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Kirat Mundhum (also Kirati Mundhum), also called Kiratism or Kirantism or simply Mundhum, is the religion of the Nepali tribes: Limbu, Rai, Sunuwar
Sunuwar
and Yakkha peoples of Nepal, India, Myanmar
Myanmar
and now practiced in the UK, China, USA and many other countries.[1] The practice is also known as Kirat Veda,[2][3] Kirat-Ko Veda[4] or Kirat Ko Ved.[5] According to some scholars, such as Tom Woodhatch, it is a blend of animism (e.g., ancestor worshiping of Sumnima/Paruhang and Yuma Sammang/Tagera Ningwaphumang),[6] Saivism,[7] and Tibetan Buddhism.[7] It is practiced by about 3.1% of the Nepali population.[8] Before it was recognized as a religion on the Nepali census, 36% of the Kirati population claimed to follow the Kirat religion, but when it was recognized this figure increased to 73.9%, a 157% increase in the Nepali Kiratis.[1] The Limbu
Limbu
people have their own distinct form of Kirat Mundhum, known as Yuma Sammang or Yumaism; they venerate a supreme goddess called Tagera Ningwaphumang . In addition to ancestor worship, Kiranti people also worship Mother Nature.

Contents

1 Mundhum 2 Practices

2.1 Festivals

3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Mundhum[edit] Mundhum means the power of great strength.[9] Mundhum is the religious scripture and folk literature of the Kirat people of Nepal, central to Kirat Mundhum. All four Kirats (Limbu, Rai, Sunuwar
Sunuwar
and Yakkha) have slightly different Mundhum. Mundhum means "the power of great strength" in the Limbu
Limbu
language, Mewahang rai call it muddum, Yakka rai as mintum, Sunuwar
Sunuwar
as mukdum among Kulung rai as ridum and Chamling rai as dum.[10][11][12] The Mundhum covers many aspects of the Kirat culture, customs and traditions that existed before Vedic civilisation in South Asia.[13][14][15][16] The Mundhum for each tribe consists of customs, habits, rituals, traditions, and myths passed down from the Kirati tribe's ancestors. Mundhums serve, in a way, as customary laws which guide Kirats in their daily lives.[17] The Mundhum also distinguishes each Kiranti tribe from other Kirati and non-Kiratis as well.[17] Practices[edit] Kirats practice shamanism and their rituals are mostly related to the worship of mother nature, ancestors, sun, moon, wind, fire and main pillar of house. Almost all sacred rituals, in Rai, are performed by nakchong, the Rai tribal priest. Similarly Limbus have phɛdɑŋmɑ/bɑ, yɛbɑ/mɑ, sɑmbɑ/mɑ to perform rituals accordingly. Their supreme deity Tagera Ningwaphuma: tɑgɛrɑ niŋwɑphumɑ is personified as Yuma Sammang. Festivals[edit]

Kirat Rai celebrating the festival Sakela
Sakela
Osman

All four Kirats celebrate some similar and different festivals throughout the year. Some common festivals are Udhauli, Ubhauli and New year Yele Sambat (Maghe Saktanti). Sakela
Sakela
is the main festival of Khambu Kirat which is celebrated twice a year distinguished by two names Ubhauli and Udhauli. Sakela
Sakela
Ubhauli is celebrated during Baisakh Purnima
Baisakh Purnima
(full moon day, which lies in the month of Baisakh in calendars of the Indian Subcontinent.) and Sakela Udhauli is celebrated during the full moon day in the month of Mangh. The Limbu
Limbu
Kirat celebrate udhauli Chasok Tangnam
Chasok Tangnam
on the day of Mangsir Purnima and Ubhauli (Yokwa Tongnam)in the month of Baisakh. Other Kirats ( Yakkha and Sunuwars) also celebrate in their own way. Sakela celebration is the prayer to Goddess of Nature for good crops and protection from natural calamities. The celebration of Sakela
Sakela
is also known as Chandi
Chandi
Nach Murat. On Chandi
Chandi
Nach, they worship Durga, who is known to them as Chandi, or Chandika.[18] ( Worship
Worship
of Durga among the Himalayan Kiratas is arguably written in the Harivamsha Purana.[19]) Durga Puja is still performed by a few Kirants.[20] Tihar is another festival that was added first in the Veda. It is also known as Deepavali
Deepavali
and Lakshmi Puja.[20] See also[edit]

Nepal
Nepal
portal

Folk Hinduism Religion
Religion
in Nepal Buddhism
Buddhism
in Nepal Hinduism
Hinduism
in Nepal Demographics of Nepal Limbu
Limbu
language

References[edit]

^ a b final layout pdf.p65 ^ p. 56 Kiratese at a Glance By Gopal Man Tandukar ^ p. xxv A Grammar of Limbu
Limbu
By George van Driem ^ Problems of Modern Indian Literature by Statistical Pub. Society: distributor, K. P. Bagchi ^ p. 323 Kiratas in Ancient India
India
By G. P. Singh, Dhaneswar Kalita, V Sudarsen, M A Kalam ^ "History and Culture of the Kirat" by I.S.Chemjong ^ a b p. 535 Nepal
Nepal
By Tom Woodhatch ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2012-11-01.  ^ Schools as Zones of Peace in Nepal
Nepal
By Isabelle Duquesne LIT Verlag Münster, 12 Jan 2016 ^ Page 45 Contemporary Society: Concept of tribal society By S. N. Ratha, Georg Pfeffer, Deepak Kumar Behera, 1997 ^ P.6 European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, Issues 17-19 By Südasien Institut, 1999 ^ Hardman, Charlotte E. (December 2000). John Gledhill; Barbara Bender; Bruce Kapferer (eds.), eds. Other Worlds: Notions of Self and Emotion among the Lohorung Rai. Berg Publishers. pp. 104–. ISBN 978-1-85973-150-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Dor Bahadur Bista (1991). Fatalism and Development: Nepal's Struggle for Modernization. Orient Longman. pp. 15–17. ISBN 81-250-0188-3.  ^ Cemjoṅga, Īmāna Siṃha (2003). History and Culture of the Kirat People. Kirat Yakthung Chumlung. pp. 2–7. ISBN 99933-809-1-1.  ^ Cultures & people of Darjeeling ^ Gurung, Harka B. (2003). Trident and Thunderbolt: Cultural Dynamics in Nepalese Politics (PDF). Nepal: Social Science Baha. ISBN 99933-43-44-7. OCLC 57068666.  ^ a b p. 65 Culture, Creation, and Procreation By Monika Böck, Aparna Rao ^ p. 76 Kiratas in Ancient India
India
By G. P. Singh, Dhaneswar Kalita, V Sudarsen, M A Kalam ^ p. 195 Ancient Communities of the Himalaya By Dinesh Prasad Saklani ^ a b p. 108 Politics of Culture:A study of three Kirata communities in the Eastern Himalayas by T.B. Subba

External links[edit]

Mundhum Kirat Yakthung Chumlung Mundhum Translations Dances of the Kiranti Kiranti Limbus in Qatar

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