Kirsopp Lake (7 April 1872 – 10 November 1946) was a
New Testament scholar and
Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History at
Harvard Divinity School. He had an uncommon breadth of interests,
publishing definitive monographs in
New Testament textual criticism,
Greek palaeography, theology, and archaeology. He is probably best
known for the massive five-volume work The Beginnings of
Christianity—an edition, translation, commentary, and study of the
Acts of Apostles—that he conceived and edited with F. J.
1 Early life
Curate in England
3 Professor in Leiden
4 Harvard years
5 Published works
7 External links
Kirsopp Lake was born in Southampton, England, on 7 April 1872, the
elder of two surviving children of George Anthony Kirsopp Lake, a
physician, and Isabel Oke Clark. His father came from a family of
Scottish origin and Kirsopp was the family name of the boy's paternal
grandmother. He was educated at
St Paul's School, London
St Paul's School, London and then
went up to Lincoln College, Oxford, matriculating in 1891. He attended
as an Exhibitioner and was the Skinners' Company's Scholar in 1893,
finally graduating (B.A., 1895) with a second class in theology. He
also attended Cuddesdon Theological College in 1895. He
originally had intended to read law and to pursue a career in
politics. However, an overdose of exercise, too soon after influenza,
affected his heart and he was told by doctors that law and politics
were out of the question. According to his son, "he was delicate and
the church seemed to give the opportunity for a living and for some
influence over the society that interested him."
Curate in England
St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, where Lake was curate 1897–1904.
Following graduation Lake was ordained a deacon in the Church of
England (1895) and served as curate in Lumley, Durham, where he
preached to the pitmen and miners in that North Country mining
district. "I do not believe that theology entered very much into his
sermons," recalls his son, "but he did conduct
The Mikado and he still
tells the story of the brawny pitman who, having rescued him from the
attack of a drunken navvy from a neighbouring village and listened to
his comments on the situation, said 'Mon, he's no much to look at, but
has he no a bonny tongue?!'" After a year's service he was ordained
priest (1896), however he had further issues with his heart and
decided to return to Oxford, to the less rigorous climate of the South
in order to improve his health. He earned his M.A. in 1897 and from
that year to 1904 he served as curate of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford,
a much more academic atmosphere. During these years, in order to
supplement his income, he also took a job cataloging Greek manuscripts
in the Bodleian Library. That activity aroused in him an interest in
Synoptic problem and matters of
New Testament textual criticism,
and saw the publication of his first book, the very useful handbook
The Text of the
New Testament (1900). Some sixty years later Stephen
Neill describes the 6th ed. (1928) as "still the best short
New Testament textual criticism that exists in any
language." It was most likely the influence exerted over him by F.
C. Conybeare, Fellow of University College, Oxford, which was the main
factor in Lake's development. It was Conybeare who initiated Lake into
the mysteries and problems of
New Testament palaeography and textual
Codex 1 (Luke 1:1-2), whose text Lake published in 1902 along with
other readings from Family 1.
Lake's palaeographical interests led him in search of more manuscripts
and in 1898 he undertook a trip to the libraries of Basel, Venice, and
Rome. The fruits of that trip were published in Codex 1 of the Gospels
and Its Allies (1902). Lake had discovered a textual family of New
Testament manuscripts known as
Family 1 (also known as Lake group). To
this family belong minuscules: 1, 118, 131, and 209. In the summers of
1899 and 1903 (and many thereafter) he undertook trips in search of
manuscripts to the Greek monasteries on Mount Athos. He published
(1903, 1905, 1907) editions of several manuscripts uncovered there, a
catalogue of all the manuscripts inspected, and even a history of the
monasteries themselves (1909). In 1902 he won the Arnold Essay Prize
at Oxford University for his study "The Greek Monasteries in South
Italy," which was published in four installments in the Journal of
Theological Studies, vols. 4 and 5.
On 10 November 1903, he married Helen Courthope Forman (1874 –
22 October 1958), the daughter of Freda Gardiner and Sidney Mills
Forman, a businessman of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Northumberland. They had
two children, Gerard Anthony Christian
Kirsopp Lake (27 December
1904 – 3 September 1972) and Agnes Freda Isabel Kirsopp Lake
(31 July 1909 – 3 November 1993). It was also during these
later years of his curacy that Lake "began to doubt the teachings of
the church and to think in terms of history and exegesis rather than
theology and parish difficulties." As his son reports, my father "has
often said that the turning point in his belief in the church came
when his Vicar suggested that prayers be said at
Vespers for a Mr.
Brown, since the doctor had just announced that there was no hope for
him. The story may be apocryphal but I think it is indicative of his
point of view." His daughter Agnes, "in conversations, was less
polite and oblique: 'Heresy' was her word, pronounced with glee and
gusto." This type of thinking may have run in the family, for Lake
Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead in 1922 that his father, the physician,
"being asked late in life what had done the most in his lifetime to
relieve human suffering, answered, 'Anaesthesia and the decay of
Professor in Leiden
Academy building in Leiden University, where Lake was professor
In line with these new interests and activities, Lake accepted an
offer in 1903 to become professor (ordinarius) of New Testament
exegesis and early Christian literature at the Leiden University, the
oldest university in the Netherlands. He taught there for ten years,
from 1904 until 1914. His inaugural lecture, which he delivered in
English, was on "The Influence of Textual Criticism on the Exegesis of
the New Testament." At the close of the lecture he looked his students
in the face. "I am very sorry," he said, "that for a few months I
shall be handicapped by my inability to use your language, but I hope
that by next September I shall be in a position to lecture in Dutch,
at least partially, even though it may be necessary to apologize for
frequent solecisms, and for an imperfect pronunciation." He kept
his promise and quickly learned to lecture in Dutch. The lecture
was published in 1904 and has proven to be a seminal study; though, as
Elliott has noted: "It has taken nearly a century for his general
thesis that textual variants must be used as an invaluable source for
our study of the history of the church to bear fruit in a determined
In addition to his inaugural lecture, Lake published two important
books on historical and exegetical matters concerning the New
Testament during his time in Leiden: The Historical Evidence for the
Resurrection of Jesus Christ (1907) and The Earlier Epistles of St.
Paul: Their Motive and Origin (1911). As Metzger explains: "These
studies, particularly the latter, revealed Lake's ability to analyze
and evaluate complex historical and literary data and to set forth
scholarly reconstructions with clarity and a certain
persuasiveness." In Historical Evidence Lake sets forth his
approach: "The first task of the historical inquirer is to collect the
pieces of evidence; the second is to discuss the trustworthiness and
meaning of each separate piece; and the third is to reconstruct the
events to which the evidence relates" (p. 6). As for the
reconstruction, he explains: "In any such attempt it is desirable to
remember that the reconstruction of an original tradition from forms
of later dates and of divergent contents must be guided by exactly the
same principle as is the reconstruction of an original text from a
number of extant MSS. In each case the fundamental problem is the
retracing of the line of development followed by the various
authorities, and the solution depends chiefly on the ability to detect
errors of transmission and to explain their existence" (p. 167).
As for The Earlier Epistles, Neill writes: "I think that those of us
who read Lake when we were young will be inclined to think that this
is one of the best books on the
New Testament that has ever been
written in the English language. This is the way it ought to be done.
Under Lake's skillful guidance, we feel ourselves one with those new
and struggling groups of Christians, in all the perplexities of trying
to discover what it means to be a Christian in a non-Christian world.
And there is the Apostle, so very much in working clothes and without
a halo; we feel in our bones the passionate eagerness of Paul for
better news from Corinth, the passionate relief when the good news
arrives." The book brought the conclusions of the German history of
religions school to the attention of English-speaking world for the
first time, and all later
New Testament study has been influenced by
Codex Sinaiticus (Mt 2:5-3:7), from which Lake produced a facsimile
edition (1911, 1922).
True to the second component of his professorship, Lake produced a
number of works on early Christian literature. He was a member of a
special committee of the Oxford Society of Historical Theology charged
with investigating the text of the
New Testament as it has been
preserved in the Apostolic Fathers. His specific responsibility was
Didache and the results of his investigations were published in
1905. For the
Loeb Classical Library
Loeb Classical Library series he prepared a new edition
of the Greek texts of the Apostolic Fathers, which in keeping with the
series were furnished with a facing English translation and a short
introduction. The finished work was issued in two volumes, Nos. 24 and
25, published in 1912 and 1913. Also during this time he traveled to
the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg together with his first wife
Helen during the summer of 1908 and photographed the very important
Codex Sinaiticus and then published in facsimile the New Testament
along with the
Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas and the
Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas (1911)
and the Old Testament (1922), following another visit to the library
in 1913. These volumes were furnished with valuable introductions and
were a marked improvement from the earlier editions of Tischendorf. In
1913 Lake was a favored candidate for lecturer in theology at Trinity
College, Cambridge, but word of his unorthodox views reached the
Master of Trinity, Henry Montagu Butler, and the choice in consequence
fell on the other candidate Frederick Tennant. Again, in early 1914
some of his friends sought to secure his appointment to a canonry in
Westminster Abbey, but the Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, having read
Lake's Historical Evidence, decided that he could not nominate him. As
his friend H. D. A. Major explained, Lake "would gladly have remained
in England. But his intellectual originality combined with the
fearlessness of his utterances—he was neither a 'safe man' nor a
'yes man'—proved detrimental to his promotion both in academic and
Harvard Divinity School, Andover Hall, where Lake was professor
In the fall of 1913 Lake traveled to the United States to lecture for
a year at the Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge, Massachusetts
and to deliver the Lowell Lectures in Boston. Just before he was to
leave for Europe he was offered a position at Harvard Divinity School,
which he accepted. In the announcement of his hiring it was reported:
"He comes when there is no definite gap to be filled, but merely
because his eminent scholarship could add to the teaching strength of
Harvard." From 1914 until 1919 he was professor of early Christian
literature. Then in 1919, following the retirement of Ephraim Emerton,
he was appointed to a Harvard chair becoming the Winn Professor of
Ecclesiastical History, which he held until 1932. From 1915 to 1919 he
was also a lecturer in
New Testament at Union Theological Seminary in
New York City.
While at Harvard Lake labored to bring forth the monumental five
volume work The Beginnings of Christianity. Beginnings was a project
that had been conceived during conversations with F. J. Foakes-Jackson
while Lake was still at the Leiden University, sometime before 1912
(vol. v, p. vii). It sought to investigate the view "that Christianity
in the first century achieved a synthesis between the Greco-Oriental
and the Jewish religions in the Roman Empire. The preaching of
repentance, and of the Kingdom of God begun by Jesus passed into the
sacramental cult of the Lord Jesus Christ. But the details are complex
and obscure. What were the exact elements in this synthesis? How was
it effected?" (vol. i, p. vii). The undertaking began at Cambridge
University in the form of a seminar, presided over by F. C. Burkitt.
It "was largely attended by scholars of the most varied interests in
the University, not only theological, but historical, classical,
mathematical, and Oriental ... Lake paid frequent visits from Leiden"
and "the United States and Canada were not unrepresented" (vol. v, p.
vii). The project was to be a grand endeavor. The five volumes that
were ultimately published only comprise "Part I". As they explain:
"Before, however, attempting to reconstruct this history we believed
it necessary to study Acts in the light of the results of modern
criticism. ... Later on we hope to return to the subject and
reconsider the narrative of the life of Jesus, and the influence on
the Church of his own teaching and of the teaching of others about
him" (vol. ii, p. v). As it turned out they were never able to "return
to the subject" and complete the project. "In sum," writes Baird, "The
Beginnings of Christianity is a monumental work—the most extensive
investigation of a NT book by English-speaking scholarship" (cf. vol.
v, p. ix).
During his early years at Harvard, Lake continued to be active with
The Churchmen's Union, an Anglican society for the advancement of
liberal religious thought. He and Foakes-Jackson lent their support to
H. D. A. Major in organizing a conference of Modern Churchmen (which
continues till this day). The first was held at Ripon, Yorkshire,
3–6 July 1914. Foakes-Jackson and Lake delivered an attack on
Liberal Protestantism. Lake said that the task of the liberal
Christian is "not to go back upon the inherited Catholic doctrines of
the Church, but to apply and to expand them, because we see that in
the end they are true so long as you do not limit them." The most
famous of the conferences was the one held at Girton College,
Cambridge, 8–15 August 1921. Its subject was "Christ and the Creeds"
and it was planned as a response to Lake's publication of the first
volume of The Beginnings of Christianity. Lake did not attend, so it
was left to Foakes-Jackson to defend their positions. He explained
that he and Lake believed that the Jesus whom the early Church
preached was not "a character of singular charm and beauty during his
life on earth, but a Risen Saviour who was expected to come speedily
to judge the quick and the dead." Liberal Protestants, he argued, were
preaching a Christ who had no historical foundation. From 1915 to 1931
Lake served as one of vice presidents of the union; however, after
1927 he began to part company with English Modernism and in 1932 he
wrote to have his name removed from the list of vice
In 1932 Lake's personal affairs produced quite a scandal. On 18 August
1932, Lake obtained a Reno divorce from his first wife Helen, whom he
had been separated from for five years. Then, on 16 December 1932,
he married his former student and collaborator Silva Tipple New (18
March 1898 – 30 April 1983). She was 26 years his junior,
married, with four children. They had one child John Anthony Kirsopp
(b. 13 June 1928). At the time Silva was a professor of classics at
Bryn Mawr, and an accomplished scholar in her own right. She would
continue to collaborate with Lake for the rest of his life. The
divorce caused such a stir that Lake was forced to resign the Winn
chair on 28 September 1932 and became professor of history in Harvard
College, a position he held until his retirement in 1938.
Perhaps their most significant project was a magnificent series of ten
large albums of facsimiles entitled Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts
to the Year 1200 (1934–39). These portfolios of reproductions were
organized by location and contained photographic specimens of some 400
manuscripts. These were important publications, for they encouraged
scholars to look beyond the more well known manuscripts and realize
the worth of encompassing a wide range of textual variants in any
editing of the Greek text. Together they also founded in 1934 a
series of monographs entitled Studies and Documents and contributed a
valuable study in 1941 on
Family 13 (The Ferrar Group), another New
Testament manuscript group.
During his 23 years at Harvard, Lake continuously taught one very
popular course, the English Bible, familiarly known as "English 35".
When he taught the course for the first time in 1914, the course had
less than 40 students, whereas his final year there were over 250—a
"625 per cent increase," as the Harvard Crimson touted when announcing
his final lecture would be 16 December 1937. His book An
Introduction to the
New Testament (1937) is a "skeleton of the
course." However, "it does not give the flesh put on that skeleton by
the lecturer" (p. ix). It was of course that "flesh" which made the
course so interesting, due to Lake's lively imagination and engaging
wit. As he himself explains: "The most important thing in a teacher's
life is not to impart the knowledge of facts—which can be found much
better in books—but to encourage another generation to look
steadfastly at the vision which it sees, and to face its own problems
in the light of that vision, controlled and guided by an understanding
of what the past has done or not done" (Paul, His Heritage and Legacy,
1934, p. xii). He seems to have been effective, for James Luther
Adams, one of his students during 1924–27, recalls: "It was his
characteristic interest to make historical figures come alive, so that
we might see their significance today and not merely study them as so
many items from a dead past." "Something we all recognized in Kirsopp
Lake," writes Adams, "was that he had the imagination of a Sherlock
Holmes. He took an almost childlike interest in digging out
alternative answers to historical questions ... Students who thought
themselves completely secularized and immune to any 'religious
nonsense' attended his lectures and heard him publicly burrow down
into the biblical concepts, taking as his point of departure something
highly imaginative in one of the parables, and then rise up to fly
with it. The students used to call his courses 'Kirsopp's
G. A. Barrois, Kirsopp Lake, and A. de Buck on the 1930 Harvard
expedition to Serabit el-Khadim.
Kirsopp and Silva Lake with Robert P. Casey prior to the Van
In later years, Lake became increasingly involved in archeological
expeditions. He had remarkable abilities as an organizer and an
uncanny skill in finding the necessary money to fund his various
undertakings. In the spring of 1927, with Robert P. Blake, he traveled
Saint Catherine's Monastery
Saint Catherine's Monastery in
Egypt in order to study biblical
manuscripts. While passing through
Cairo they met the Egyptologist
Alan H. Gardiner who suggested that on their return they might stop by
Serabit el-Khadim, which was in the neighborhood of the monastery, and
attempt to locate a number of previously noticed inscriptions in a
Proto-Sinaitic script. As Lake remarked in his account of the
adventure: "It should be noted that 'in the neighborhood' is a
relative matter, for, stated in terms of time instead of space, the
monastery was about as far from Serabit as New York is from San
Francisco." After a week's journey on camels they were able to locate
the site and the inscriptions, as well as identify two additional
inscriptions not previously known. "It is a pity that we could not
identify the fragments more accurately," Lake noted, "but the
temperature in the shade was over 115° Fahr., and the fragments were
in the sun and almost too hot to touch" (HTR 21 : 3-4, 5). Lake
would return to further investigate the site, as well as the adjacent
Hathor in 1930 on an expedition led by him and Blake, this
time accompanied by Silva (his future second wife), at the time a
Guggenheim fellow, who would handle the photography. In the results of
the expedition that were published in 1932, Lake described the camp:
"It was not exactly luxurious, and on two days when in rained it was
extremely uncomfortable, as we had to spend the whole time in the
cave, in which it was impossible to stand upright except in a few
spots. The cooking was shared by Professor Blake and Mrs. [Silva] New,
and consisted chiefly of rice, with canned meat dissolved in
tomato-sauce and curry-powder" (HTR 25 : 98-99). A final trip
was made in 1935; unfortunately, this time Lake was injured during the
trip. He received internal injuries when bumped by a camel, but
continued the journey, and was carried by litter to the top of the
mountain. After supervising the start of the excavation, his condition
worsened and he was rushed to Jerusalem with his wife to receive
medical attention. In 1929, Lake approached John Winter Crowfoot
British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem (BSAJ) about a joint
excavation with some other institutions of Samaria, to complete the
earlier work of Harvard's George A. Reisner. The new dig began in 1931
and Lake was there for four seasons (1931–34), accompanied again by
Silva and Blake. The joint team also included
Eleazar Sukenik from
Hebrew University and
Kathleen Kenyon from the BSAJ. The excavation
would yield many important results. As for accommodations in the camp,
Kenyon reports that "although they had a hotel-trained Egyptian cook
and Palestinian servants to do the washing, the expedition staff lived
in tents, sleeping on camp beds" and "the social life of the dig
consisted of having cocktails at the end of the day, playing bridge
after dinner, and in 1933, listening to jazz records." In
1938–39, Lake along with Silva and Robert P. Casey from Brown
University were allowed to conduct a small excavation of Van Fortress
in Turkish Armenia. For 15 years he had been seeking permission from
the Turkish government to make the expedition. He told the press that
until 1937, "the savage tribes of Turkish Armenia, the Kurds, have not
been sufficiently pacified for the government to recommend the
trip." Details of the expedition were published in 1939.
In addition to the Lowell Lectures, which he delivered at the Lowell
King's Chapel in
Boston in 1913, Lake was the Haskell
Oberlin College in 1919; the Ingersoll Lecturer at Harvard
University in 1922; the Ichabod Spencer Lecturer at Union College,
Schenectady in 1923; and Flexner Lecturer at
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College in
1932. Lake served as president of the Society of Biblical
Literature for two terms, 1941–42. He was elected a member of
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a corresponding member of
the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, and in 1941 honorary
fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. At Harvard, he was made an
adopted member of the class of 1894. He received the honorary degrees
D.D. from the
University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews (1911),
Th.D. from Leiden
Litt.D. from the
University of Michigan
University of Michigan (1926), and
Heidelberg University (1936). Also in 1936 he was
awarded the Burkitt Medal for Biblical Studies from the British
Academy. Lake was a mason and one of the driving forces in
establishing The Harvard Lodge A.F. & A.M., the first academic
Masonic Lodge in the country, on 18 May 1922 and served as
chaplain. His recreations were golf, chess, and croquet. Lake
died of arteriosclerotic heart failure at his home in South Pasadena,
California on 10 November 1946. He was buried at Glen Haven Memorial
Park, San Fernando, California.
Agnes Kirsopp Lake Michels was a noted classical
scholar. In later years she reflected on the impact he had on her
life: "my general interests should be attributed mainly to the
influence of my father who was a New testament scholar with a
classical education and a passionate love of beauty. He told me the
stories of the classics and, long before I could understand them, read
to me a strange assortment of Browning and the Bible; Swinburne,
Tennyson, and Josephus. His attitude to his own work made me think of
scholarship as the opening to a world of adventure, not as a
retirement from reality." His grandson
Anthony Lake is a diplomat.
"Scrivener's Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament."
Classical Review 10 (1896): 263-65.
"The Text of the Gospels." Classical Review 10 (1896): 395-97. [review
of Burgon & Miller, The Traditional Text of the Gospels]
Didache 1, 2, and Acts 15, 20. 29." Classical Review 11
The Text of the New Testament, Oxford Church Text Books. London:
2nd ed., 1902; 4th ed., 1908; 6th ed. 1928, rev. Silva New.
"Some New Members of the 'Ferrar Group' of MSS of the Gospels."
Journal of Theological Studies 1 (1900): 117-20.
"The Text of Codex Ψ in St. Mark." Journal of Theological Studies 1
"On the Italian Origin of Codex Bezae." Journal of Theological Studies
1 (1900): 441-45.
"The Text of the Gospels in Alexandria." American Journal of Theology
6 (1902): 79-89.
"The Practical Value of Textual Variation illustrated from the Book of
Acts." The Biblical World 19 (1902): 361-69.
New Testament Textual Criticism." Journal of Theological
Studies 3 (1902): 295-304.
Codex 1 of the Gospels and Its Allies. Text and Studies 7. Cambridge:
University Press, 1902.
Review of Kenyon, Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New
Testament. The Biblical World 21 (1903): 229-31.
Texts from Mount Athos. Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica 5. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1903.
"Dr. Weiss's Text of the Gospels: The Thoughts of a Textual Critic on
the Text of an Exegete." American Journal of Theology 7 (1903):
"The Greek Monasteries in South Italy, I, II." Journal of Theological
Studies 4 (1903): 345-68, 517-42.
"The Greek Monasteries in South Italy, III, IV." Journal of
Theological Studies 5 (1904): 22-41, 189-202.
"Some Further Notes on the MSS of the Writings of St. Athanasius."
Journal of Theological Studies 5 (1904): 108-14.
The Influence of Textual Criticism on the Exegesis of the New
Testament: an Inaugural Lecture delivered before the University of
Leiden, on January 27, 1904. Oxford: Parker and Sons, 1904.
"The New Sayings of Jesus and the Synoptic Problem." Hibbert Journal 3
"The Curetonian Version of the Gospels." Hibbert Journal 3 (1904-5):
843-46. [review of Burkitt, Evangelion Da-Mepharreshe]
Review of Resch, Das Aposteldecret nach seiner Ausserkanonischen
Textgestalt. Review of Theology and Philosophy 1 (1905): 385-92.
Review of Meyer,Die Auferstehung Christi. Review of Theology and
Philosophy 1 (1905): 631-35.
"Didache." In Oxford Society of Historical Theology, eds., The New
Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, pp. 24-36. Oxford: Clarendon
Facsimiles of the Athos Fragments of Codex H of the Pauline Epistles,
photographed and deciphered by Kirsopp Lake. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
"Further Notes on the MSS of Isidore of Pelusium." Journal of
Theological Studies 6 (1905): 270-73.
"Tatian's Diatessaron and the Martyrdom of Abo." Expository Times 17
"The 'Ammonian' Harmony and the Text of B." Journal of Theological
Studies 7 (1906): 292-95.
"Galatians II. 3-5." The Expositor, 7th ser., 1 (1906): 236-45.
"Did Paul Use the Logia?" American Journal of Theology 10 (1906):
Facsimiles of the Athos Fragments of the Shepherd of Hermas. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1907).
The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. London:
Williams & Norgate, 1907.
Review of Harnack, Sprüche und Reden Jesu. Review of Theology and
Philosophy 3 (1907-8): 480-87.
Professor H. Von Soden's Treatment of the Text of the Gospels
(Edinburgh, 1908). Reprinted from Review of Theology and Philosophy 4
(1908-9): 201-17, 277-95.
The Early Days of Monasticism on Mount Athos. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
"The Date of Q." The Expositor, 7th ser. 7 (1909): 494-507.
"The Text of the Gospels." The Expositor 7th ser. 9 (1910): 457-71.
"The Early Christian Treatment of Sin After Baptism." The Expositor,
7th ser. 10 (1910): 63-80.
"The Earliest Christian Teaching on Divorce." The Expositor, 7th ser.
10 (1910): 416-27.
"The Shorter Form of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans." The Expositor,
7th ser. 10 (1910): 504-25.
"2 Thessalonians and Professor Harnack." Expository Times 22 (1910):
"Baptism (Early Christian)." In J. Hastings, ed., Encyclopaedia of
Religion and Ethics, Vol. 2, 379-390. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark,
1910. [also articles on Christmas and Epiphany
New Testament § 2.2 Text and Versions; and § 2.3
Textual Criticism.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911.
Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas and Christian Life in
Rome in the Second
Century." Harvard Theological Review 4 (1911): 25-46.
The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul: Their Motive and Origin. London:
"The Debt of the Clergy and Theologians to William James." Theologisch
Tijdschrift 44 (1911): 526-30.
"The Judaistic Controversy, and the Apostolic Council." Church
Quarterly Review 71 (1911): 345-70.
Codex Sinaiticvs Petropolitanvs: The New Testament, the Epistle of
Barnabas and the
Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas preserved in the Imperial Library
of St. Petersburg, now reproduced in facsimile from photographs by
Helen and Kirsopp Lake, with a description and introduction to the
history of the Codex by Kirsopp Lake. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1911.
"The Date of Herod's Marriage with Herodias and the Chronology of the
Gospels." The Expositor, 8th ser., 4 (1912): 462-77.
The Apostolic Fathers, ed. and trans. Kirsopp Lake, 2 vols. Loeb
Classical Library. London: Heinemann, 1912–13.
Vol. I. I-II Clement Ignatius Polycarp
Shepherd of Hermas
Shepherd of Hermas Martyrdom of Polycarp Epistle to
"The End of Paul's Trial in Rome." Theologisch Tijdschrift 47 (1913):
"Critical Problems of the Epistle to the Philippians." The Expositor,
8th ser., 7 (1914): 481-93.
Review of Kennedy, St. Paul and the Mystery-Religions. Harvard
Theological Review 7 (1914): 428-31.
The Stewardship of Faith: Our Heritage from Early Christianity. Lowell
Lectures 1913–14. New York: Putnam, 1915.
"The Theology of the Acts of the Apostles." American Journal of
Theology 19 (1915): 489-508.
"Acts of the Apostles; Acts (Apocryphal); Luke." in James Hastings et
al., eds., Dictionary of the Apostolic Church, vol. 1, pp. 15-29,
29-39, 718-22. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1916. [art. "Theophilus" in
Review of Montefiore, Judaism and St. Paul. Harvard Theological Review
9 (1916): 242-45.
"Simon Zelotes." Harvard Theological Review 10 (1917): 57-63.
"American, English, and Dutch Theological Education." Harvard
Theological Review 10 (1917): 336-51.
"The Sinaitic and Vatican Manuscripts and the Copies sent by Eusebius
to Constantine." Harvard Theological Review 11 (1918): 32-35.
"The Epistola Apostolorum." Harvard Theological Review 14 (1920):
"Simon, Cephas, Peter." Harvard Theological Review 14 (1920): 95-97.
Landmarks in the History of Early Christianity. London: Macmillan,
1920. American ed. 1922, different pagination.
Review of Lietzmann, Petrus und Paulus in Rom. American Historical
Review 25 (1920): 483-84.
The Beginnings of Christianity, Part I: The Acts of the Apostles, ed.
F. J. Foakes-Jackson
F. J. Foakes-Jackson and Kirsopp Lake, 5 vols. (London: Macmillan,
Vol I. Prolegomena I: The Jewish, Gentile and Christian backgrounds
Vol. II. Prolegomena II: Criticism (1922).
Vol. III. The text of Acts (1926), by J. H. Ropes.
Vol. IV. English translation and commentary (1933), by Kirsopp Lake
and H. J. Cadbury.
Vol. V. Additional notes to the commentary (1933), edited by Kirsopp
Lake and H. J. Cadbury.
"The Problem of Christian Origins." Harvard Theological Review 15
"The Text of the Gospels and the Koridethi Codex." [with Robert P.
Blake] Harvard Theological Review 16 (1922): 269-86.
Immortality and the Modern Mind. Ingersoll Lecture 1922. Cambridge,
Harvard University Press, 1922.
Codex Sinaiticvs Petropolitanvs et Friderico-Avgvstanvs lipsiensis:
The Old Testament preserved in the public library of Petrograd, in the
library of the Society of ancient literature in Petrograd, and in the
library of the University of Leipzig, now reproduced in facsimile from
photographs by Helen and Kirsopp Lake, with a description and
introduction to the history of the Codex by Kirsopp Lake. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1922.
"A Lost Manuscript of Eusebius's Demonstratio Evangelica Found."
Harvard Theological Review 16 (1923): 396-97.
"The Date of the Slavonic Enoch." Harvard Theological Review 16
"The Apostles' Creed." Harvard Theological Review 17 (1924): 173-83.
"Jesus." Hibbert Journal 23 (1924-5): 5-19.
The Religion of Yesterday and To-morrow. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
Review of Merrill, Essays in Early Christian History. American
Historical Review 30 (1925): 340-41.
"The Shepherd of Hermas." Harvard Theological Review 18 (1925):
"The Text of the De Virginitate of Athanasius." [with Robert P. Casey]
Harvard Theological Review 19 (1926): 173-90.
"The Text of the De Incarnatione of Athanasius." [with Robert P.
Casey] Harvard Theological Review 19 (1926): 259-70.
Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, trans. Kirsopp Lake, Vol. 1. Loeb
Classical Library. London: Heinemann, 1926.
"The Serabit Inscriptions. I. The Rediscovery of the Inscriptions."
[with Robert P. Blake] Harvard Theological Review 21 (1928): 1-8.
"The Caesarean text of the Gospel of Mark," [with
Robert P. Blake
Robert P. Blake and
Silva New] Harvard Theological Review 21 (1928): 207-404.
"The Text of the Gospels." in Shirley Jackson Case, ed., Studies in
Early Christianity, pp. 21–47. New York: The Century Co., 1928.
Six Collations of
New Testament Manuscripts [with Silva New] Harvard
Theological Studies 17. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1932.
"The Serabit Expedition of 1930. I. Introduction." Harvard Theological
Review 25 (1932): 95-100.
"The Text of Mark in Some Dated Lectionaries." [with Silva Lake] In H.
G. Wood, ed., Amicitiæ corolla: a volume of essays presented to James
Rendel Harris, D.Litt., on the occasion of his eightieth birthday,
pp. 147–83. London: University of London Press, 1933.
Paul: His Heritage and Legacy. The Mary Flexner Lectures on the
Humanities 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1934.
"The Acts of the Apostles." [with Silva Lake] Journal of Biblical
Literature 53 (1934): 34-45. [review of Albert C. Clark's ed. of Acts]
Dated Greek Minuscule Manuscripts to the Year 1200 [edited with Silva
Lake], 10 vols. Monumenta palaeographica vetera. 1st ser. Boston: The
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1934–45. [v. 1. Manuscripts
at Jerusalem, Patmos and Athens—v. 2. Manuscripts in Venice, Oxford
and London—v. 3. Manuscripts in the monasteries of
Mount Athos and
in Milan—v. 4. Manuscripts in Paris. Pt. 1 -- v. 5. Manuscripts in
Paris. Pt. 2, Oxford, Berlin, Vienna and Jerusalem—v. 6. Manuscripts
in Moscow and Leningrad—v. 7. Manuscripts in Rome. Part 1. -- v. 8.
Manuscripts in Rome. Pt. 2 -- v. 9. Manuscripts in Rome. Pt. 3, in
Messina, in Naples, and in London—v. 10. Manuscripts in Florence,
Athens, Grottaferrata and the Meteora—v.. Indices, volumes
"Some Recent Discoveries." [with Silva Lake] Religion in Life 5
Review of Goodenough, By Light, Light: The Mystic Gospel of
Hellenistic Judaism. Journal of Biblical Literature 55 (1936): 90-93.
An Introduction to the New Testament. [with Silva Lake] New York:
Harper & Brothers, 1937.
Review of Harrison, Polycarp's Two Epistles to the Philippians.
Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937): 72-75.
Review of Colwell & Willoughby, The Four Gospels of Karahissar.
Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937): 272-73.
"The Citadel of Van." [with Silva Lake] Asia: Journal of the American
Asiatic Association 39 (1939): 75-80.
"The Byzantine Text of the Gospels." [with Silva Lake] In Mémorial
Lagrange (Paris: J. Gabalda, 1940), pp. 251–258.
Review of Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. Journal of
Biblical Literature 60 (1941): 329-31.
Family 13 (The Ferrar Group): The text according to Mark with a
collation of Codex 28 of the Gospels. [with Silva Lake] Studies and
Documents 11. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941.
Review of Milne & Skeat, Scribes and Correctors of the Codex
Sinaiticus. Classical Philology 37 (1942): 91-96.
"The Scribe Ephraim." [with Silva Lake] Journal of Biblical Literature
62 (1943): 263-68.
"Albert Schweitzer's influence in Holland and England." In A. A.
Roback et al., eds., The Albert Schweitzer Jubilee Book (Cambridge,
MA: Sci-Art, 1945), pp. 427–439.
^ a b c d e Metzger, B. M. (1974). "Lake, Kirsopp." In J. A. Garraty
and E. T. James, eds., Dictionary of American Biography: Supplement
Four 1946–1950, pp. 467-69. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
^ a b c Grant, F. C., revised (2004). "Lake, Kirsopp." In H. C. G.
Matthew and B. Harrison, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography, 60 vols., 32:246. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ Gardiner, R. B., ed. (1906). The Admission Registers of St. Paul's
School from 1876 to 1905, p. 205. London: George Bell and Sons.
^ Holland, A. W., ed. (1904). The Oxford and Cambridge Yearbook, Pt.
I. Oxford, p. 355. London: Swan Sonnenschein.
^ a b c Who Was Who, 1941–1950, pp. 653-54. London: Adam &
^ a b c Lake, G. K. (1937). "Biographical Note." In R. P. Casey et
al., eds., Quantulacumque: Studies Presented to
Kirsopp Lake by
Pupils, Colleagues and Friends, pp. vii-viii. London: Christophers.
^ a b c Neill, S. (1964). The Interpretation of the New Testament
1861–1961, pp. 165-67. London: Oxford University Press.
^ a b c d Major, H. D. A. (1947). "In Memoriam Kirsopp Lake." The
Modern Churchman 36:302-5.
^ a b Harvard College Class of 1894: Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report
1894–1919, pp. 521, 584. Norwood, MA: Plimpton Press, 1919.
^ a b Linderski, J. (1997). "Agnes Kirsopp Michels and the Religio."
Classical Journal 92:324-25.
^ Whitehead, A. N. (1954, repr. 2001). Dialogues of Alfred North
Whitehead, pp. 171-72. Boston: David R. Godine.
^ "Notes of Recent Exposition." Expository Times 15 (1904): 289-95.
^ a b Elliott, J. K. (2007). "Lake, Kirsopp." In D. K. McKim, ed.,
Dictionary of Major Biblical Interpreters, 2nd ed., pp. 636-40.
Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
^ Harvard Alumni Bulletin 16 (1914): 462.
^ Baird, W. (2003). History of
New Testament Research, vol. 2, p. 410.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
^ a b Stephenson, A. M. G. (1984). The Rise and Decline of English
Modernism. The Hulsean Lectures 1979–80, pp. 99-128. London: SPCK.
^ Wendte, C. W. (1914). "The Conference of Liberal Churchmen." The
Christian Register 93:834.
^ New York Times, 19 November 1932.
^ The Harvard Crimson, 29 September 1932.
^ a b c The Harvard Crimson, 1 December 1937.
^ Adams, J. L. (1995). Not Without Dust and Heat: A Memoir, pp. 73-76.
Chicago: Exploration Press.
^ Science News Letter 27 (1935): 336.
^ Davis, M. C. (2008). Dame Kathleen Kenyon: Digging up the Holy Land,
pp. 56-59. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
^ "Proceedings, 1946." Journal of Biblical Literature 66 (1947): xvii.
^ Harvard Alumni Bulletin 24 (1922): 871.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
"Archival material relating to Kirsopp Lake". UK National
Papers written by Lake while on faculty at
Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School are
in the Andover-Harvard Theological Library at HDS in Cambridge,
Papers by Kirsopp and Silva Lake are in the Andover-Harvard
Theological Library at
Harvard Divinity School
Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge,
Papers from Lake's expedition to Lake Van, Turkey (1938-9) [MS 1037]
are in the Penn Museum Archives at the University of Pennsylvania in
Correspondence of Mildred Barnes and Robert Woods Bliss with Kirsopp
and Silva Lake (1933–41) is in Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and
Collection, Washington, D.C.
A short film produced by the Harvard Semitic Museum on Lake's
Serabit el-Khadim is available on YouTube.
Kirsopp Lake at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Kirsopp Lake at Internet Archive
Winn Professorship of Ecclesiastical History
Ephraim Emerton (1882–1918)
Kirsopp Lake (1919–1932)
George Huntston Williams (1956–1963)
Heiko Oberman (1964–1966)
Helmut Koester (1968–1998)
Karen Leigh King (2003–2009)
Kevin J. Madigan (2009– )
ISNI: 0000 0001 0883 7321
BNF: cb127316423 (data)