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Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(Afrikaans: Little Free State) was a short-lived Boer republic in what is now South Africa.

Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
seal depicting the Triumvirate[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Footnotes 3 References 4 External links

History[edit]

Historical states in present-day South Africa

before 1600

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(1050–1270) Kingdom of Mutapa
Kingdom of Mutapa
(1430–1760)

1600–1700

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1795)

1700–1800

Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(ca. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
(ca. 1780–1817) Swellendam
Swellendam
(1795) Graaff-Reinet
Graaff-Reinet
(1795–96) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1802)

1800–1850

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1802–06) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1806–1910) Waterboer's Land
Waterboer's Land
(1813–71) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1818–97) Adam Kok's Land
Adam Kok's Land
(1825–61) Winburg
Winburg
(1836–44) Potchefstroom
Potchefstroom
(1837–48) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43)

1850–1875

South African Republic
Republic
(1852–1902) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Republic
Republic
of Utrecht (1854–58) Lydenburg Republic
Republic
(1856–60) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–80) Diggers' Republic
Republic
(1870-71)

1875–1900

Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Goshen (1882–83) Nieuw Republiek (1884–88) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

1900–present

Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1652–1910) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–present)

South Africa
South Africa
portal

v t e

From around 1876, a group of Boers lived on land bought from the Swazi king Mbandzeni. In 1886, a formal government was formed, following the adoption of a constitution. King Mbandzeni sold the land, but kept his kingdom. He was another son of Mswati II, ruling from 1875 to 1889.[3] This state existed until 1891, when it was incorporated into the South African Republic. The flag of the Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
has identical relations to the Transvaal 'Vierkleur' which is the four colors of; a horizontal red-white-blue with a vertical green stripe near the hoist. The width of the green stripe was equal to the height of the horizontal stripes in the Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
flag and 1.25 times this height in the Vierkleur flag. Little Free State was mainly a European (largely Afrikaner) community located on Swazi-owned land along the kingdom's southwestern border with the Transvaal, which was granted in 1877 by iNgwenyama Mbandzeni Dlamini to two hunters, Joachim Johannes Ferreira and Frans Ignatius Maritz. The land consisted of 36,000 acres (14,580 hectares) northeast of the present town of Piet Retief. What Mbandzeni thought he had granted was in the nature of a permanent grazing concession, but Ferreira and Maritz opened up the territory to Afrikaner settlement and subdivided into small farms. Mbandzeni finally gave them the permission to form their own labndla (council), which led to their establishment of a local government, consisting of a president and council, with its own constitution and laws.[4] In 1886, the settlers declared their independence as the Little Free State and were able to rebuff Mbandzeni's halfhearted attempts to evict them on the grounds that they had exceeded his mandate. In 1888, Ferreira and Maritz requested that the South African Republic
Republic
(ZAR) incorporate them into the Transvaal, claiming that Mbandzeni had renounced his authority over them. At that point, Mbandzeni reasserted his sovereignty over the territory and demanded an annual rental payment of £21, but, by then, it was too late. By the terms of the first Swaziland Convention (1890), the Little Free State was incorporated into the ZAR, with the accord of the British, as part of the Piet Retief, Mpumalanga
Piet Retief, Mpumalanga
district.[5] However, the creation of the Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
Zuid Afrika in 1884, and the Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
in Swaziland 1886 as a miniature republic. In each case, use was made of tribal warfare among the African population to introduce a small army of Europeans, who, having defeated one of the contenders in the tribal war, exacted their price, in land, from the victor.[6] In addition, the Europeans arrived in greater numbers throughout the 1880s, after the discovery of gold in neighboring Transvaal and at Piggs Peak and Forbes Reef in Swaziland. Mswati's son, Mbandzeni, granted large chunks of his territory in concessions to the new arrivals, emboldening Britain to ignore his claims to most of the rest, and, by the time Swaziland became a protectorate of South Africa in 1894, there was precious little land left. After their victory in the Second Anglo- Boer
Boer
War, Britain assumed control of the territory and retained it until 1968.[7] The Swazi saw the Zulus' refusal to allow white farmers, traders and missionaries to penetrate their land, leading to Britain's destruction of the Zulu monarchy in 1879. In the 1880s, King Mbandzeni granted numerous concessions to Boer
Boer
graziers, and British traders and miners. This amounted to a "paper conquest" of Swaziland.[8] After the Zulu War, the Swazis aided the British in dismantling the Pedi Kingdom. In gratitude, Britain promised the Swazis they would retain their independence. This was despite the "scramble for Africa" in the 1880s.[9] In 1886 the discovery of gold made the Transvaal the prime force in southern Africa. The Boers demanded British agreement to their expansion either north across the Limpopo (Rhodesia-Zimbabwe) or east through Swaziland (the road to the sea). Britain reversed its position on Swazi independence and by 1894 had allowed the Transvaal to establish control over Swaziland.[10] Footnotes[edit]

^ http://www.boerenbrit.com/archives/10965 ^ http://www.boerenbrit.com/archives/10965 ^ Richard M. Patricks. "Swazi History Olden Times to 1900". SNTC. July 2000. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.sntc.org.sz/cultural/swazihistory1.html>. ^ Allan R. Booth. Historical Dictionary of Swaziland Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. London 2000. pp.150-151. ^ Booth. Historical Dictionary of Swaziland Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. London 2000. pp.150-151. ^ A.J. Christopher. Land Policy in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
During the Nineteenth Century. Department of Geography, University of Port Elizabet. pp.6-7. ^ "The Rough Guide to South Africa." Rough Guides. 2007. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.roughguides.com/website/travel/Destination/content/default.aspx?titleid=35&xid=idh575536696_0813>. ^ Patricks. "Swazi History Olden Times to 1900". SNTC. July 2000. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.sntc.org.sz/cultural/swazihistory1.html>. ^ Patricks. "Swazi History Olden Times to 1900". SNTC. July 2000. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.sntc.org.sz/cultural/swazihistory1.html>. ^ Patricks. "Swazi History Olden Times to 1900". SNTC. July 2000. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.sntc.org.sz/cultural/swazihistory1.html>.

References[edit]

Alan R. Booth. Historical Dictionary of Swaziland Second Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. London 2000. pp. 150–151. A.J. Christopher. Land Policy in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
During the Nineteenth Century. Department of Geography, University of Port Elizabet. pp. 6–7. "The Rough Guide to South Africa." Rough Guides. 2007. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.roughguides.com>. Richard M. Patricks. "Swazi History Olden Times to 1900". SNTC. July 2000. Feb. 26 2008.<http://www.sntc.org>.

External links[edit]

Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
at Flags of the World

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer
Boer
States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

v t e

Boer
Boer
Republics and Griqua States in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
1795–1902

Est. 1795–1830

Swellendam Graaff-Reinet Philippolis
Philippolis
/ Adam Kok's Land Waterboer's Land

Est. 1830–1840

Zoutpansberg Winburg Potchefstroom Winburg-Potchefstroom Natalia Republic

Est. 1840–1870

South African Republic Lydenburg Republic Orange Free State Utrecht Republic Griqualand East Griqualand West

Est. 1880–1902

Goshen Small Free State New Republic Stellaland United States of Stellaland Republic
Republic
of Upingtonia
Upingtonia
/ Lijdensrust

v t e

Political history of South Africa

Defunct polities

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Dutch Cape Colony
Dutch Cape Colony
(1652–1806) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Cape Colony
Cape Colony
(1795–1910) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97) Natalia Republic
Republic
(1839–43) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) South African Republic
Republic
(1856–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91) Orange River Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94)

Events

1652–1815

Dutch settlement French Huguenot settlement Khoikhoi–Dutch Wars Xhosa Wars Battle of Muizenberg Battle of Blaauwberg Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814

1815–1910

Mfecane 1820 Settlers Great Trek Boer
Boer
Republics Transvaal Civil War Mineral Revolution Witwatersrand Gold Rush South African Wars South Africa
South Africa
Act 1909

1910–1948

Maritz Rebellion Rand Rebellion Great Depression 1946 African Mine Workers' Union strike Bantustans

Apartheid
Apartheid
era

1948 general election Apartheid
Apartheid
legislation

Pass laws

Internal resistance Coloured-vote constitutional crisis Defiance Campaign Congress of the People

Freedom Charter

Women's March 1956 1957 Alexandra bus boycott Sharpeville massacre 1960 republic referendum International isolation

Academic boycott Disinvestment Sporting boycott

Olympics Rugby union

Rivonia Trial Tar Baby Option Durban Moment Border War Israeli alliance

Israel– South Africa
South Africa
Agreement

Soweto Uprising Weapons of mass destruction Project Coast Constructive engagement Church Street bombing 1983 constitutional reform referendum Langa massacre Rubicon speech Dakar Conference Third Force CODESA 1992 apartheid referendum Saint James Church massacre Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
crisis Shell House massacre

Post-apartheid

1994 general election Government of National Unity Reconstruction and Development Programme Truth and Reconciliation Commission Arms Deal Floor crossing Soweto bombings African Renaissance Xenophobia Marikana massacre 2012 Western Cape farm workers' strike Nkandlagate 2014 platinum strike #RhodesMustFall protests # FeesMustFall
FeesMustFall
student protests Tshwane riots

Political culture

African nationalism Afrikaner Calvinism Afrikaner nationalism Azania Baasskap Boerehaat Black Consciousness Movement Day of the Vow Greater South Africa Honorary whites Rooi gevaar Slavery Swart gevaar Uitlander Volkstaat

Defunct organisations

Civic and political organisations

Afrikaner Bond Afrikaner Broederbond Afrikaner Party AITUP APO AVF BPC Black Sash CDA CTEG COD Congress Alliance COSG CP Dominion Party DP (1973–1977) DP (1989–2000) DPP ECC FA FD Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners GNP Het Volk HNP IDASA ID IP ISL Jeugkrag Johannesburg Reform Committee Labour Party (1910–1958) Labour Party (1969–1994) Liberal Party (1953–1968) NA NCP Natal Indian Congress NLP NNP NP NPP NRP NUSAS PFP Progressive Party (Cape Colony) Progressive Party PRP Radio Freedom Reform Party SABP SADECO SAIC SASO SAYCO SAYRCO South African Party (Cape Colony) South African Party (1911–1934) South African Party (1977–1980) TNIP Torch Commando UFP United Party Unionist Party Volksparty Workers Party WOSA

Trade unions and social movements

APF BCM BLATU CNETU CTSWU FCWU FNETU FOSATU ICU IWW MUSA NEUM NURHS PAWE SAAPAWU SACTU SAIF SARHU SATUC Die Spoorbund UDF Umkosi Wezintaba

Paramilitary and terrorist organisations

APLA ARM BBB Boeremag Greyshirts MK Ossewabrandwag Orde van die Dood SANF

Histories of political parties

African National Congress Democratic Alliance Pan Africanist Congress of Azania

.