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KLAIPėDA (Lithuanian pronunciation: , listen (help ·info )) English pronunciation: /klaɪpeɪdə/ (German name: Memel, German pronunciation: ), is a city in Lithuania
Lithuania
on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast. It is the third largest city in Lithuania
Lithuania
and the capital of Klaipėda County .

The city has a complex recorded history , partially due to the combined regional importance of the usually ice-free Port of Klaipėda at the mouth of the Akmena-Danė River . It was controlled by successive German states until the 1919 Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
. As a result of the 1923 Klaipėda Revolt
Klaipėda Revolt
it was added to Lithuania
Lithuania
and has remained with Lithuania
Lithuania
to this day, except for the period between 1939 and 1945 when it returned to Germany
Germany
following the 1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania
Lithuania
.

The population has shrunk from 207,100 in 1992 to 157,350 in 2014. Popular seaside resorts found close to Klaipėda
Klaipėda
are Nida to the south on the Curonian Spit , and Palanga to the north.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Coat of arms

* 3 History

* 3.1 Teutonic Knights * 3.2 Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
* 3.3 Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
* 3.4 German Empire
German Empire
* 3.5 Inter-war years * 3.6 1945–present * 3.7 Kursenieki

* 4 Demographics

* 5 City
City
municipality

* 5.1 Mayors

* 6 Geography

* 6.1 Climate * 6.2 Parks and forests

* 7 Port of Klaipėda

* 8 Infrastructure

* 8.1 Notable buildings

* 8.2 Transportation

* 8.2.1 Ferries to Smiltynė * 8.2.2 Buses * 8.2.3 Air port * 8.2.4 International ferries

* 8.3 Old town

* 9 Culture and contemporary life

* 9.1 Historical * 9.2 Cinemas * 9.3 Theatres * 9.4 Museums * 9.5 Maritime Museum * 9.6 Festivals

* 10 Sports

* 11 Media

* 11.1 Radio * 11.2 Television * 11.3 Newspapers

* 12 Notable residents

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin towns – sister cities

* 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Notes * 17 External links

NAMES

Map of Old Town of Klaipėda
Klaipėda

The Teutonic Knights built a castle in the *Pilsāts Land of the Curonians and named it Memelburg; later the name was shortened to Memel. From 1252–1923 and from 1939–1945, the town and city was officially named Memel. Due to political changes between 1923 and 1939, both names were in official use; since 1945 the Lithuanian name of Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is used.

The names Memelburg and Memel are found in most written sources from the 13th century onwards, while Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is found in Lithuania-related sources since the 15th century. The first time the city was mentioned as Caloypede in the letter of Vytautas
Vytautas
in 1413, for the second time in the negotiation documents of 1420 as Klawppeda, and for the third time in the Treaty of Melno of 1422 as Cleupeda. According to Samogitian folk etymology , the name Klaipėda
Klaipėda
refers to the boggy terrain of the town (klaidyti=obstruct and pėda=foot). Most likely the name is of Curonian origin and means "even ground": "klais/klait" (flat, open, free) and "ped" (sole of the foot, ground).

The lower reaches of the Neman River were named either *Mēmele or *Mēmela by Scalovians and local Curonian inhabitants. In the Latvian Curonian language it means mute, silent (memelis, mimelis, mēms). This name was adopted by speakers of German and also chosen for the new city founded further away at the lagoon.

COAT OF ARMS

Main article: Coat of arms of Klaipėda Klaipėda
Klaipėda
city seal, 1446 (diameter 200 mm (7.9 in)). From the Archive of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, Berlin
Berlin
.

The coat of arms of Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is also used as coat of arms of Klaipėda city municipality . The modern version was created by the designer Kęstutis Mickevičius . The modern coat of arms was created by restoring old seals of the Memel city (analogous with those used in the years 1446, 1605 and 1618). It was affirmed on 1 July 1992.

HISTORY

TEUTONIC KNIGHTS

A settlement of Baltic tribes in the territory of the present-day city is said to have existed in the region as early as the 7th century. Historical illustration of Memel (1684)

In the 1240s the Pope
Pope
offered King Håkon IV of Norway
Norway
the opportunity to conquer the peninsula of Sambia . However, following the personal acceptance of Christianity
Christianity
by Grand Duke Mindaugas
Mindaugas
of Lithuania
Lithuania
, the Teutonic Knights and a group of crusaders from Lübeck moved into Sambia, founding unopposed a fort in 1252 recorded as Memele castrum (or Memelburg, " Memel Castle "). The fort's construction was completed in 1253 and Memel was garrisoned with troops of the Teutonic Order , administered by Deutschmeister Eberhard von Seyne . Documents for its foundation were signed by Eberhard and Bishop Heinrich von Lützelburg of Courland on 29 July 1252 and 1 August 1252.

Master Conrad von Thierberg used the fortress as a base for further campaigns along the Neman River and against Samogitia
Samogitia
. Memel was unsuccessfully besieged by Sambians in 1255, and the scattered Sambians submitted by 1259. Memel was colonized by settlers from Holstein
Holstein
, Lübeck and Dortmund
Dortmund
, hence Memel also being known at the time as Neu-Dortmund, or "New Dortmund". It became the main town of the Diocese of Curonia, with a cathedral and at least two parochial churches, but the development of the castle became the dominant priority. According to different sources, Memel received Lübeck city rights in 1254 or 1258. Memelburg model

In the spring and summer of 1323, a Lithuanian army led by Gediminas came up the Neman and laid siege to the castle of Memel after conquering the town, and devastated Sambia, forcing the Order to sue for a truce in October. During the planning of a campaign against Samogitia, Memel's garrison of the Teutonic Order's Livonian branch was replaced with knights from the Prussian branch in 1328. Threats and attacks by Lithuanians greatly thwarted the town's development; the town and the castle were both sacked by Lithuanian tribes in 1379, while Samogitians attacked 800 workers rebuilding Memel in 1389.

The Treaty of Melno in 1422 stabilized the border between the Teutonic Order and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
for the next 501 years. The rebuilt town received Kulm law city rights in 1475. Memel remained part of what became Prussia
Prussia
and Germany; the border to Lithuania
Lithuania
remained unchanged until 1919. It was one of the longest-lasting borders in Europe, and is referred to in the now-unsung first verse of the German national anthem , which describes borders of German-speaking lands: Von der Maas bis an die Memel, referring to the Meuse river in the West and Neman river in the East.

DUCHY OF PRUSSIA

Against the wishes of its governor and commander, Eric of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , Memel adopted Lutheranism after the conversion of Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
Margrave of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Albert of Prussia and the creation of the Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
as a fief of Poland
Poland
in 1525. It was the onset of a long period of prosperity for the city and port. It served as a port for neighbouring Lithuania, benefiting from its location near the mouth of the Neman, with wheat as a profitable export. The Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
was inherited by a relative, John Sigismund , the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
prince-electors of the March of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
in 1618. Brandenburg- Prussia
Prussia
began active participation in regional policy, which affected the development of Memel. From 1629–1635, the town was occupied by Sweden
Sweden
over several periods during the Polish-Swedish War of 1625–1629 and the Thirty Years\' War .

After the Treaty of Königsberg in 1656 during the Northern Wars , Elector Frederick William opened Memel's harbor to Sweden, with whom the harbor's revenue was divided. Prussian independence from Poland and Sweden
Sweden
was affirmed in the Treaty of Oliva
Treaty of Oliva
in 1660.

The construction of a defence system around the entire town, initiated in 1627, noticeably changed its status and prospects. In November 1678 a small Swedish army invaded Prussian territory, but was unable to capture the fortress of Memel.

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA

Timber frame
Timber frame
buildings in the centre of Klaipėda.

By the beginning of the 18th century, Memel was one of the strongest fortresses (Memelfestung) in Prussia, and the town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
in 1701. Despite its fortifications, it was captured by Russian troops during the Seven Years\' War in 1757. Consequently, from 1757–1762 the town, along with the rest of eastern Prussia, was dependent on the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. After this war ended, the maintenance of the fortress was neglected, but the town's growth continued.

Memel became part of the province of East Prussia
Prussia
within the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
in 1773. In the second half of the 18th century Memel's lax customs and Riga
Riga
's high duties enticed English traders, who established the first industrial sawmills in the town. In 1784, 996 ships arrived in Memel, 500 of which were English. (In 1900 there was still an active English church in Memel, as well as a "British Hotel"). The specialisation in wood manufacturing guaranteed Memel's merchants income and stability for more than a hundred years. During this era it also normalised its trade relations with Königsberg ; regional instability had degraded relations since the 16th century. Spit fortress

Memel prospered during the second half of the 18th century by exporting timber to Great Britain for use by the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. In 1792, 756 British ships visited the town to transport lumber from the Lithuanian forests near Memel. In 1800 its imports consisted chiefly of salt, iron and herrings; the exports, which greatly exceeded the imports, were corn, hemp, flax, and, particularly, timber. The 1815 Encyclopædia Britannica stated that Memel was "provided with the finest harbour in the Baltic".

During the Napoleonic Wars , Memel became the temporary capital of the Kingdom of Prussia. Between 1807 and 1808, the town was the residence of King Frederick William III , his consort Louise , his court, and the government. On 9 October 1807 the king signed a document in Memel, later called the October Edict , which abolished serfdom in Prussia. It originated the reforms of Karl Freiherr vom und zum Stein and Karl August von Hardenberg . The land around Memel suffered major economic setbacks under Napoleon Bonaparte 's Continental System . During Napoleon's retreat from Moscow
Moscow
after the failed invasion of Russia
Russia
in 1812, General Yorck refused Marshal MacDonald 's orders to fortify Memel at Prussia's expense.

GERMAN EMPIRE

After the unification of Germany
Germany
into the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871, Memel had the distinction of being Germany's most northerly city.

The development of the town in the 19th century was influenced by the industrial revolution in Prussia
Prussia
and the attendant processes of urbanisation . Even though the population of Memel increased fourfold during the 19th century, and had risen to 21,470 by 1910, its pace of development lagged in comparison. The reasons for this were mostly political. Memel was the northernmost and easternmost city in Germany, and although the government was engaged in a very costly tree-planting exercise to stabilise the sand-dunes on the Curonian Spit , most of the financial infusions in the province of East Prussia
Prussia
were concentrated in Königsberg, the capital of the province. Some notable instances of the German infrastructure investments in the area included sandbar blasting and a new ship canal between Pillau and Königsberg, which enabled vessels of up to 6.5 m draughts to moor alongside the city, at a cost of 13 million marks.

Owing to the absence of heavy industry in the 1870s and 1880s, the population of Memel stagnated, although wood manufacturing persisted as the main industry. It remained the central point of the Baltic timber-trade. A British Consul was located in the town in 1800; in 1900 a British Vice-Consul was recorded there, as well as a Lloyd\'s Agent. Central Post Office, built in 1893. A narrow gauge railway station in 1920.

By 1900 steamer services had been established between Memel and Cranz (on the southern end of the Curonian Spit), and also between Memel and Tilsit . A main-line railway was built from Insterburg , the main East Prussian railway junction, to St. Petersburg via Eydtkuhnen , the Prussian frontier station. The Memel line also ran from Insterburg via Tilsit , where a further direct line connected with Königsberg, that crossed the 4 kilometres (2 miles) wide Memel River Valley over three bridges before its arrival in Memel.

During the second half of the 19th century, Memel was a center for the publication of books printed in the Lithuanian language
Lithuanian language
using a Latin-script alphabet – these publications were prohibited in the nearby Russian Empire
Russian Empire
of which Lithuania
Lithuania
was a province. The books were then smuggled over the Lithuanian border.

The German 1910 census lists the Memel Territory population as 149,766, of whom 67,345 declared Lithuanian to be their first language. The Germans
Germans
greatly predominated in the town and port of Memel as well as in other nearby villages; the Lithuanian population was predominant in the area's rural districts.

INTER-WAR YEARS

Main article: Klaipėda Region Marktstrasse with St. John's Church Memel before World War II
World War II
Hitler
Hitler
arrives in Memel, March 1939 Old town of Klaipėda
Klaipėda

Under the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
after World War I
World War I
, Klaipėda
Klaipėda
and the surrounding Klaipėda Region (Memel Territory) were detached from Germany
Germany
and made a protectorate of the Entente States . The French became provisional administrators of the region until a more permanent solution could be worked out. Both Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland
Poland
campaigned for their rights in the region. However, it seemed that the region would become a free city, similar to the Free City
City
of Danzig . Not waiting for an unfavorable decision, the Lithuanians decided to stage the Klaipėda Revolt
Klaipėda Revolt
, take the region by force, and present the Entente with fait accompli . The revolt was carried out in January 1923 while western Europe was distracted by the occupation of the Ruhr . The Germans
Germans
tacitly supported the action, while the French offered only limited resistance. The League of Nations protested the revolt, but accepted the transfer in February 1923. The formal Klaipėda Convention was signed in Paris on 8 May 1924, securing extensive autonomy for the region.

The annexation of the city had enormous consequences for the Lithuanian economy and foreign relations. The region subsequently accounted for up to 30% of the Lithuania's entire production. Between 70% and 80% of foreign trade passed through Klaipėda. The region, which represented only about 5% of Lithuania's territory, contained a third of its industry. Weimar Germany , under Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann , maintained normal relations with Lithuania. However, Nazi Germany
Germany
desired to reacquire the region and tensions rose. Pro-German parties won clear supermajorities in all elections to the Klaipėda Parliament , which often antagonized with the Lithuanian-appointed Klaipėda Directorate . Lithuanian efforts to "re-Lithuanize" Prussian Lithuanians by promoting Lithuanian language, culture, education were often met with resistance from the locals. In 1932, a conflict between the Parliament and the Directorate had to be resolved by the Permanent Court of International Justice . In 1934–1935, the Lithuanians attempted to combat increasing Nazi influence in the region by arresting and prosecuting over 120 Nazi activists for the alleged plot to organize an anti-Lithuanian rebellion. Despite rather harsh sentences, the defendants in the so-called Neumann–Sass case were soon released under pressure from Nazi Germany. The extensive autonomy guaranteed by the Klaipėda Convention prevented Lithuania
Lithuania
from blocking the growing pro-German attitudes in the region.

As tensions in pre-war Europe continued to grow, it was expected that Germany
Germany
would make a move against Lithuania
Lithuania
to reacquire the region. German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop
delivered an ultimatum to the Lithuanian Foreign Minister on 20 March 1939, demanding the surrender of Klaipėda. Lithuania, unable to secure international support for its cause, submitted to the ultimatum and, in exchange for the right to use the new harbour facilities as a Free Port, ceded the disputed region to Germany
Germany
in the late evening of 22 March 1939. Adolf Hitler
Hitler
personally visited the harbour and delivered a speech to the city residents. This was Hitler's last territorial acquisition prior to World War II.

1945–PRESENT

Private boats in Klaipėda
Klaipėda

During World War II
World War II
, from the end of 1944 into 1945, as Allied victory appeared imminent, the inhabitants fled as the fighting drew nearer. The nearly empty city was captured by the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
on 28 January 1945 with only about 50 remaining people. After the war the Memel Territory was incorporated into the Lithuanian SSR , marking the start of a new epoch in the history of the city. Modern buildings in Klaipėda
Klaipėda

The Soviets transformed Klaipėda, the foremost ice-free port in the Eastern Baltic, into the largest piscatorial-marine base in the European USSR. A gigantic shipyard , dockyards , and a fishing port were constructed. Subsequently, by the end of 1959, the population of the city had doubled its pre-war population, and by 1989 there were 203,000 inhabitants. In the aftermath of World War II
World War II
almost all the new residents came to Klaipėda
Klaipėda
from Lithuania
Lithuania
, Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine
Ukraine
. Initially the Russian -speakers dominated local government in the city, but after the death of Joseph Stalin , more people came to the city from the rest of Lithuania
Lithuania
than from other Soviet republics and oblasts; Lithuanians then became its major ethnic group. Among Lithuanian cities with a population greater than 100,000, however, Klaipėda
Klaipėda
has the highest percentage of people whose native language is Russian. Costa Pacifica in Klaipėda
Klaipėda

Until the 1970s, Klaipėda
Klaipėda
was only important to the USSR for its economy, while cultural and religious activity was minimal and restricted. The developers of a Roman Catholic church (Maria, Queen of Peace, constructed 1957–1962) were arrested. The city began to develop cultural activities in the 1970s and 1980s, such as the introduction of the Sea Festival cultural tradition, where thousands of people come to celebrate from all over the country. Based on the Pedagogical University of Šiauliai and the National Conservatory of Lithuania
Lithuania
in Klaipėda, the University of Klaipėda
Klaipėda
was established in 1991. Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is now the home of a bilingual German-Lithuanian institution, the Hermann-Sudermann -Schule, as well as an English-language University, LCC International University. Curonian-populated area in 1649

In 2014 Klaipėda
Klaipėda
was visited 64 times by cruise ships , surpassing the Latvian capital, Riga
Riga
, for the first time.

KURSENIEKI

While today the Kursenieki , also known as Kuršininkai are a nearly extinct Baltic ethnic group living along the Curonian Spit , in 1649 Kuršininkai settlement spanned from Memel (Klaipėda) to Danzig (Gdańsk) . The Kuršininkai were eventually assimilated by the Germans
Germans
, except along the Curonian Spit where some still live. The Kuršininkai were considered Latvians until after World War I
World War I
when Latvia
Latvia
gained independence from the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, a consideration based on linguistic arguments. This was the rationale for Latvian claims over the Curonian Spit, Memel, and other territories of East Prussia
Prussia
which would be later dropped.

HISTORICAL POPULATIONS

YEAR POPULATION

-------------------------

1722 3,400

1782 5,500

1790 6,300

1813 7,230

1823 5,300

1837 9,000

1855 17,000

1861 17,500

1875 20,000

1890 19,282

1897 20,100

1905 20,700

1924 36,187

1938 47,189

1950 48,500

1959 89,500

1970 140,342

1979 176,648

1992 207,100

2001 192,954

2011 162,690

2014 157,350

Klaipėda University
Klaipėda University

DEMOGRAPHICS

Lithuanian Maritime Museum

As of 2007 , the population was 185,936. The population by age was: 0–14 14.0%, 15–59 67.1%, 60+ 18.9% There were 85,493 men and 100,443 women in the city. The ethnic composition after population census in 2011 was:

* Lithuanians 73,9% * Russians
Russians
19,6% * Ukrainians 1,9% * Belarusians 1.7% * Poles
Poles
0.3% * Other 2,6%

Of the city's area of 98 square kilometres (38 sq mi), 38% was used for buildings, 1.4% for roads, 8.45% for farming, 14.08% was water, and the remaining 38% was "other uses". Klaipėda
Klaipėda
contained 17 post offices, a railroad station, a bus station, a harbour, 26 hotels, 4 Catholic chapels,a synagogue, 10 museums, 4 theaters, and 15 sport centers.

CITY MUNICIPALITY

Klaipėda city municipality council is the governing body of the Klaipėda
Klaipėda
city municipality. It is responsible for municipal laws. The council is composed of 31 members elected for four-year terms.

The council is the member of the Association of Local Authorities in Lithuania
Lithuania
.

MAYORS

* 1990–1992 – Povilas Vasiliauskas * 1992–1994 – Benediktas Petrauskas * 1994–1995 – Jurgis Aušra * 1995–1997 – Silverijus Šukys * 1997–2000 and 2000–2001 – Eugenijus Gentvilas * 2001–2003, 2003–2007, 2007–2011 – Rimantas Taraškevičius

* 2011–present – Vytautas
Vytautas
Grubliauskas

GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

Klaipėda's climate is under the influence of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea

Klaipėda's climate is oceanic (Köppen Cfb), but quite close to being humid continental (Köppen Dfb). In July and August, the warmest season, high temperatures average 20 °C (68 °F), and low temperatures average 14 °C (57 °F). The highest official temperature ever recorded was 36.6 °C (97.9 °F) in August 2014. In January and February, the coldest season, high temperatures average 0 °C (32 °F) with low temperatures averaging −5 °C (23 °F). The coldest temperature ever recorded in Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is −33.4 °C (−28.1 °F) in February 1956. The wettest month is November with a mean total precipitation 90 mm (3.5 inches). August through November is the wettest season because of the warmth of the Baltic sea in relation to the continent and the westerly winds. The driest month is February averaging 31 mm (1.2 in) of total precipitation. Spring is not particularly wet.

Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is a windy city with many stormy days per year. In autumn and winter, gales are not unusual. Sea breezes are common from April to September. Snow can fall from October to April and a phenomenon resembling lake-effect snow is frequent. Severe snowstorms can paralyze the city in winter.

Klaipėda
Klaipėda
has unsettled weather all year round. One winter can be cold and snowy, similar to that in Moscow, while another one can be mild, windy, and rainy, similar to the weather in Scotland. August 2005 was very rainy, while August 2002 barely had any precipitation at all.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KLAIPėDA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 8.7 (47.7) 15.4 (59.7) 17.1 (62.8) 27.0 (80.6) 30.0 (86) 34.0 (93.2) 34.0 (93.2) 36.6 (97.9) 30.4 (86.7) 22.2 (72) 15.4 (59.7) 10.3 (50.5) 36.6 (97.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) −0.4 (31.3) 3.2 (37.8) 8.9 (48) 15.0 (59) 18.3 (64.9) 19.9 (67.8) 20.1 (68.2) 16.4 (61.5) 11.5 (52.7) 6.2 (43.2) 2.3 (36.1) 10.1 (50.2)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −2.8 (27) −2.6 (27.3) 0.3 (32.5) 5.0 (41) 10.6 (51.1) 14.3 (57.7) 16.6 (61.9) 16.8 (62.2) 13.3 (55.9) 9.0 (48.2) 3.9 (39) −0.1 (31.8) 7.0 (44.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −5.2 (22.6) −5.1 (22.8) −2.2 (28) 2.0 (35.6) 6.9 (44.4) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 13.6 (56.5) 10.2 (50.4) 6.4 (43.5) 1.7 (35.1) −2.5 (27.5) 4.2 (39.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −32.0 (−25.6) −33.4 (−28.1) −20.8 (−5.4) −12.8 (9) −4.0 (24.8) −0.7 (30.7) 4.9 (40.8) 2.9 (37.2) −2.1 (28.2) −9.1 (15.6) −14.4 (6.1) −24.2 (−11.6) −33.4 (−28.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 50 (1.97) 31 (1.22) 39 (1.54) 36 (1.42) 39 (1.54) 56 (2.2) 74 (2.91) 83 (3.27) 89 (3.5) 80 (3.15) 90 (3.54) 68 (2.68) 735 (28.94)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 19 15 15 12 12 12 13 14 16 16 19 20 183

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 34 65 122 180 264 285 274 252 167 100 40 28 1,811

Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN)

Source #2: NOAA

Residential building on Baltijos street Olando kepurė (Dutchman's hat)

PARKS AND FORESTS

Parks:

* Martynas Mazvydas Sculpture Park * Klaipeda University Botanical Garden * Klaipeda Recreation Park * Danė Pocket-Park * Fisherman Statue Pocket-Park

* "Treko" Park * Park by Reikjaviko and Smiltelės Streets * Draugystė Park (Friendship Park) * Oak Grove Park * Debreceno Street Pocket-Park

* Thick Linden-Tree Pocket-Park * Priestotės Street Pocket-Park * Trinyčiai Park * Sąjūdis Park * Jono kalnelis (Hill of John) park

Forests:

* Klaipeda Forest * Giruliai Forest * Smiltyne Forest

PORT OF KLAIPėDA

Main article: Port of Klaipėda The port of Klaipėda
Klaipėda
handled more than 31 million tons of cargo in 2010

The Port of Klaipėda is the principal ice-free port on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is the most important Lithuanian transportation hub, connecting sea, land and railway routes from East to West. Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is a multipurpose, universal, deep-water port. Nineteen big stevedoring companies, ship-repair and shipbuilding yards operate within the port and all marine business and cargo handling services are rendered.

The annual port cargo handling capacity is up to 40 Mt. The port operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week, all year round.

INFRASTRUCTURE

NOTABLE BUILDINGS

The tallest building in Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is 34-storey Pilsotas .

TALLEST BUILDINGS NAME STORIES HEIGHT BUILT PURPOSE STATUS

Pilsotas 34 111.9 m. 2007 Residential Built

BIG 2 Complex 25 72–82 m. 2009 Mixed use Built

K Tower 20 71.9 m. 2006 Office Built

D Tower 20 71.9 m. 2006 Residential Built

Klaipėdos burė 22 66 m. 2009 Residential Built

Aukštoji Smeltė 20 66 m. 2009 Residential Under construction

Minijos Banga 20 62.2 m. 2007 Residential Built

Neapolis Business Centre 16 56.7 m. 2007 Office Built

Baltijos Avenue Tower 15 50 m. 2002 Residential Built

Vėtrungė 13 42 m. – Retail Built

TRANSPORTATION

Ferries To Smiltynė

View to the Klaipėda
Klaipėda
central ferry port terminal - the Old Ferry port

Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is located next to Curonian Spit and small part of the peninsula ( Smiltynė ) is within Klaipėda. People can reach peninsula by ferry. There are two ferries that operates daily:

* The Old ferry terminal (Danės st. 1) - ferry from city center for passengers and people with bikes;

* The New ferry terminal (Nemuno st. 8) - ferry for people with motorized vehicles.

Buses

Klaipėda's public transport is very logical and comfortable for traveling because of its geographical peculiarity the city has expanded along the coast, from north to south.

It is possible to buy an electronic card in shops and newspaper stands (kiosks) and top it up with an appropriate amount of money. Public transport organizing, supervising and coordinating body is a Public Enterprise Klaipėda city passenger transport . Map with Klaipėda
Klaipėda
public transport system is at Klaipėda
Klaipėda
city passenger transport .

Domestic buses to other cities and town departure from Klaipėda
Klaipėda
bus station (Butkų Juzės str. 9).

Buses to Nida and Juodkrantė (to Curonian Spit ) departures from bus stop in Smiltynė (next to arrival terminal of The Old ferry port terminal).

Air Port

Palanga International airport

Domestic and international commercial scheduled airline services are provided by Palanga International Airport (PLQ) . Airport is connected with Klaipėda
Klaipėda
by public transport bus (number "100" going to Klaipėda
Klaipėda
bus station).

Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is serviced by a small, privately run aerodrome with a focus on sports aviation and charter services.

International Ferries

From Klaipėda
Klaipėda
there are two ferry lines by "DFDS Seaways" to Kiel ( Germany
Germany
) and Karlshamn ( Sweeden ). Ferries to Kiel
Kiel
departure and arrive to/from Central Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Terminal (CKT). Ferries to Karlshamn departure and arrive to/from Klaipėda
Klaipėda
International Ferry port.

* Central Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Terminal (Baltijos str. 40)

* Klaipėda
Klaipėda
International Ferry port (Perkėlos str. 10)

OLD TOWN

Klaipėda's Old Town is notable among other towns in Lithuania
Lithuania
for its abundance of German and Scandinavian architecture. Klaipėda's Old Town is unique with its fachwerk architectural style and the planned street structure, which is uncharacteristic to any other old town in Lithuania
Lithuania
. Its streets are geometrically configured very correctly, and the angle of intersection is always straight.

One of most popular places in Klaipėda‘s old town is The Theatre Square. hosts a variety of concerts, the Sea Festival, the International Jazz
Jazz
Festival and other events. An important focus of the Theatre Square is the Tarawa Anike sculpture depicting a youthful barefoot girl. The sculpture was erected in the memory of the poet Simonas Dachas and perpetuates one of the poet’s described heroes.

CULTURE AND CONTEMPORARY LIFE

Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor museum Clocks museum One of Klaipėda's most recognizable symbols – The Meridianas Look alike fachwerk style building "Old Mill hotel" Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is famous for Švyturys brewery, established in 1784. Klaipėda beach Arka Monument for united Lithuania
Lithuania

HISTORICAL

Klaipėda's main attractions are the historic buildings in the city's centre, dating from the 13th to 18th centuries. Some of its older buildings have picturesque half-timbered construction , similar to that found in Germany
Germany
, France
France
, England
England
, Denmark
Denmark
and southern Sweden . Other places of interest include:

* The remnants of the Klaipėda Castle , built in the 13th century by the Teutonic Order . It had a massive bulk and a quadrangular tower, surrounded by the ramparts and brick bastions. It lost importance after the Russian occupation from 1756 to 1762, and thenceforth started to decay. * The Žardė ancient settlement, situated on the right bank of the Smiltelė River. It is dated to the late Iron Age (10th century), and was inhabited until the 16th century. * The remnants of the so-called "Dutch " defence system around the entire town from the 17th–18th centuries. * The maritime museum in Fort Wilhelm, built at the end of the 19th century at the spike of the Curonian Spit.

CINEMAS

* Forum cinemas * Kultūros fabrikas

THEATRES

* Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Musical theatre * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Drama theatre * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Puppet theatre * Apeironas theater * Dance theater "PADI DAPI Fish" * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
youth theater "Klaipėdos jaunimo teatras"

MUSEUMS

* "Amber Queen" museum of amber * Blacksmiths museum * Castle museum * Clocks museum * Lithuanian Art Museum Pranas Domšaitis gallery * Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor Historical museum * Maritime museum and Dolphinarium

MARITIME MUSEUM

The museum with 6 different exhibitions is set in a former nineteenth century fortification of the Spit . In the Maritime Museum there is a huge aquarium, the exhibitions of marine fauna, mammals and seabirds. The aquarium is populated with invertebrates, and freshwater fish of Lithuania
Lithuania
– many species, not only from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
, but also from various tropical seas. The museum’s courtyard has a pool filled with seals, sea lions and penguins. The marine fauna exhibition has diverse exhibits: mollusc shells, various fossils , algae and other special exhibits, surviving the prehistorical dinosaur times.

FESTIVALS

Annual events include Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Music Spring, the Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Castle Jazz
Jazz
Festival , Museum Nights, the International Festival of Street Theatres, the International Short Film Festival, and the Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Sea Festival , among others.

SPORTS

CLUB SPORT LEAGUE VENUE

Neptūnas Basketball
Basketball
Lithuanian Basketball
Basketball
League ( LKL ), Eurocup (Eurocup ) Švyturio Arena

Nafta-Uni-Laivitė Basketball
Basketball
National Basketball
Basketball
League (NKL ) Žalgirio sporto rūmai

Tekoda Basketball
Basketball
Regional Basketball
Basketball
League ( RKL ) Žalgirio sporto rūmai

LCC TU Basketball
Basketball
Regional Basketball
Basketball
League ( RKL ) Michaelsen Centre

Lemminkainen Basketball
Basketball
Lithuanian Women Basketball
Basketball
League ( LMKL ) Žalgirio Sporto Rūmai

Dragūnas Handball Lithuanian Handball League ( LRL ) Neptūnas Hall

Kuršiai Rugby Lithuanian Rugby Union I Group Žalgiris Stadium

Atlantas Football Lithuanian Football Federation A League ( A Lyga ) Žalgiris Stadium

FK Klaipedos Granitas Football Lithuanian Football Federation A League ( A Lyga ) Žalgiris Stadium

FK Sendvaris Football Sunday football league SFL League (SFL Lyga ) Football school stadium

Sadvita Hockey Lithuania
Lithuania
Hockey League (NV LRL ) Klaipedos Akropolis Ice Arena

Skatas - 95 Hockey Lithuania
Lithuania
Hockey League (NV LRL ) Klaipedos Akropolis Ice Arena

Kirai Hockey Lithuania
Lithuania
Hockey League (NV LRL ) Klaipedos Akropolis Ice Arena

Toras Hockey Lithuania
Lithuania
Hockey League (NV LRL ) Klaipedos Akropolis Ice Arena

Marių Meškos Ultimate Lithuanian Ultimate Frisbee federation I group Smiltynė beach , Indoor halls

Scala dream Rock climbing
Rock climbing
Inhouse climbing club with top Lithuanian climbers Indoor climbing facility

MEDIA

RADIO

* Radijas 9 91.4 FM * Laluna 94.9 FM * Vox maris 99 FM * Kelyje 99.8 FM * Vakarų FM 100.4 FM * Raduga 100.8 FM * European Hit Radio 96.2 FM * Power Hit Radio 96.7 FM * Zip FM 92.5 FM

TELEVISION

* Balticum TV , Analog , Digital

NEWSPAPERS

* Vakarų ekspresas * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
* 15 Minučių

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Sculpture next to Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Railway Station Statue of boy in Klaipėda's harbor

* Simon Dach (1605–1659), poet and writer of the Ännchen von Tharau song * Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704), Protestant pastor, historian, ethnographer * Michael Wohlfahrt (1687–1741), religious leader in Pennsylvania * Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander
(1799–1875), astronomer * Yisrael Salanter (1810–1883), founder of Musar movement within Judaism * Julius Kröhl (1820–1867), German-American submarine pioneer * Isaac Rülf (1831–1902), editor-in-chief of Memeler Dampfboot, philosopher, activist * Heinrich Drews (1841 - 1916) orchestrated the National Anthem of El Salvador
El Salvador
* David Wolffsohn (1856–1914), second president of World Zionist Organization * George Adomeit (1879–1967), painter * Charlotte Susa (1898–1976), actress * Werner Wolff (SS officer) (1922-1945) * Arno Esch (1928–1951) liberal politician in (SBZ) (Soviet Occupied Zone ) * Gerhard Spiegler (1929 – 2015) former President of Elizabethtown College Pennsylvania * Tomas Venclova (born 1937), poet and author * Lena Valaitis (born 1943), pop singer * Hans Henning Atrott (born 1944), philosopher and pro-euthanasia activist * Leonidas Donskis (1962–2016), philosopher and critic * Mindaugas
Mindaugas
Piecaitis (born 1969), conductor/composer of Catcerto for Nora the Piano Cat * Eurelijus Žukauskas (born 1973), European basketball champion * Saulius Štombergas (born 1973), European basketball champion * Violeta "Sati" Jurkonienė (born 1976), Lithuanian singer * Tomas Danilevičius (born 1978), Lithuanian football (soccer) player * Arvydas Macijauskas (born 1980), European basketball champion * Tomas Delininkaitis (born 1982), basketball player * Tomas Vaitkus (born 1982), cycling champion * Valdas Vasylius (born 1983), basketball player * Gintaras Januševičius , (born 1985), pianist

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania
Lithuania
Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Klaipėda
Klaipėda
city (2002)

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

Klaipėda
Klaipėda
is twinned with:

* Mannheim
Mannheim
, Germany
Germany
, since 1915/2002 * Debrecen , Hungary
Hungary
, since 1970/1989 * Kuji , Japan
Japan
, since 1989 * Karlskrona , Sweden
Sweden
, since 1989 * Lübeck , Germany
Germany
, since 1990 * Cleveland
Cleveland
, United States
United States
, since 1992 * Cherepovets , Russia
Russia
, since 1992 * Gdynia
Gdynia
, Poland
Poland
, since 1993 * Sassnitz , Rügen , Germany
Germany
, since 1993 * Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
, Russia
Russia
, since 1993

* Kotka
Kotka
, Finland
Finland
, since 1994 * Køge , Denmark
Denmark
, since 1995 * North Tyneside
North Tyneside
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, since 1995 * Liepāja , Latvia
Latvia
, since 1997 * Mogilev
Mogilev
, Belarus
Belarus
, since 1997 * Szczecin
Szczecin
, Poland
Poland
, since 2002 * Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany
Germany
, since 2002 * Odessa
Odessa
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, since 2004 * Qingdao
Qingdao
, People\'s Republic of China
China
, since 2004 * Mérida , Venezuela
Venezuela
, since 2010

SEE ALSO

* Neighborhoods of Klaipėda * Ports of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea

REFERENCES

* Baedeker, Karl. Northern Germany. London, 1904, p. 178. * Christiansen, Eric. The Northern Crusades. Penguin Books. London, 1997. pp. 107, 160, 248. ISBN 0-14-026653-4 * The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (2006). * Gathorne-Hardy, Geoffrey Malcolm. A Short History of International Affairs, 1920 to 1934. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 3rd impression, May 1936, p. 89/91. * Encyclopædia Britannica 1938 Year Book. * Hagen, Ludwig: Die Seehäfen in den Provinzen Pommern und Preußen. Berlin
Berlin
1885 (2 Bände, Band 2: Memel) * Kirby, David. The Baltic World, 1772–1993: Europe's Northern Periphery in an Age of Change. Longman. London, 1999. p. 42, 133. ISBN 0-582-00408-X * Kirby, David. Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: The Baltic World, 1492–1772. Longman. London, 1990. p. 366 ISBN 0-582-00410-1 * Koch, Hannsjoachim Wolfgang. A History of Prussia. Barnes ">

* ^ "Regioninis BVP, to meto kainomis, Regioninis BVP, to meto kainomis". Retrieved 10 November 2016. * ^ http://db1.stat.gov.lt/statbank/selectvarval/saveselections.asp?MainTable=M3010211&PLanguage=1&TableStyle=&Buttons=&PXSId=3767&IQY=&TC=&ST=ST&rvar0=&rvar1=&rvar2=&rvar3=&rvar4=&rvar5=&rvar6=&rvar7=&rvar8=&rvar9=&rvar10=&rvar11=&rvar12=&rvar13=&rvar14= * ^ "1413 – pirmąkart paminėtas vardas Klaipėda
Klaipėda
(Caloypede)" * ^ "www.klaipedainfo.lt". Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2015. * ^ Klaipėda
Klaipėda
city information portal. "History". Retrieved 11 April 2006. * ^ Magocsi, Paul Robert. Historical Atlas of Central Europe. University of Washington Press . Seattle, 2002. p. 41. ISBN 0-295-98146-6 . * ^ EB, 1938 Year Book, see map of languages. * ^ Vytautas
Vytautas
Kažukauskas. Visa Lietuvių tauta atsiėmė Klaipėdą * ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 29, pp. 86–115. * ^ Eidintas, Alfonsas; Vytautas
Vytautas
Žalys; Alfred Erich Senn (1999). Ed. Edvardas Tuskenis, ed. Lithuania
Lithuania
in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918–1940 (Paperback ed.). New York: St. Martin\'s Press . p. 165. ISBN 0-312-22458-3 . * ^ Mažoji Lietuva.Klaipėdos krašto istorijos vingiuose. * ^ Klaipėdos istorija (in Lithuanian) * ^ Lietuvoje – pirmasis milžinas iš 64-ių (in Lithuanian) * ^ Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. Vilnius: Vyr. enciklopedijų redakcija, 1986. T.2. P.325. * ^ Lithuanian Sea Museum official website (in English) * ^ http://www.stat.gov.lt/uploads/Lietuvos_gyventojai_2011.pdf * ^ "World Weather Information Service – Klaipėda". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved February 2, 2013. * ^ "Klaipeda Climate Normals 1961–1990" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved February 2, 2013. * ^ Klaipėda city passenger transport (CITY BUS MAP) * ^ "Klaipeda\'s Old Town – Explore the City". Retrieved 31 May 2015. * ^ "Lithuanian Maritime Museum". Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ "Biggest culture events in Klaipėda
Klaipėda
2016-2018". Klaipėdos turizmo ir kultūros informacijos centras ( Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Tourism and Culture Information Centre). Retrieved 3 August 2017. * ^ "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim
Mannheim
(in German). Retrieved 2013-07-26. * ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Sister-cities.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. * ^ P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- International Gdynia
Gdynia
- International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19. * ^ Hassinen, Raino. " Kotka
Kotka
– International co-operation: Twin Cities". City
City
of Kotka. Retrieved 2013-10-22. * ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29. * ^ infoplease.com, Retrieved 11 April 2006.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KLAIPėDA .

* Municipal website, klaipeda.lt * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
Tourism and Culture Information Center website, klaipedainfo.lt * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
In Your Pocket City
City
Guide (also a downloadable PDF guide), inyourpocket.com * Klaipeda travel guide from Wikivoyage * Klaipėda
Klaipėda
State Seaport, portofklaipeda.lt * University of Klaipėda, ku.lt * LCC International University,

.