CLEVES (German : Kleve; Dutch : Kleff, Kleef; French : Clèves; Latin
: Clivia), is a town in the
Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany
near the Dutch border and the River
* 1 Division of the town * 2 History
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Census data * 3.2 Religion
* 4 Government
* 4.1 City Council * 4.2 Mayor
* 5 Language and dialect * 6 Twin cities * 7 Notable people * 8 References * 9 External links
DIVISION OF THE TOWN
Bimmen, church: Sankt Martinuskirche *
Düffelward, church *
Keeken, catholic church *
Keeken, reformed church *
Warbeyen, church: Sankt Hermeskirche
The native name Kleff probably derives from
Middle Dutch clef, clif
‘cliff, bluff’, referring to the promontory on which the
Schwanenburg castle was constructed. Since the city's coat of arms
displays three clovers (German Klee,
Low German Kliev), the city's
name is sometimes linked by folk etymology to the clover, but the
corresponding Dutch word is klever. Notably,
The Schwanenburg (English: Swan Castle), where the dukes of Cleves
resided, was founded on a steep hill. It is located at the northern
terminus of the Kermisdahl where it joins with the Spoykanal, which
was previously an important transportation link to the
Kleve's most famous native is
Anne of Cleves (1515–1557), daughter
John III, Duke of Cleves and (briefly) wife of Henry VIII of
England . Several local businesses are named after her, including the
The local line became extinct in the male line in 1609, leading to a succession crisis in the duchies. After the Thirty Years' War, in 1648, the succession dispute was finally resolved with Cleves passing to the elector of Brandenburg , thus becoming an exclave of the territory of Prussia.
During the Thirty Years' War the city had been under the control of
Dutch Republic , which in 1647 had given Johann Moritz von
Nassau-Siegen administrative control over the city. He approved a
renovation of the Schwanenburg in the baroque style and commissioned
the construction of extensive gardens that greatly influenced European
landscape design of the 17th century. Significant amounts of his
original plan for
The mineral waters of
World War II
Then they came to me and they said, “Do you want Cleves taking out?” By "taking out" they meant the whole of the heavy bombers putting on to Cleves. Now, I knew that Cleves was a very fine old historical German town. Anne of Cleves, one of Henry VIII’s wives, came from there. I knew that there were a lot of civilians in Cleves, men, women and children. If I said no, they would live. If I said yes, they would die. A terrible decision you’ve got to take. But everything depended on getting a high piece of ground at Materborn. The German reserves would have to come through Cleves, and we would have to breach the Siegfried Line and get there. And your own lives, your own troops, must come first, so I said yes, I did want it taking out. But when all those bombers went over, the night just before zero hour, to take out Cleves, I felt a murderer. And after the war I had an awful lot of nightmares, and it was always Cleves.
Horrocks later said that this had been "the most terrible decision I
had ever taken in my life" and that he felt "physically sick" when he
saw the bombers overhead. As a result of the bombing, relatively
little of the pre-1945 City remains, although many historic villas
built by wealthy German vacationers from the Ruhrgebiet during the
heyday of Bad
Since 1953 there has been a broadcasting facility for FM radio and television from regional broadcaster WDR near Kleve. It uses as aerial mast a 126.4 metre high guyed steel tube mast with a diameter of 1.6 metres, which is guyed 57 and 101.6 metres above ground. This mast replaced the old radio mast from the 1960s, which was used until 1993, additionally for transmissions in the medium wave range.
Important employers in the area associated with the Wirtschaftswunder
after the war were the XOX Bisquitfabrik (XOX Biscuit Factory) GmbH
and the Van den Berg'schen Margerinewerke (Margarine Union), that
manufactured biscuits and margarine. Another important employer was
the Elefanten-Kinderschuhfabrik (Elefant Children's Shoes Factory).
All of these businesses have since closed. Retail has become an
increasingly important industry, particularly after the institution of
the euro. Local retailers are often visited by Dutch drawn by
significantly lower prices. 1 out of every 2 euros spent in Kleve
originate from The
YEAR POP. ±%
1815 6,517 —
1832 6,990 +7.3%
1867 9,209 +31.7%
1898 13,724 +49.0%
1910 18,135 +32.1%
1920 19,453 +7.3%
1930 21,561 +10.8%
1939 21,784 +1.0%
1950 28,740 +31.9%
1960 21,129 −26.5%
1970 45,675 +116.2%
1980 45,899 +0.5%
1990 47,191 +2.8%
2000 48,926 +3.7%
2010 49,794 +1.8%
2013 50,650 +1.7%
According to the Statistical Yearbook of Cleves as of 2013, 50,650 people resided in the city. The population density was 517.9 people per square kilometer. 86.7% of the residents had the German citizenship (including residents with dual citizenship) and 10.1% another EU citizenship (5.6% Dutch and 2.9% Polish).
In the city, in 2013, the population was distributed with 19.7% under the age of 21, 25.6% from 21 to 40, 29.7% from 41 to 60, 20.1% from 61 to 80, and 4.9% who were 81 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 21 and over, there were 93.9 males.
81.3 of the citizens lived in households without children under the age of 18, 9.2% with one child, 6.1% with two children, 1.7% with three children, and 0.1% with four children or more.
As the rest of the
Lower Rhine region , Cleves is a predominantly
The synagogue of Cleves was destroyed during
Cleves' local politics were since the mid-19th century until 1933 dominated by the Catholic Centre Party . This situation continued with the Christian Democratic successor party CDU after World War II, in spite of resettled, mostly Protestant, displaced. Until 2004 the CDU controlled an absolute majority of the city council.
Today, Cleves is governed by a coalition of CDU and the Green Party . Since the last local elections on May, 25th 2014 the following parties are represented in Cleve´s city council. In addition to nationwide parties, Offene Klever (Open Cleves) has a number of seats.
PARTY % SEATS
CDU (Christian Democrats) 39,52 17
SPD (Social Democrats) 28,96 13
Green Party 13,10 6
Open Cleves 11,00 5
FDP (Liberals) 7,42 3
Participation: 42,32 %
The next local elections are scheduled for 2020.
The mayor of Cleves is since September 2015 Sonja Northing (without party affiliation), who won the election with 64,5%. Her candidacy was supported by Social Democrats, Open Cleves and FDP. Northing´s opponents were Christian Democrat Udo Janßen (23,4 %) and the Green candidate Artur Leenders (12,1 %). The participation was 40,89 %. Northing is the first mayor of Cleves since World War II, who is not a CDU member.
The next mayor elections are scheduled for 2020.
LANGUAGE AND DIALECT
The native language of Cleves and much of the Lower Rhine region is a Dutch dialect known as Cleverlander (Dutch: Kleverlands, German: Kleverländisch), most closely related to South Guelder , but the official language is German which is dominant among the younger generation. Because of its geographical location directly at the Dutch-German border, there is a strong overlap in culture and language. One example of this is Govert Flinck , who although born in Cleves, established himself as a Dutch artist.
Cleves is twinned with