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The Kings of Judah
Kings of Judah
were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah. According to the biblical account, this kingdom was founded after the death of Saul, when the tribe of Judah elevated David
David
to rule over it. After seven years, David
David
became king of a reunited Kingdom of Israel. However, in about 930 BCE the united kingdom split, with ten of the twelve Tribes of Israel
Tribes of Israel
rejecting Solomon's son Rehoboam
Rehoboam
as their king. The tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to Rehoboam, and re-formed the Kingdom of Judah, while the other entity continued to be called the Kingdom of Israel, or just Israel. The capital of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
was Jerusalem. All of the kings of Judah lived and died in Judah except for Ahaziah (who died at Megiddo in Israel), Jehoahaz (who died a prisoner in Egypt) and Jeconiah
Jeconiah
and Zedekiah
Zedekiah
who were deported as part of the Babylonian captivity. Judah was conquered in 587 or 586 BC,[1] by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuzaradan, captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard.[2] With the deportation of the elite[3] and the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple, the demise of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
was complete. The Davidic dynasty began when the tribe of Judah made David
David
its king, following the death of Saul. The Davidic line
Davidic line
continued when David became king of the reunited Kingdom of Israel. When the united kingdom split, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to the Davidic line. Following the exile of Judah, the Davidic line
Davidic line
was respected by the exiles in Babylon, who regarded the exilarchs as kings-in-exile. More complete biographies of the Kings of Judah
Kings of Judah
than that of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
were written by Iddo the Seer and in the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah, both of which are mentioned in the Bible. However, both of these works have been lost.

Contents

1 List of Kings

1.1 House of David

2 Chronology

2.1 Co-regency 2.2 Synchronism to fall of Judah 2.3 Synchronism to Gregorian dating

3 Coronation
Coronation
ritual 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

List of Kings[edit] Most modern historians follow either the older chronologies established by William F. Albright
William F. Albright
or Edwin R. Thiele,[4] or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen,[5] all of which are shown below. All dates are BCE.

Common/Biblical name Albright Thiele Galil Kitchen Regnal Name and style Notes

House of David[edit]

David Reigned over Judah for 7 years in Hebron, then Israel & Judah in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for 33 years; 40 years in total. 1000–962   1010–970 1010–970 דוד בן-ישי מלך ישראל David
David
ben Yishai, Melekh Yisra’el Death: natural causes

Solomon Reigned over Israel & Judah in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for 40 years. 962–922   970–931 971–931 שלמה בן-דוד מלך ישראל Shelomoh ben David, Melekh Yisra’el Death: natural causes Son of David
David
by Bathsheba, his rights of succession were disputed by his older half-brother Adonijah

Rehoboam Reigned for 17 years. 922–915 931–913 931–914 931–915 רחבעם בן-שלמה מלך יהודה Rehav’am ben Shlomoh, Melekh Yehudah Death: natural causes

Abijah Reigned for 3 years. 915–913 913–911 914–911 915–912 אבים בן-רחבעם מלך יהודה ’Aviyam ben Rehav’am, Melekh Yehudah Death: natural causes

Asa Reigned for 41 years. 913–873 911–870 911–870 912–871 אסא בן-אבים מלך יהודה ’Asa ben ’Aviyam, Melekh Yehudah Death: severe foot disease

Jehoshaphat Reigned for 25 years. 873–849 870–848 870–845 871–849 יהושפט בן-אסא מלך יהודה Yehoshafat ben ’Asa, Melekh Yahudah Death: natural causes

Jehoram Reigned for 8 years. 849–842 848–841 851–843 849–842 יהורם בן-יהושפט מלך יהודה Yehoram ben Yehoshafat, Melekh Yahudah Death: severe stomach disease

Ahaziah Reigned for 1 year. 842–842 841–841 843–842 842–841 אחזיהו בן-יהורם מלך יהודה ’Ahazyahu ben Yehoram, Melekh Yehudah Death: killed by Jehu, who usurped the throne of Israel

Athaliah (Queen) Reigned for 6 years. 842–837 841–835 842–835 841–835 עתליה בת-עמרי מלכת יהודה ‘Atalyah bat ‘Omri, Malkat Yehudah Death: killed by the troops assigned by Jehoiada the Priest to protect Joash. Queen Mother, widow of Jehoram and mother of Ahaziah

Jehoash (Joash) Reigned for 40 years. 837–800 835–796 842–802 841–796 יהואש בן-אחזיהו מלך יהודה Yehoash ben ’Ahazyahu, Melekh Yehudah Death: killed by his officials namely: Zabad, son of Shimeath, an Ammonite Woman, and Jehozabad, son of Shimrith, a Moabite Woman.

Amaziah Reigned for 29 years. 800–783 796–767 805–776 796–776 אמציה בן-יהואש מלך יהודה ’Amatzyah ben Yehoash, Melekh Yehudah Death: killed in Lachish by the men sent by his officials who conspired against him.

Uzziah (Azariah) Reigned for 52 years. 783–742 767–740 788–736 776–736 עזיה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה ‘Uziyah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah עזריה בן-אמציה מלך יהודה ‘Azaryah ben ’Amatzyah, Melekh Yehudah Death: Tzaraath George Syncellus wrote that the First Olympiad
Olympiad
took place in Uzziah's 48th regnal year.

Jotham Reigned for 16 years. 742–735 740–732 758–742 750–735/30 יותם בן-עזיה מלך יהודה Yotam ben ‘Uziyah, Melekh Yehudah Death: natural causes

Ahaz Reigned for 16 years. 735–715 732–716 742–726 735/31–715 אחז בן-יותם מלך יהודה ’ Ahaz
Ahaz
ben Yotam, Melekh Yehudah Death: natural causes The Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
records he received tribute from Ahaz; compare 2 Kings 16:7-9

Hezekiah Reigned for 29 years. 715–687 716–687 726–697 715–687 חזקיה בן-אחז מלך יהודה Hizqiyah ben ’Ahaz, Melekh Yehudah Death: Natural Causes Contemporary with Sennacherib
Sennacherib
of Assyria
Assyria
and Merodach-Baladan of Babylon.

Manasseh Reigned for 55 years. 687–642 687–643 697–642 687–642 מנשה בן-חזקיה מלך יהודה Menasheh ben Hizqiyah, Melekh Yehudah Death: natural causes Mentioned in Assyrian records as a contemporary of Esarhaddon

Amon Reigned for 2 years. 642–640 643–641 642–640 642–640 אמון בן-מנשה מלך יהודה ’Amon ben Menasheh, Melekh Yehudah Death: killed by his officials, who were killed later on by the people of Judah.

Josiah Reigned for 31 years. 640–609 641–609 640–609 640–609 יאשיהו בן-אמון מלך יהודה Yo’shiyahu ben ’Amon, Melekh Yehudah Death: shot by archers during the battle against Neco of Egypt. He died upon his arrival on Jerusalem.

Jehoahaz Reigned for 3 months. 609 609 609 609 יהואחז בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה Yeho’ahaz ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah Death: Neco, king of Egypt, dethroned him and was replaced by his brother, Eliakim. Carried off to Egypt, where he died.

Jehoiakim Reigned for 11 years. 609–598 609–598 609–598 609–598 יהויקים בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה Yehoyaqim ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah Death: Natural Causes The Battle of Carchemish occurred in the fourth year of his reign (Jeremiah 46:2)

Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) Reigned for 3 months & 10 days. 598 598 598–597 598–597 יהויכין בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה Yehoyakhin ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah יכניהו בן-יהויקים מלך יהודה Yekhonyahu ben Yehoyaqim, Melekh Yehudah Death: King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon sent for him and brought him to Babylon, where he lived and died. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured by the Babylonians and Jehoiachin
Jehoiachin
deposed on 16 March, 597 BCE. Called Jeconiah
Jeconiah
in Jeremiah and Esther

Zedekiah Reigned for 11 years. 597–587 597–586 597–586 597–586 צדקיהו בן-יאשיהו מלך יהודה Tzidqiyahu ben Yo’shiyahu, Melekh Yehudah Death: In prison.[6] His reign saw the second rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar (588–586 BC). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured after a lengthy siege, the temple burnt, Zedekiah
Zedekiah
blinded and taken into exile, and Judah reduced to a province.

A footnote in the Amplified Bible
Amplified Bible
regarding Jeremiah 36:3 disputes that King Jehoiakim
Jehoiakim
died of natural causes, asserting that the king rebelled against Babylon several years after these events (II Kings 24:1) and was attacked by numerous bands from various nations subject to Babylon (II Kings 24:2), concluding that he came to a violent death and a disgraceful burial as foretold by Jeremiah (Jer. 22:13–19). Chronology[edit]

The breakup of the united Kingdom of Solomon

There has been considerable academic debate about the actual dates of reigns of the Judahite kings. Scholars have endeavored to synchronize the chronology of events referred to in the Bible with those derived from other external sources. These scholarly disagreements are reflected in the table above, which contains scholarly attempts to date the reigns of Judahite monarchs in terms of the Gregorian calendar. Biblical scholars have noted the apparent inconsistencies in the chronology of the kings of Judah and Israel based on the biblical sources. Some have also pointed out the difficulties of cross-synchronising that dating with those of the other cultures of the area. Some have attempted to give as much historical weight as possible to the biblical sources, while others discount their reliability as historic sources, some even denying any historical value to the biblical sources at all.[citation needed] Using the information in Kings and Chronicles, Edwin Thiele calculated the dates of the reigns of the kings of Judah from the division of the kingdom, which he calculates to have been in 931–930 BCE. Thiele noticed that for the first seven kings of Israel (ignoring Zimri's seven-day reign), the synchronisms to Judean kings fell progressively behind by one year for each king. Thiele saw this as evidence that the northern kingdom was measuring the years by a non-accession system (first partial year of reign was counted as year one), whereas the southern kingdom was using the accession method (it was counted as year zero). He also concluded that the calendars for reckoning the years of kings in Judah and Israel were offset by six months, that of Judah starting in Tishri
Tishri
(in the fall) and that of Israel in Nisan (in the spring). This is the conclusion from cross-synchronizations between the two kingdoms which often allows the narrowing of the beginning and/or ending dates of a king within a six-month period, identifying the difference as due to the calendar starting date. Once these were understood, the various reign lengths and cross-synchronisms for these kings was determined, and the sum of reigns for both kingdoms produced 931/930 BCE for the division of the kingdom when working backwards from the Battle of Qarqar
Battle of Qarqar
in 853 BC. Thiele showed that for the reign of Jehoram, Judah adopted Israel's non-accession method of counting the years of reign, meaning that the first partial year of the king's reign was counted as his first full year, in contrast to the "accession" method previously in use, whereby the first partial year was counted as year "zero", and "year one" was assigned to the first full year of reign. Thiele attributed this change to the rapprochement between Judah and Israel, whereby Jehoshaphat, Jehoram's father, united with Ahab
Ahab
at the battle of Ramoth-Gilead, and chose a daughter for his son from the house of Ahab (1 Kings 22:1-38, 2 Kings 8:18).[7] This convention was followed in Judah for the next three monarchs: Ahaziah, Athaliah, and Jehoash, returning to Judah's original accession reckoning in the time of Amaziah. These changes can be inferred by comparison of the textual data in the Bible; however, the biblical texts do not explicitly state whether the reckoning was by accession or non-accession counting, nor do they indicate explicitly when a change was made in the method. Thiele's reckoning has been criticized as arbitrary in its assignment of accession and non-accession dating systems. The official records of Tiglath-Pileser III
Tiglath-Pileser III
show that he switched (arbitrarily) to non-accession reckoning for his reign, in contrast with the accession method used for previous kings of Assyria.[8] Tiglath-Pileser left no record for modern historians to indicate which dating method he used, nor whether he was switching from the method used by his predecessors; this is instead determined by comparison of the relevant texts by Assyriologists, the same as Thiele did for the regnal data of Judah and Israel. Co-regency[edit] Additional potential confusion arises from periods of co-regency when a son's reign may begin prior to the end of his father's reign. In those situations, years of reign are specified in terms of both the father and of the son. At times, the period of co-regency is clearly indicated, while in others it must be inferred from the source material. As an example of the reasoning that finds inconsistencies in calculations when coregencies are a priori ruled out, 2 Kings 18:10 dates the fall of Samaria (the Northern Kingdom) to the 6th year of Hezekiah's reign. William F. Albright
William F. Albright
dated the fall of the Kingdom of Israel to 721 BC, whereas E. R. Thiele calculated the date as 723 BC.[9] If Abright's or Thiele's dating are correct, then Hezekiah's reign would begin in either 729 or 727 BCE. On the other hand, 18:13 states that Sennacherib
Sennacherib
invaded Judah in the 14th year of Hezekiah's reign. Assyrian records date this invasion to 701 BC, and Hezekiah's reign would therefore begin in 716/715 BC.[10] This dating would be confirmed by the account of Hezekiah's illness in chapter 20, which immediately follows Sennacherib's departure (2 Kings 20). This would date his illness to Hezekiah's 14th year, which is confirmed by Isaiah's statement (2 Kings 18:5) that he would live fifteen more years (29−15=14). These problems are all addressed by scholars who make reference to the ancient Near Eastern practice of coregency. Following the approach of Wellhausen, another set of calculations shows it is probable that Hezekiah
Hezekiah
did not ascend the throne before 722 BCE. By Albright's calculations, Jehu's initial year was 842 BC; and between it and Samaria's destruction the Books of Kings give the total number of the years the kings of Israel ruled as 143 7/12, while for the kings of Judah the number is 165. This discrepancy, amounting in the case of Judah to 45 years (165−120), has been accounted for in various ways; each of those positions must allow for Hezekiah's first six years to have fallen before 722 BCE. (However, Hezekiah beginning to reign before 722 BCE is consistent with a co-regency of Ahaz
Ahaz
and Hezekiah
Hezekiah
from 729 BC.) Nor is it clearly known how old Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was when called to the throne; although 2 Kings 18:2 states that he was twenty-five years of age, his father died at the age of thirty-six (2 Kings 16:2) and it is not likely that Ahaz
Ahaz
had a son at the age of eleven. Hezekiah's son Manasseh ascended the throne twenty-nine years later, at the age of twelve. This places his birth in the seventeenth year of his father's reign, suggesting Hezekiah's age as forty-two, if he was twenty-five at his ascension. It is more probable that Ahaz
Ahaz
was twenty-one or twenty-five when Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was born (suggesting an error in the text), and that the latter was thirty-two at the birth of his son and successor, Manasseh.[citation needed] Since Albright and Friedman, several scholars have explained these dating problems on the basis of a co-regency between Hezekiah
Hezekiah
and his father Ahaz
Ahaz
between 729 and 716/715 BCE. Assyriologists and Egyptologists recognize that co-regency was practiced in both Assyria and Egypt.[11][12] After noting that co-regencies were used sporadically in the northern kingdom (Israel), Nadav Na'aman writes,

In the kingdom of Judah, on the other hand, the nomination of a co-regent was the common procedure, beginning from David
David
who, before his death, elevated his son Solomon
Solomon
to the throne.... When taking into account the permanent nature of the co-regency in Judah from the time of Joash, one may dare to conclude that dating the co-regencies accurately is indeed the key for solving the problems of biblical chronology in the eighth century B.C."[13]

Among the numerous scholars who have recognized the co-regency between Ahaz
Ahaz
and Hezekiah
Hezekiah
are Kenneth Kitchen,[14] Leslie McFall[15] and Jack Finegan.[16] McFall, in his 1991 article, argues that if 729 BCE (that is, the Judean regnal year beginning in Tishri
Tishri
of 729) is taken as the start of the Ahaz/ Hezekiah
Hezekiah
co-regency, and 716/715 BCE as the date of the death of Ahaz, then all the extensive chronological data for Hezekiah
Hezekiah
and his contemporaries in the late eighth century BCE are in harmony. Further, McFall found that no textual emendations are required among the numerous dates, reign lengths, and synchronisms given in the Bible for this period.[17] In contrast, those who do not accept the Ancient Near Eastern principle of co-regencies require multiple emendations of the biblical text, and there is no general agreement on which texts should be emended, nor is there any consensus among these scholars on the resultant chronology for the eighth century BCE. This is in contrast with the general consensus among those who accept the biblical and near Eastern practice of co-regencies that Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was installed as co-regent with his father Ahaz
Ahaz
in 729 BC, and the synchronisms of 2 Kings 18 must be measured from that date, whereas the synchronisms with Sennacherib
Sennacherib
are measured from the sole reign starting in 716/715 BCE. The two synchronisms to Hoshea
Hoshea
of Israel in 2 Kings 18 are then in agreement with the dates of Hoshea's reign that can be determined from Assyrian sources, as is the date of Samaria's fall as stated in 2 Kings 18:10. An analogous situation of two ways of measurement, both equally valid, is encountered in the dates given for Jehoram of Israel, whose first year is synchronized to the 18th year of the sole reign of Jehoshaphat
Jehoshaphat
of Judah in 2 Kings 3:1 (853/852 BC), but his reign is also reckoned according to another method as starting in the second year of the coregency of Jehoshaphat
Jehoshaphat
and his son Jehoram of Judah
Jehoram of Judah
(2 Kings 1:17); both methods refer to the same calendar year. Scholars who accept the principle of co-regencies note that abundant evidence for their use is found in the biblical material itself.[18] The agreement of scholarship built on these principles with both biblical and secular texts was such that the Thiele/McFall chronology was accepted as the best chronology for the kingdom period in Jack Finegan's encyclopedic Handbook of Biblical Chronology.[19] Synchronism to fall of Judah[edit] The Babylonian Chronicles
Babylonian Chronicles
give 2 Adar (16 March), 597 BC, as the date that Nebuchadnezzar first captured Jerusalem, thus putting an end to the reign of Jehoaichin.[20] Zedekiah's installation as king by Nebuchadnezzar can thus be dated to the early spring of 597 BC. Historically, there has been considerable controversy over the date when Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured the second time and Zedekiah's reign came to an end. There is no dispute about the month, the summer month of Tammuz (Jeremiah 52:6). However, regarding the year, Albright preferred 587 BCE and Thiele advocated 586 BC, and this division among scholars has persisted until the present time. If Zedekiah's years are by accession counting, whereby the year he came to the throne was considered his "zero" year and his first full regnal year, 597/596, was counted as year one, Zedekiah's eleventh year, the year the city fell, would be 587/586. Since Judean regnal years were measured from Tishri
Tishri
in the fall, this would place the end of his reign and the capture of the city in the summer of 586 BCE. Accession counting was the rule for most, but not all, of the kings of Judah, whereas "non-accession" counting was the rule for most, but not all, of the kings of Israel.[4][21] The publication of the Babylonian Chronicles
Babylonian Chronicles
in 1956, however, gave evidence that the years of Zedekiah
Zedekiah
were measured in a non-accession sense. This reckoning makes 598/597 BC, the year Zedekiah
Zedekiah
was installed by Nebuchadnezzar according to Judah's Tishri-based calendar, to be year "one", so that the fall of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in his eleventh year would have been 588/587 BC, i.e. in the summer of 587 BCE. The Bablyonian Chronicles fairly precisely date the capture of Jehoiachin
Jehoiachin
and the start of Zedekiah's reign, and they also give the accession year of Nebuchadnezzar's successor Amel-Marduk (Evil Merodach) as 562/561 BC, which was the 37th year of Jehoiachin's captivity according to 2 Kings 25:27. These Babylonian records related to Jehoiachin's reign are consistent with the fall of the city in 587 but not in 586, vindicating Albright's reckoning. Synchronism to Gregorian dating[edit] Further potential confusion arises from the convention of dating reigns of the Israelite kings in reference to the Gregorian calendar. Years in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
commence on 1 January, whereas year numbers for dating biblical events start on 1 Tishri
Tishri
of the Hebrew calendar, with an unfixed starting point during September–October on the Gregorian calendar. Accordingly, an event which takes place after 1 Tishri, for example, in November and December on the Gregorian calendar, would fall in the following year in the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
used for biblical dating. Coronation
Coronation
ritual[edit] A detailed account of a coronation in ancient Judah is found in 2 Kings 11:12 and 2 Chronicles 23:11, in which the seven-year-old Jehoash is crowned in a coup against the usurper Athaliah. This ceremony took place in the doorway of the Temple in Jerusalem. The king was led to "his pillar", where a crown was placed upon his head, and "the testimony" given to him, after which he was anointed at the hands of the high priest and his sons. Afterwards, the people "clapped their hands" and shouted "God save the King" as trumpets blew, music played, and singers offered hymns of praise. These elements were adopted in various forms into European coronation rituals after their conversion to Christianity
Christianity
many centuries later.[citation needed] Christian coronation rites continue to borrow from this example.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Book: Kings of Judah

Chronicles of the Kings of Judah Chronology of the Bible History of ancient Israel and Judah Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) Kingdom of Judah Kings of Israel and Judah

References[edit]

^ Hans M. Barstad (2008). History and the Hebrew Bible: Studies in Ancient Israelite and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography. Mohr Siebeck. p. 90. ISBN 978-3-16-149809-1.  ^ 2 Kings 25:8-21 ^ As to the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
deporting a minority of the Judahite population, see: Klaus-Peter Adam; Mark Leuchter (2010). Klaus-Peter Adam; Mark Leuchter, eds. "Preface", Soundings in Kings: Perspectives and Methods in Contemporary Scholarship. Fortress Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-1-4514-1263-5.  ^ a b Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257 ^ On the Reliability of the Old Testament (2003) by Kenneth Kitchen. Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-4960-1. ^ Jeremiah 52:11 ^ Thiele, Mysterious Numbers, 58. ^ Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria
Assyria
(Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994) 232, n.3. ^ Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) pp. 134, 217. ^ Leslie McFall, “A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles,” Bibliotheca Sacra 148 (1991) p. 33. (Link)[dead link] ^ William J. Murnane, Ancient Egyptian Coregencies (Chicago: The Oriental Institute, 1977). ^ J. D. Douglas, ed., New Bible Dictionary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1965) p. 1160. ^ Nadav Na'aman, "Historical and Chronological Notes on the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah in the Eighth Century B.C." Vetus Testamentum
Vetus Testamentum
36 (1986) p. 91. ^ See Kitchen's chronology in New Bible Dictionary p. 220. ^ Leslie McFall, "Translation Guide" p.42. ^ Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology (rev. ed.; Peabody MA: Hendrickson, 1998) p. 246. ^ Leslie McFall, "Translation Guide" pp. 4-45 (Link).[dead link] ^ Thiele, Mysterious Numbers chapter 3, "Coregencies and Rival Reigns." ^ Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology p. 246. ^ D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings in the British Museum (London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1956) 73. ^ Leslie McFall, “A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles,” Bibliotheca Sacra 148 (1991) 45.[1]

External links[edit]

The Jewish History Resource Center Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Complete Bible Genealogy A synchronized chart of the kings of Judah and Israel Ancient Jewish History: The Kings of Israel The Jewish Virtual Library provides a chart of the Kings of Judah
Kings of Judah
and Israel, with academic dates

v t e

Rulers of Israel and Judah

Davidic line Kings of Israel and Judah

Kings of Judah

Hasmonean and Herodian rulers

Tribes of Israel

The Twelve Spies Abimelech

United monarchy

Saul Ish-bosheth David Solomon

Israel (northern kingdom)

Jeroboam
Jeroboam
I Nadab Baasha Elah Zimri Tibni Omri Ahab Ahaziah Jehoram Jehu Jehoahaz Jehoash Jeroboam
Jeroboam
II Zechariah Shallum Menahem Pekahiah Pekah Hoshea

Judah (southern kingdom)

Rehoboam Abijam Asa Jehoshaphat Jehoram Ahaziah Athaliah Jehoash Amaziah Uzziah Jotham Ahaz Hezekiah Manasseh Amon Josiah Jehoahaz Jehoiakim Jeconiah Zedekiah

Hasmonean dynasty

Simon Thassi John Hyrcanus Aristobulus I Alexander Jannaeus Salome Alexandra Hyrcanus II Aristobulus II Antigonus II Mattathias

Herodian dynasty

Herod the Great Archelaus Antipas Philip the Tetrarch Salome I Agrippa Herod of Chalcis Agrippa II

Bar Kokhba revolt

Simon bar Kokhba

See also

List of Jewish leaders in the Land of Israel

Italics indicate a disputed reign

.