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The Kishon River
River
(Hebrew: נחל הקישון‎, Nachal HaKishon; Arabic: نهر المقطع‎, Nahr el-Mokatta,[1][2] or Mukutta',[3] – the river of slaughter or dismemberment; alternative Arabic, الكيشون al-Qisun) is a river in Israel
Israel
that flows into the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
near the city of Haifa.

Contents

1 Course 2 Biblical references 3 Modern History 4 Pollution

4.1 Cleanup 4.2 Shayetet 13

5 References 6 External links

Course[edit] The Kishon River
River
is a 70 kilometres (43 mi)-long perennial stream in Israel. Its farthermost source is the Gilboa mountains, and it flows in a west-northwesterly direction through the Jezreel Valley, emptying into the Haifa
Haifa
Bay in the Mediterranean Sea.[4] Its drainage basin, of 1,100 square kilometres (420 sq mi), includes much of Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
and the Western Galilee, and parts of Mount Carmel. Biblical references[edit] The Kishon is mentioned twice in the Hebrew Bible:

In Judges 4:7, Sisera's Canaanite army is encamped at the Kishon River and the prophet Deborah
Deborah
predicts their defeat; in Judges 5:21, in her song of celebration, the Kishon River
River
is praised for washing away the Canaanite army. 1 Kings 18:40 names the Kishon River
River
as the site where the prophets of Baal
Baal
were executed on Elijah's orders, following Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal
Baal
nearby on Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
(1 Kings 18:20-39).

Modern History[edit] Following the end of the First World War
First World War
there was an increase in the number of Jewish settlers arriving in Palestine, the Third Aliyah. Those who arrived at Haifa
Haifa
were kept in a tented Quarantine
Quarantine
Camps set up on the Kishon estuary. Many of the immigrants, Halutzim, were infected with malaria for which the area was notorious.[5] Under the British Mandate the area became Haifa's industrial zone with a power station, railway workshops and the Iraq Petroleum Company
Iraq Petroleum Company
refinery.[6] Pollution[edit]

Kishon River
River
after cleanup, 2010.

Considered[by whom?][7] the most polluted river in Israel, it has been the subject of controversy regarding the struggle to improve the water quality. The pollution stems in part from daily contamination for over 40 years with mercury, other heavy metals, and organic chemicals by nearby chemical plants. It was claimed in 2000[citation needed], that there are more chemicals than water in the river, and that washing one's hands in this river can cause severe chemical burns.[8] On several occasions this river (or rather, patches of petrochemical waste on it) has caught fire from the chemical contaminants. Below Histadrut Bridge (Highway 4[verification needed]), after passing the petrochemical industries zone, the pH was 3 or below for most of the time in 2001. A 2002 study found the ability of 3 hours' exposure to Kishon River water to induce DNA damage
DNA damage
in rainbow-trout liver-cells to be on average threefold that of unpolluted water. Notably the lower Kishon, below the petrochemical industry zone,[9] had a markedly elevated genotoxic potential. A 2000 analysis of the river water revealed chlorinated compounds in discharges from the refineries,[10] the municipal sewage treatment plant and from the Haifa
Haifa
Chemicals fertilizer production plant. Heavy metals were present in the discharges from the Carmel Olefins and Haifa
Haifa
Chemicals plants. The upper river system may also be mixed with genotoxic materials from domestic waste and agricultural runoff that contain pesticides and fertilizers. Potent genotoxins usually found in domestic wastes also include N-nitroso
N-nitroso
compounds and aromatic amines, which are known to be present in human sanitary outflows as well as genotoxic PAHs found in municipal discharges.[9] As of January 4, 2016; 1,000,000 cubic meters per year of potable water is added to the Kishon River, & had decreased concentrations of salts, nitrates, & phosphates, by over 50%. This flow will be replaced by the Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
springs, as their flow is removed from irrigation.[11] Cleanup[edit] In 2012, the Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection launched a tender to clean up the Kishon river in a project costing NIS 220 million.[12][13] Much of the funding for the project came from the companies responsible for the pollution.[14] The Canadian company EnGlobe Corp. began work in 2012 to clean up the river.[12][15] The cleanup project is to be concluded in 2015.[14][needs update][16] Shayetet 13[edit]

IDF training in the Kishon River. 1969-1970.

Since 2001, it was discovered that Shayetet 13
Shayetet 13
veterans had high occurrence of cancer, probably due to training in the polluted Kishon River
River
and Haifa
Haifa
Bay. A commission for investigating the matter did not find statistical evidence[citation needed] that diving in the Kishon caused the cancers. However, despite the commission findings, Minister of Defence, Shaul Mofaz, decided to compensate the divers' families. References[edit]

^ Henderson, Archibald (1884). Palestine. Its Historical Geography, with topographical index and maps. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. p. 205.  ^  Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Kishon". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.  ^ "Map of Western Palestine in 26 sheets from the surveys conducted for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Exploration Fund
by Lietenanats C.R. Conder and H.H. Kitchener R.E. during the years 1872-1877." (Map). London: Palestine Exploration Fund. 1880. Sheet 5, sections Li, Kh.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Cleaning up the Kishon River". Ministry of the Environment (Israel). Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2011. The 70-kilometer long river, which drains an area of 1100 square kilometers, starts in the Gilboa mountains, flows through the Jezreel Valley
Jezreel Valley
and empties into the sea at Haifa.  ^ Duff, Douglas V. (1934). Sword for Hire. The Saga of a Modern Free-Companion (1st ed.). London: John Murray. pp. 118-120.  ^ Matson, G. Olaf (c. 1946). The Palestine Guide including Trans-Jordan (Fifth ed.). Jerusalem: Joshua Simon. pp. 324,327.  ^ Herut, B. "Nutrient pollution at the lower reaches of Mediterranean coastal rivers of Israel". Water Science and Technology. 42: 147–152 – via Earth, Atmospheric & Aquatic Science Database.  ^ Andersson, Hilary (2000-09-25). "The Holy Land's poisonous river". BBC News. BBC News Online. Retrieved 2007-08-28  ^ a b Avishai, Nanthawan; Rabinowitz, Claudette; Moiseeva, Elisabeth & Rinkevich, Baruch (2002): Genotoxicity of the Kishon River, Israel: the application of an in vitro cellular assay. Mutation Research 518(1): 21–37. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(02)00069-4 (HTML abstract) ^ Fluorinated compounds precipitate into the river sediment: Avishai et al. 2002 ^ "Once-polluted Kishon River
River
undergoing rehab with the help of tap water". jpost.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ a b http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/ResourcesandServices/NewsAndEvents/NewsAndMessageDover/Pages/2012/06_June_2012/Kishon_Cleanup_270612.aspx ^ "Kishon River: From poison to pristine". israel21c.org. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ a b "Kishon River
River
to undergo NIS 220M rehabilitation". ynetnews.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ "Canadian firm to dredge, purify Kishon River". jpost.com. Retrieved 18 September 2017.  ^ Golan, Tal (2016). "The Fall and Rise of the Kishon River". Water; Basel. 8: 283–300 – via Earth, Atmospheric & Aquatic Science Database. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kishon River.

Kishon River
River
Authority (Hebrew) Greenpeace Press Release on Kishon River Eco Park For A Green Peace

Coordinates: 32°49′N 35°02′E / 32.817°N 35.033°E / 32

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