Klondike (solitaire)
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Klondike is a
solitaire Solitaire is any tabletop game which one can play by oneself, usually with cards, but also with dominoes. The term "solitaire" is also used for single-player games of concentration and skill using a set layout tiles Tiles are thin objects ...

solitaire
card game A card game is any game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Googl ...

card game
. In the U.S. and Canada, Klondike is the best-known solitaire card game, to the point that the term "Solitaire", in the absence of additional qualifiers, typically refers to Klondike and is considered its other name. Equally in the UK, it is often just known as "
Patience Patience (or forbearance Forbearance, in the context of a mortgage A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other ind ...
". Elsewhere the game is known as American Patience, as well as Fascination, Triangle or Demon Patience. Klondike is traditionally known in England as Canfield, whereas in America the name Canfield is given to the patience game called "
Demon A demon is a supernatural being, typically associated with evil, prevalent historically in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology, and folklore; as well as in Media (communication), media such as comics, video games, movies, an ...

Demon
" in England, which is a different solitaire card game devised by
Richard CanfieldRichard Albert Canfield (June 17, 1855 (birth record) or June 28, 1855 (grave) – December 11, 1914) was a prominent American businessman and art collector involved in illegal gambling throughout the northeastern United States during the late 19 ...
(although Canfield himself called his game ''Klondike''). According to Tung (2015), the game became popular in the late 19th century, and may have been named "Klondike" after the Canadian region where a
gold rush A gold rush or gold fever is a discovery of gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, ...
happened. Its inclusion in
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor Klondike is played with a
standard 52-card deck The standard 52-card deck of French-suited playing cards French-suited playing cards or French-suited cards are playing cards, cards that use the French Suit (cards), suits of (clovers or clubs ), (tiles or diamonds ), (hearts ) ...
, without Jokers. After shuffling, a
tableau Tableau (French for 'little table' literally, also used to mean 'picture'; tableaux or, rarely, tableaus) may refer to: Arts * ''Tableau'', a series of four paintings by Piet Mondrian titled ''Tableau I'' through to ''Tableau IV'' * ''Tableau viv ...
of seven fanned piles of cards are laid from left to right. From left to right, each pile contains one more card than the last. The first and left-most pile contains a single upturned card, the second pile contains two cards (one downturned, one upturned), the third contains three (two downturned, one upturned), and so on, until the seventh pile which contains seven cards (six downturned, one upturned). The topmost card of each pile is turned face up. The remaining cards form the
stock In finance, stock (also capital stock) consists of all of the shares In financial markets A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities i ...
and are placed facedown at the upper left of the layout. The four foundations (light rectangles in the upper right of the figure) are built up by suit from Ace (low in this game) to King, and the tableau piles can be built down by alternate colors. Every face-up card in a partial pile, or a complete pile, can be moved, as a unit, to another tableau pile on the basis of its highest card. Any empty piles can be filled with a King, or a pile of cards with a King. The aim of the game is to build up four stacks of cards starting with Ace and ending with King, all of the same suit, on one of the four foundations, at which time the player would have won. There are different ways of dealing the remainder of the deck from the stock to the
waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a produ ...
, including the following: * Turning three cards at once to the waste, with no limit on passes through the deck. * Turning three cards at once to the waste, with three passes through the deck. * Turning one card at a time to the waste, with three passes through the deck. * Turning one card at a time to the waste with only a single pass through the deck, and playing it if possible. * Turning one card at a time to the waste, with no limit on passes through the deck. If the player can no longer make any meaningful moves, the game is considered lost. At this point, winning is impossible.


Probability of winning

The probability of being able to win a game of Klondike with best-possible play is not known, although ''Hoyle's Rules of Games'' suggests the chances of winning as being 1 in 30 games. The inability of theoreticians to precisely calculate these odds has been referred to by mathematician
Persi Diaconis Persi Warren Diaconis (; born January 31, 1945) is an American mathematician of Greece, Greek descent and former professional Magic (illusion), magician. He is a Professor of Statistics and Mathematics at Stanford University. He is particularly k ...
as "one of the embarrassments of applied probability". The best information about the winnability of Klondike concerns a modified version of the game called "Thoughtful Solitaire" or "Thoughtful Klondike", in which the location of all 52 cards is known. The probability of winning Thoughtful Klondike (with draw three rules) has been calculated as being approximately 82%, more precisely as having a confidence interval of 81.956% ± 0.096%. Thoughtful Klondike is not quite the same as simply playing with all cards face up, as this would allow an impossible movement of a pile if the top downturned card happened to be in sequence with the upturned card underneath it. Using physical cards, Thoughtful Klondike can be played by peeking at the face-down cards, while with electronic programs Thoughtful Klondike can be played by allowing unlimited use of undos to return to the start if a choice turns out to be unfavourable. Because the only difference between the two games (regular and thoughtful) is the knowledge of card location, all thoughtful games with solutions will also have solutions in Klondike. Since any winnable Klondike game must necessarily be winnable when played thoughtfully, the results on Thoughtful Klondike tells us that 82% is an upper bound on the winnability of regular Klondike when we don't know the location of all cards. The true probability with best play might be much smaller, because the difference between a right and wrong move cannot be known in advance whenever more than one move is possible and some cards are still hidden. Ultimately, very little is known about the winnability of regular Klondike. A Klondike-playing AI using
Monte Carlo tree search In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of c ...
was able to solve up to 35% of randomly generated regular Klondike games, placing a lower bound on the winnability percentage. One experiment found a skilled player could win 189 out of 442 games (43%), but this gives a massive gap of almost 40% between that number and 82%.


Scoring

Standard scoring in the Windows Solitaire game is determined as follows: Moving cards directly from the Waste stack to a Foundation awards 10 points. However, if the card is first moved to a Tableau, and then to a Foundation, then an extra 5 points are received for a total of 15. Thus in order to receive a maximum score, no cards should be moved directly from the Waste to Foundation. Time can also play a factor in Windows Solitaire, if the Timed game option is selected. For every 10 seconds of play, 2 points are taken away. Bonus points are calculated with the formula of (20,000 ÷ (seconds to finish)) × 35, if the game takes at least 30 seconds. If the game takes less than 30 seconds, no bonus points are awarded.


Variations


Single 52-card deck

Below are some variations of the game of Klondike: * In Agnes, the stock is dealt in batches of seven on reserve piles and every one is available. Furthermore, the bases of the foundations depends on the twenty-ninth card, which is dealt on the foundations. * In Easthaven, less commonly known as Aces Up, twenty-one cards are dealt into seven piles of three, two face-down and one face-up. A space in this game can only be filled by a king or any sequence starting with a king (although they can simplify the rule and put any card or a sequence in an empty space, as it does in several rules), and when a play goes to a standstill, seven new cards are dealt to the tableau, one top of each pile. Easthaven may include 2 or 3 card decks. The two deck version is either called Double Easthaven or Gypsy. * In Nine Across nine columns of cards are dealt, as opposed to the seven of conventional Klondike. The player can choose which cards to form the foundations; if one or more eights are exposed, for example, the player may decide to build on eights, and the piles are built up 8-9-10-J-Q-K-Ace-2-3-4-5-6-7. If eights are built on, sevens fill up spaces and so forth. The stock is dealt through one by one as many times as required. * In Thumb and Pouch, a card in the tableau can be built upon another that is any suit other than its own (e.g. spades cannot be placed over spades) and spaces can be filled by any card or sequence. * In Whitehead, ''all'' cards are dealt face up, building is by color (red on red, black on black), a sequence made up of cards that are of the same suit can be moved as a unit, and a space can be filled by any card or sequence. * In
Westcliff Westcliff-on-Sea is a town in the borough of Southend-on-Sea in Essex in the south east of England. It is on the north shore of the lower Thames Estuary, about 34 miles (55 km) east of London. Geography The cliffs formed by erosion of th ...
, thirty cards are dealt into ten piles of three cards, two face down and one face up. A space in this game can be filled with any card or sequence. * In Kuipers, the rules are identical to but with eight columns instead of seven. Turning one card at a time to the waste, with no limit on passes through the deck. This lowers the probability of being able to win to approximately 5% and really honours the name of the game:
Patience Patience (or forbearance Forbearance, in the context of a mortgage A mortgage loan or simply mortgage () is a loan In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other ind ...
.


Tarot deck

The game can be played with a Tarot-style 78-card deck (such as a
Tarot Nouveau The tarot (, first known as '' trionfi'' and later as ''tarocchi'' or ''tarock'') is a pack of playing card A playing card is a piece of specially prepared card stock, heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, ...
). There are two ways of doing this. Each has nine increasing tableau stacks. * Klondike Nouveau Run: use five foundations, and either use the Fool as the first card in the trumps foundation, or remove it before playing. The Knight (Chevalier) appears between the Jack and the Queen. * Klondike Tarot Evens: use six foundations; the usual four, and then use the red knights (cavaliers) as the royals for trumps 1-10, and the black knights as the royals for trumps 11-21.


Gambling Variant

In some casinos, Klondike is turned into a gambling game, by playing with the rule of dealing cards one at a time and going through the stock once. For example, a player would pay $50 to play, and the house would pay $5 for each card played to the foundations. This form of Klondike is sometimes called Las Vegas Solitaire.


Joker Solitaire

Joker Solitaire is a variant of Klondike created by Joli Quentin Kansil which adds two jokers that serve as limited wild cards. This adds more skill because players are required to make many calculated decisions.


Double Solitaire

Klondike has been turned into a two player game under the name Double Solitaire. Players have their own deck and can't play to each other's tableaus, but share their foundations. Players take turns until they can't play a card from their talon. The first player to play all their 52 cards is the winner. Informally, "Double" Solitaire can be played as a party game with more than 2 players and each player plays at his or her own speed, often leading to spirited discussions when a player strategically refuses to place a card on a foundation to block another player from then placing a card on top of that card.


Computerized versions

Digital versions of Klondike have helped popularize the game, and provide numerous advantages that are lacking when playing with a physical deck. Notable examples of computerized versions include: * A software version of Klondike named simply "
Solitaire Solitaire is any tabletop game which one can play by oneself, usually with cards, but also with dominoes. The term "solitaire" is also used for single-player games of concentration and skill using a set layout tiles Tiles are thin objects ...
" has been a regular inclusion in the
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor