River (Hebrew: נחל הקישון, Nachal HaKishon;
Arabic: نهر المقطع, Nahr el-Mokatta, or Mukutta',
– the river of slaughter or dismemberment; alternative Arabic,
الكيشون al-Qisun) is a river in
Israel that flows into the
Mediterranean Sea near the city of Haifa.
2 Biblical references
3 Modern History
4.2 Shayetet 13
6 External links
River is a 70 kilometres (43 mi)-long perennial stream
in Israel. Its farthermost source is the Gilboa mountains, and it
flows in a west-northwesterly direction through the Jezreel Valley,
emptying into the
Haifa Bay in the Mediterranean Sea. Its drainage
basin, of 1,100 square kilometres (420 sq mi), includes much
Jezreel Valley and the Western Galilee, and parts of Mount Carmel.
The Kishon is mentioned twice in the Hebrew Bible:
In Judges 4:7, Sisera's Canaanite army is encamped at the Kishon River
and the prophet
Deborah predicts their defeat; in Judges 5:21, in her
song of celebration, the Kishon
River is praised for washing away the
1 Kings 18:40 names the Kishon
River as the site where the prophets of
Baal were executed on Elijah's orders, following Elijah's contest with
the prophets of
Baal nearby on
Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:20-39).
Following the end of the
First World War
First World War there was an increase in the
number of Jewish settlers arriving in Palestine, the Third Aliyah.
Those who arrived at
Haifa were kept in a tented
Quarantine Camps set
up on the Kishon estuary. Many of the immigrants, Halutzim, were
infected with malaria for which the area was notorious. Under the
British Mandate the area became Haifa's industrial zone with a power
station, railway workshops and the
Iraq Petroleum Company
Iraq Petroleum Company refinery.
River after cleanup, 2010.
Considered[by whom?] the most polluted river in Israel, it has been
the subject of controversy regarding the struggle to improve the water
quality. The pollution stems in part from daily contamination for over
40 years with mercury, other heavy metals, and organic chemicals by
nearby chemical plants.
It was claimed in 2000, that there are more chemicals
than water in the river, and that washing one's hands in this river
can cause severe chemical burns. On several occasions this river
(or rather, patches of petrochemical waste on it) has caught fire from
the chemical contaminants. Below Histadrut Bridge (Highway
4[verification needed]), after passing the petrochemical industries
zone, the pH was 3 or below for most of the time in 2001.
A 2002 study found the ability of 3 hours' exposure to Kishon River
water to induce
DNA damage in rainbow-trout liver-cells to be on
average threefold that of unpolluted water. Notably the lower Kishon,
below the petrochemical industry zone, had a markedly elevated
A 2000 analysis of the river water revealed chlorinated compounds in
discharges from the refineries, the municipal sewage treatment
plant and from the
Haifa Chemicals fertilizer production plant. Heavy
metals were present in the discharges from the Carmel Olefins and
Haifa Chemicals plants. The upper river system may also be mixed with
genotoxic materials from domestic waste and agricultural runoff that
contain pesticides and fertilizers. Potent genotoxins usually found in
domestic wastes also include
N-nitroso compounds and aromatic amines,
which are known to be present in human sanitary outflows as well as
genotoxic PAHs found in municipal discharges.
As of January 4, 2016; 1,000,000 cubic meters per year of potable
water is added to the Kishon River, & had decreased concentrations
of salts, nitrates, & phosphates, by over 50%. This flow will be
replaced by the
Jezreel Valley springs, as their flow is removed from
In 2012, the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection launched a
tender to clean up the Kishon river in a project costing NIS 220
million. Much of the funding for the project came from the
companies responsible for the pollution. The Canadian company
EnGlobe Corp. began work in 2012 to clean up the river. The
cleanup project is to be concluded in 2015.[needs update]
IDF training in the Kishon River. 1969-1970.
Since 2001, it was discovered that
Shayetet 13 veterans had high
occurrence of cancer, probably due to training in the polluted Kishon
Haifa Bay. A commission for investigating the matter did not
find statistical evidence that diving in the Kishon
caused the cancers. However, despite the commission findings, Minister
of Defence, Shaul Mofaz, decided to compensate the divers' families.
^ Henderson, Archibald (1884). Palestine. Its Historical Geography,
with topographical index and maps. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. p.
^ Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Kishon". Easton's Bible
Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
^ "Map of Western Palestine in 26 sheets from the surveys conducted
for the Committee of the
Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Exploration Fund by Lietenanats
C.R. Conder and H.H. Kitchener R.E. during the years 1872-1877."
(Map). London: Palestine Exploration Fund. 1880. Sheet 5, sections Li,
Kh. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ "Cleaning up the Kishon River". Ministry of the Environment
(Israel). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19
July 2011. The 70-kilometer long river, which drains an area of 1100
square kilometers, starts in the Gilboa mountains, flows through the
Jezreel Valley and empties into the sea at Haifa.
^ Duff, Douglas V. (1934). Sword for Hire. The Saga of a Modern
Free-Companion (1st ed.). London: John Murray. pp. 118-120.
^ Matson, G. Olaf (c. 1946). The Palestine Guide including
Trans-Jordan (Fifth ed.). Jerusalem: Joshua Simon. pp. 324,327.
^ Herut, B. "Nutrient pollution at the lower reaches of Mediterranean
coastal rivers of Israel". Water Science and Technology. 42: 147–152
– via Earth, Atmospheric & Aquatic Science Database.
^ Andersson, Hilary (2000-09-25). "The Holy Land's poisonous river".
BBC News. BBC News Online. Retrieved 2007-08-28
^ a b Avishai, Nanthawan; Rabinowitz, Claudette; Moiseeva, Elisabeth
& Rinkevich, Baruch (2002): Genotoxicity of the Kishon River,
Israel: the application of an in vitro cellular assay. Mutation
Research 518(1): 21–37. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(02)00069-4 (HTML
^ Fluorinated compounds precipitate into the river sediment: Avishai
et al. 2002
^ "Once-polluted Kishon
River undergoing rehab with the help of tap
water". jpost.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
^ a b
^ "Kishon River: From poison to pristine". israel21c.org. Retrieved 18
^ a b "Kishon
River to undergo NIS 220M rehabilitation". ynetnews.com.
Retrieved 18 September 2017.
^ "Canadian firm to dredge, purify Kishon River". jpost.com. Retrieved
18 September 2017.
^ Golan, Tal (2016). "The Fall and Rise of the Kishon River". Water;
Basel. 8: 283–300 – via Earth, Atmospheric & Aquatic Science
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kishon River.
River Authority (Hebrew)
Greenpeace Press Release on Kishon River
Eco Park For A Green Peace
Coordinates: 32°49′N 35°02′E / 32.817°N 35.033°E /