The KITáB-I-AQDAS or AQDAS is the central book of the Bahá\'í
Faith written by Bahá\'u\'lláh , the founder of the religion, in
1873. The work was written in Arabic under the Arabic title
AL-KITāBU L-AQDAS (Arabic : الكتاب الأقدس), but it
is commonly referred to by its Persian title,
The Aqdas is referred to as "the Mother-Book" of the Bahá'í teachings, and the "Charter of the future world civilization". It is not, however, only a 'book of laws': much of the content deals with other matters, notably ethical exhortations and addresses to various individuals, groups, and places. The Aqdas also discusses the establishment of Bahá'í administrative institutions, Bahá'í religious practices, mysticism, laws of personal status, criminal law, spiritual and ethical exhortations, social principles, miscellaneous laws and abrogations, and prophecies.
* 1 Gradual implementation * 2 Form and style * 3 Translations
* 4 Content
* 4.1 Themes
* 4.2 Laws
* 4.2.1 Administration
* 4.2.2 Prayer
* 4.2.4 Laws of personal status
* 184.108.40.206 Marriage and divorce
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Bibliography
* 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Main article: Bahá\'í laws
FORM AND STYLE
The text of the
Regardless, the delivery results in brief and clear statements even if the meanings can be complex. Rules and principles are interspersed and guide interpretation, and authority and limits for authorized interpretation are also specified. It defines a Bahá\'í Administration as part of the Covenant of Bahá\'u\'lláh , and also speaks to the individual reader, as there are no clergy in the religion to rely on for guidance. The text also moves between statements said to be plain and statements suggesting the key to understanding the book is to look at the text for clues to itself. Some statements reflect on the teachings in the religion on various themes and underscore a relationship of the Aqdas as a 'motherhood' in relation to all the other scriptural works and they to it. It also relates to scriptures of other religions by abrogation, explanation, affirmation or reformation — an example of progressive revelation as a principle of the religion. While it is the core text on laws of the religion, it is not the exclusive source of laws in the religion, nor of Bahá'u'lláh's own writings, and complementarily the reader is told explicitly to not view the text as a "mere code of laws".
1873 Revelation -------------------------
1961 Translation published by the Royal Asiatic Society -------------------------
1973 Synopsis and codification -------------------------
1992 Official Bahá'í translation in English
* "Questions and Answers"', which consists of 107 questions
The book was divided into six main themes in the Synopsis and Codification by Shoghi Effendi:
* The appointment of `Abdu\'l-Bahá as the successor of Bahá'u'lláh * Anticipation of the Institution of the Guardianship * The Institution of the Universal House of Justice * Laws, Ordinances and exhortations * Specific admonitions, reproofs and warnings * Miscellaneous subjects
Further, the laws were divided into four categories: A. Prayer B.
Scholarly review finds the Aqdas has themes of laws of worship, societal relations and administrative organization, or governance, of the religion. It also has strong themes of internationalism and addresses a need of humanity to mature - criticizing religious hierarchies, emphasizing inter-religious dialogue and unity, and international standards; things others at the time thought lacked practical application and seemed only utopian in the era it was published. The basics of the rules of successorship are set forth with enough clarity that the religion has avoided significant schism. Through the authority vested in `Abdu\'l-Bahá in the Aqdas there is an expanse of internationalism related to the law in works like The Secret of Divine Civilization and through his extended authority to Shoghi Effendi works like his World Order of Bahá\'u\'lláh further elaborates on the internationalism theme. This stands in some distinction from other scriptures by not using triumphal tones as the voice of God is given to be viewed but rather one of progressive development, social context, and outright delay in application until another day. Indeed, it insists that divine law is applicable only in situations with requisite conditions, where it is likely to have certain social effects. The goal of application of the law and its methods are not to cause disturbance and dissension and requires an appreciation for context and intention. Additionally one is to eschew emphasis in the development of textualist and intentionalist arguments about the law though some of this is visible in scholarship on the Aqdas. Such methods of application of law in a religious context are common in Islam and Judaism.
The Aqdas is understood by Bahá'ís to be a factor in the process of ongoing developments in world order. This can be seen comparing the Bahá'í approach to history and the future to that of the theory of The Clash of Civilizations on the one hand and the development of a posthegemony system on the other (compared with work of Robert Cox, for example, in Approaches to World Order, (Robert Cox their application depends on decisions by the Universal House of Justice. See also Bahá\'í laws for laws in practice in Bahá'í communities. In reference to the laws of his revelation Baha'u'llah writes in paragraph 3 the following, "O ye peoples of the World! Know assuredly that My commandments are the lamps of my loving providence among My servants, and the keys of My mercy for My creatures. Thus hath it been sent down from the heaven of the Will of your Lord, the Lord of Revelation. Were any man to taste the sweetness of the words which the lips of the All-Merciful have willed to utter, he would, though the treasures of the earth be in his possession, renounce them one and all, that he might vindicate the truth of even one of His commandments, shining above the Dayspring of His bountiful care and loving-kindness."
Main article: Bahá\'í administration
The institutional status of the authority of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a House of Justice are specifically delineated. On the basis of the authority granted `Abdu'l-Bahá he extended forms of the authority vested in him to the Guardianship, whose sole member was Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal, or International, House of Justice through his Will and Testament . This was confirmed and amplified in other texts, notably the Kitáb-i-`Ahd . The Universal House of Justice is specifically empowered to write and rescind any laws it is felt necessary aside from those of the text of scripture and actual application of the laws of the Aqdas among Bahá'ís are dependent on the choice of the Universal House of Justice.
Main article: Obligatory Bahá\'í prayers
Bahá'ís between 15 and 70 years of age are to perform a daily obligatory prayer, and can choose daily from among three, all of which are accompanied by specific rites, and preceded by ablutions . During the obligatory prayer Bahá'ís face the Qiblih , which is the Shrine of Bahá\'u\'lláh in Bahjí , Israel. People are exempt from the obligatory prayers when ill, in danger, or women during their menstrual cycles.
Congregational prayer is forbidden, except for the case of the Prayer for the Dead.
Main article: Nineteen Day Fast
The Bahá'í fast is observed from sunrise to sunset in the Bahá\'í month of `Alá' from 2 March through 20 March. During this time Bahá'ís in good health between the ages of 15 and 70 abstain from eating and drinking. Exemptions to the fast are given to people who are travelling, ill, pregnant, nursing, menstruating, or engaged in heavy labour. Vowing to fast outside of the prescribed fasting period is permissible, and encouraged when done for the benefit of mankind.
Laws Of Personal Status
Marriage And Divorce
Main article: Bahá\'í marriage
Baha'u'llah's statements about marriage in the
That Bahá\'u\'lláh had three wives, while his religion teaches
monogamy, which has been the subject of criticism. The writing of the
Bahá'ís need to be at least 15 years of age to get married, and the
consent of all living biological parents is needed to get married.
Marriage is also conditioned a payment of dowry by the husband to the
wife of approximately 70 grams (2.2 troy ounces) of gold or silver
dependent on the permanent residence of the husband. The
Divorce is permitted, although discouraged, and is granted after a year of separation if the couple is unable to reconcile their differences.
The Baha'i Universal House of Justice is to levy fines against men and women for adultery, payable in gold.
* Bahá\'í prophecies * Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas
* ^ Saiedi, 2000, pp. 224-235.
* ^ Effendi 1944 , pp. 213
* ^ A B C D Smith, Peter (2000). "law". A concise encyclopedia of
the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 223–225. ISBN
* ^ Bahá\'u\'lláh 1873 , p. 6
* ^ Smith 2008 , pp. 160
* ^ The Aqdas;
Universal House of Justice A DESCRIPTION OF THE
AQDAS BY SHOGHI EFFENDI
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Danesh, Roshan (2003–2004).
"Internationalism and Divine Law: A Bahá'í Perspective". Journal of
Law and Religion. 19 (2): 209–242.
* Bahā\'-Allāh (1961) . Al-kitab al-aqdas or The most holy book.
Translated by Elder, Earl E.; Miller, William McE. London: The Royal
* Bahá\'u\'lláh (1873). The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book.
Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-85398-999-0
* Bushrui, Suheil (1995). The Style of the
* The Kitab-i-Aqdas: its place in Baha\'i literature. Published in
Bahá'í World, 1992-1993. pp. 105–117.
* Danesh, Roshan (2015). Some Reflections on the Structure of the
* The Aqdas research tool * The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Matrix and Explorer (bilingual)
* GND :