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Kinopanorama is a three-lens, three-film widescreen film format. Although Kinopanorama was initially known as Panorama (Russian: панорамный фильм, panoramnyy film) in the Soviet Union the name was later revised to include its current name prior to the premier screenings in Moscow
Moscow
in 1958. In some countries, including Cuba, Greece, Norway and Sweden, it was usually marketed as Soviet Cinerama. In 1958, during which time Great Is My Country and The Enchanted Mirror, were exhibited at the Mayfair Theatre in New York City, it was briefly advertised as Cinepanorama. Kinopanorama is for the most part identical in operation to that of Fred Waller's American-designed Cinerama
Cinerama
format.

Contents

1 Overview 2 Relaunch 3 Kinopanorama cinemas 4 See also 5 External links

Overview[edit] Kinopanorama was developed between 1956 and 1957 by research technicians at the USSR Cinema and Photo Research Institute (also known as NIKFI). The chief designer of the prototype camera was Evsei Mikhailovich Goldovskii (1903–1971), the eminent Soviet inventor and scientist. The mechanical design of the first camera, which was designated as model SKP-1, evolved from the comprehensive research into other patents, each of which cited the invention of devices for the filming—and projection—of 'mosaic images' (moving and still), lodged with the United States Patent Office
United States Patent Office
(dating from 1948 onwards) by, among others, Fred Waller and Richard C Babish of the Vitarama Corporation; Winton Hoch ASC; and, lastly, Paul Stanley Smith and George Wilber Moffitt, of the Smith-Dietrich Corporation), the co-inventors of Cinemiracle, a rival three-lens, three-film widescreen format. The Soviets accessed these patents without difficulty, as each was a matter of public record, available for sighting by prospective inventors and patent attorneys. The Soviets, on the other hand, did not publish or register their Kinopanorama camera with foreign patent offices. There are various, albeit minor, technical differences in the film perforations between Kinopanorama, which at the time of its invention was milled to accept the Kodak
Kodak
Standard (KS 1866) 'positive perforation' 4740 short-pitch camera negative stock, and those of the Cinerama
Cinerama
and Cinemiracle
Cinemiracle
cameras. Cinerama
Cinerama
and Cinemiracle
Cinemiracle
employ Bell and Howell (BH 1866) 'negative perforation' 4740 short-pitch and Dubray-Howell long-pitch 'negative perforation', respectively, for their modified Mitchell cameras. It is believed that the prototype Cinerama
Cinerama
camera number one, on display in the foyer of the National Media Museum in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK, was originally milled for Dubray-Howell negative perforations, although this has never been confirmed. The first Kinopanorama film, Vast is my Native Land, which in North America was titled Great Is My Country, was premiered on 28 February 1958, at the Mir Kino Theatre in Moscow. The event was profiled in the New York Times. The Enchanted Mirror, the second Kinopanorama film, received a special prize at the Brussels World's Fair known as Expo '58. Eight Kinopanorama travelogues were produced in the original three-lens format (plus an additional seven in single-negative Kinopanorama 70) until 1966. Opasniye Povoroty, the first dramatic film (released internationally in 1962) was produced with an improved Kinopanorama camera, known as the PSO-1960. This redesigned camera, of which six were manufactured, allowed for the use of interchangeable lens kits of focal lengths from 27 mm to 100 mm, inclusive. Relaunch[edit] The Kinopanorama three-lens process was re-launched in 1993 by Fifth Continent Movie Classics in Australia. John Steven Lasher, the former record label executive, secured the purchase of PSO-1960 camera number six, which was restored by NIKFI technicians to working order. A specifically designed logo was implemented and published in 1993 to distinguish the Kinopanorama films produced by Fifth Continent Movie Classics in Australia
Australia
from those produced and exhibited in the former Soviet Union. The logo was registered by the United States Patent and Trade Mark Office on 20 October 2015. A test film, known as Chastity, Truth and Kinopanorama – the title of which Mr Lasher noted at his pre-screening introduction at the March 1997 Bradford Widescreen
Widescreen
Festival at the National Media Museum is a deliberate pun on the title of Steven Soderbergh's Sex, Lies, and Videotape – was shot in Moscow
Moscow
before the camera and crew were flown to Sydney in November 1993. A short documentary film titled The Bounty (1995), which was filmed in December 1993, was also screened on 19 March 1995 at the Bradford Widescreen
Widescreen
Festival. The copyrights to these films were transferred to The Kinopanorama Widescreen Preservation Association, Inc. in January, 2014. In 1999, Fifth Continent and Vision 146 SARL produced a two-reel restoration of Opasniye Povoroty from the original Sovcolor camera negatives. The restoration was premiered in Dayton, Ohio, USA, at the New Neon Movies. It was screened at the Pacific Theatres Cinerama
Cinerama
Dome in Hollywood in October 2004, and most recently at the Bradford Widescreen
Widescreen
Festival on March 19, 2008. Further restoration of the remaining reels was cancelled by both companies due to high costs. In 2006, Fifth Continent converted the PSO-1960 camera to accept camera negative stock milled for the BH 4740 'negative perforation'. This is because film stock is no longer milled for KS 'positive perforation'. In 2007, a crystal-sync motor replaced the original 24-volt DC variable speed motor as well as the 240-volt 3-phase 50-hertz synch motor. Kinopanorama cinemas[edit] Seven cinemas designed (or renovated) for the exhibition of 3-film (and later 70mm) Kinopanorama were built in the former USSR from 1958 onwards. The Mir Kino Theatre, which opened in Moscow
Moscow
on 28 February 1958, was followed by others in Leningrad
Leningrad
and Kiev. A Kinopanorama cinema later opened in Paris, France. These cinemas employed equipment designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union. Presently, the National Media Museum, ArcLight's Cinerama
Cinerama
Dome and the Seattle
Seattle
Cinerama
Cinerama
in Seattle, Washington, are equipped to exhibit 3-film Kinopanorama. The Kinopanorama Widescreen
Widescreen
Preservation Association, Incorporated, was established in New South Wales, Australia
Australia
in January 2010. Presently, the society has applied for state and government funding, which is expected to cover operating costs, including the purchase of custom re-built equipment, so that a future volunteer-operated Kinopanorama cinema in the vicinity of Broken Hill
Broken Hill
may exhibit 3-panel films (including Kinopanorama, Cinemiracle
Cinemiracle
and Cinerama) in the future. See also[edit]

List of film formats

External links[edit]

The Bounty (1995) Chastity, Truth and Kinopanorama The Kinopanorama Widescreen
Widescreen
Preservation Association website

v t e

Motion picture film formats

Film gauges

8 mm 9.5 mm 16 mm 17.5 mm 28 mm 35 mm 70 mm

Film formats

35 mm

CinemaScope (1953) VistaVision (1954) Modern anamorphic (1957) Techniscope (1960) Super 35 (1982)

70 mm

Todd-AO (1955) Super Panavision 70 (1959) Technirama (1955) IMAX (1970)

35 mm × 3

Cinerama (1952) Kinopanorama (1958) Cinemiracle (1958)

Aspect ratio standards

Academy ratio 14:9 Anamorphic format

Video framing issues

Widescreen Anamorphic widescreen Letterbox Pan and scan
Pan and scan
(Fullscreen) Open matte Shoot and protect

v t e

Cinerama

Films

Three-panel

This Is Cinerama (1952) Cinerama
Cinerama
Holiday (1955) Seven Wonders of the World (1956) Search for Paradise (1957) South Seas Adventure (1958) Windjammer (1958) The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm (1962) Holiday in Spain (1962) How the West Was Won (1962) The Best of Cinerama (1963) Cinerama's Russian Adventure (1966)

70 mm

It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) Circus World (1964) Mediterranean Holiday (1964) The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) The Hallelujah Trail (1965) Battle of the Bulge (1965) Khartoum (1966) Grand Prix (1966) Custer of the West (1967) 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) Ice Station Zebra (1968) Krakatoa, East of Java (1969) Song of Norway (1970) The Great Waltz (1972)

Fisheye

To the Moon and Beyond (1964)

Venues

Present: Cinerama
Cinerama
Dome Pictureville Cinema Seattle
Seattle
Cinerama Former: Indian Hills Theater

People

Merian C. Cooper Hazard E. Reeves Lowell Thomas Mike Todd

Related

Cinemiracle Cinerama
Cinerama
Adventure Cinerama
Cinerama
Releasing Corporation Kinopanorama Multi-image Polyvision Super Panavision 70 Ultra Panavision 70 Todd-AO
Todd-AO
process Waller Gun

.