin Saga, Paico Pub. House; 2d ed. edition (1967), OCLC 1659055 Unemployment in Kerala
Kerala
at the turn of the 20th century Insights from the CDS gulf migration studies by K. C. Zachariah, S. Irudaya Rajan Kochi
Kochi
Rajyacharithram by KP Padmanabha Menon. P (1914) "Akhilavijnanakosam". Malayalam
Malayalam
Encyclopedia. D C Books Multimedia Series.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kochi, Kerala.

Find more aboutKochiat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website (Government of Kerala) Official website (Government of India) The Story of India: South India, Cochin, BBC

v t e

Kochi

Landmarks

Marine Drive Mattancherry
Mattancherry
Palace Hill Palace Durbar Hall Ground Tourist attractions

Neighbourhoods

Ernakulam Fort Kochi Mattancherry Kaloor Palarivattom Gandhi Nagar Marine Drive Edappally Kakkanad Kadavanthra Vyttila Willingdon Island

History

Kingdom of Cochin Thoma of Villarvattom History of Kerala Travancore-Cochin

Transport

Cochin International Airport Cochin Harbour Terminus Edappally
Edappally
railway station Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Junction railway station Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Terminus railway station Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Town railway station Cochin Port Cochin Shipyard Kerala
Kerala
Urban Road Transport Corporation Kerala
Kerala
State Road Transport Corporation Kerala
Kerala
State Water Transport Department Kochi
Kochi
Metro Vyttila
Vyttila
Mobility Hub

Government

Kochi
Kochi
Municipal Corporation Kerala
Kerala
High Court

Organizations

Cochin Stock Exchange Consumerfed Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Greater Cochin
Greater Cochin
Development Authority International Container Transshipment Terminal, Kochi Kerala
Kerala
State Civil Supplies Corporation Kochi
Kochi
Refineries

Malls

Oberon Mall LuLu International Shopping Mall Gold Souk Grandé Abad Nucleus Mall Forum Thomsun Mall Bay Pride Mall Q1 Mall

Culture

Cochin Jews Saint Thomas Christians Cuisine of Kerala Culture of Kerala Kalabhavan Malayalam Onam Syro-Malabar Catholic Major Archeparchy of Ernakulam-Angamaly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Cochin Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Verapoly Vishu

Places of worship

Chottanikkara
Chottanikkara
Temple Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple Ernakulam
Ernakulam
Shiva Temple Thamaramkulangara Sree Dharma Sastha Temple Paradesi Synagogue St. Mary's Syro-Malabar Catholic Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam St. George Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, Edappally St. Francis Church Vallarpadam
Vallarpadam
Church

Health care

Amala Institute of Medical Sciences Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre Aster Medcity Gautham Hospital General Hospital Indira Gandhi Co-operative Hospital Lakeshore Hospital Lisie Hospital Lisie Heart Institute Lourdes Heart institute Lourdes Hospital (Kerala) Mar Augustine Kandathil Memorial Lisie Hospital Medical Trust Hospital Saraf Hospital Sunrise Hospital Kochi Renai medicity Rajagiri
Rajagiri
Hospital

Schools

Assissi Vidyaniketan Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Chinmaya Vidyalaya Choice School Cochin Refineries School Kendriya Vidyalaya Navy Children School Sacred Heart Higher Secondary School, Thevara SRV High School St.Treasas Convent Girls Higher Secondary School Toc-H Public School The Delta Study Vidyodaya School

Universities

Cochin University
Cochin University
of Science and Technology National University of Advanced Legal Studies Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit Model Engineering College Government Law College, Ernakulam School of Communication and Management Studies Albertian Institute of Management Rajagiri
Rajagiri
School of Engineering & Technology Federal Institute of Science and Technology Sacred Heart College, Thevara SCMS School of Engineering and Technology St. Teresa's College Maharaja's College, Ernakulam MES College Marampally, Aluva Government Medical College, Ernakulam Bharata Mata College St. Albert's College

Roads

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Road Chittoor
Chittoor
Road Banerji Road Shanmugham Road Park Avenue S.A Road Kaloor- Kadavanthra
Kadavanthra
Road Subhash Chandra Bose Road Kochi
Kochi
Bypass Seaport-Airport Road

Sports

Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium Regional Sports Centre Kochi Tuskers
Kochi Tuskers
Kerala

Press

Malayala Manorama Mathrubhumi Madhyamam
Madhyamam
Daily Deshabhimani Sathyadeepam

Television channels

Reporter TV Indiavision

v t e

Neighbourhoods of Kochi

Alengad Aluva Ambalamugal Angamaly Arookutty Azhikode Chellanam Chendamangalam Chengamanad Cherai Cheranallur Cherthala Choornikkara Chottanikkara Chittoor Edapally Edathala Elamkulam Eloor Ezhikkara Fort Kochi Gandhi Nagar Kunnukara Kadamakkudy Kadavanthra Kadungallur Kakkanad Kalady Kalamassery Kaloor Karukutty Kizhakkambalam Kodungallur Kolenchery Kumbalam Kumbalangy Maliankara Marine Drive Moothakunnam Mulavukad Nedumbassery Njarackal North Paravur Pachalam Palarivattom Palluruthy Panampilly Nagar Panayikulam Pathalam Pattimattom Perumbavoor Puthencruz Puthuvype Thiruvankulam Thoppumpady Thrikkakara Thrippunithura Thuravoor Thekku Thuruthipuram Vaduthala Vallarpadam Varapuzha Vazhakulam Vennala Vypin Vyttila Willingdon Island

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

v t e

Populated places in Ernakulam
Ernakulam
district

Cities and towns

Aluva Angamaly Ayyampuzha Chendamangalam Chengamanad Cheranallur Choornikkara Chottanikkara Chowwara Edathala Edappally Eloor Ernakulam Kadamakkudy Kakkanad Kalamassery Kanayannur Kochi Kolenchery Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Koothattukulam Piravom Kalady Kottuvally Kumbalam Kunnathunad Kureekkad Malayattoor Maradu Mulavukad North Paravur Perumbavoor Puthuvypin Thiruvankulam Thrikkakara Thrippunithura Varappuzha Vazhakkala Willingdon Island

Sub-districts and villages

Aluva

Ayyampuzha Karukutty Malayattoor Manjapra Mookkannoor Parakkadavu Thuravoor

Kanayannur

Edakkattuvayal Kaippattur Keecherry Kulayettikara Thrikkakara North
Thrikkakara North
(Part)

Kochi

Chellanam Edavanakkad Kuzhuppilly Nayarambalam Pallippuram

Kothamangalam

Kedavoor Keerampara Kottappady Kuttamangalam Kuttampuzha Neriamangalam Pindimana Pothanikkad Thrikkariyoor
Thrikkariyoor
(Part) Varappetty

Kunnathunad

Aikaranad North Aikaranad South Arakapady Asamannoor Irapuram Kizhakkambalam Kodanad Kombanad Mazhuvannoor Pattimattom Rayamangalam Thiruvaniyoor Vadavukode Vengoor
Vengoor
West Vengoor

Muvattupuzha

Arakuzha Elanji Enanalloor Kalloorkkad Koothattukulam Maneed Manjalloor Marady
Marady
(Part) Memury Mulavoor Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
(Part) Onakkoor Palakkuzha Piravom Ramamangalam Thirumarady Valakam

Paravur

Ezhikkara Kunnukara

v t e

State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Symbols

Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen

Topics

Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports

Districts

Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam
Ernakulam
KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14

Taluks

Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur

Municipalities

Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions

Malabar

North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248705323 GND: 4285343-6 BNF: cb11969178g (data)<

.