HOME
The Info List - Kingdom Of Spain



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4

Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish )

Flag Coat of arms

MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond"

ANTHEM: " Marcha Real
Marcha Real
" (Spanish ) "Royal March"

Location of Spain
Spain
(dark green)

– in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green)

Capital and largest city Madrid
Madrid
40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700

Official language and national language Spanish

Co-official languages in bilingual autonomus communities Catalan Galician Basque Occitan

ETHNIC GROUPS (2015)

* 89.9% Spanish , * 10.1% others

RELIGION

* 68% Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
* 27% Irreligious * 2% other religion

DEMONYM

* Spanish * Spaniard

GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

• MONARCH Felipe VI
Felipe VI

• PRIME MINISTER Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy

• DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER Soraya Saénz

• PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE Pío García-Escudero

• PRESIDENT OF THE CONGRESS OF DEPUTIES Ana Pastor Julián
Ana Pastor Julián

• PRESIDENT OF THE SUPREME COURT Carlos Lesmes Serrano

LEGISLATURE Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales

• UPPER HOUSE Senate

• LOWER HOUSE Congress of Deputies

FORMATION

• DYNASTIC 20 January 1479

• DE FACTO 23 January 1516

• DE JURE 9 June 1715

• FIRST CONSTITUTION 19 March 1812

• CURRENT DEMOCRACY 29 December 1978

• EEC ACCESSION 1 January 1986

AREA

• TOTAL 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi) (51st )

• WATER (%) 1.04

POPULATION

• 2016 CENSUS 46,468,102 (30th )

• DENSITY 92/km2 (238.3/sq mi) (112nd )

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $1.769 trillion (16th )

• PER CAPITA $38,239 (31st )

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $1.232 trillion (12nd )

• PER CAPITA $26,643 (30th )

GINI (2016) 34.5 medium

HDI (2015) 0.884 very high · 27th

CURRENCY Euro
Euro
(€ ) (EUR )

TIME ZONE CET (UTC +1) WET (UTC )

• SUMMER (DST ) CEST (UTC +2) WEST (UTC +1)

Note: Spain
Spain
observes CET/CEST, except the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
which observe WET/WEST

DATE FORMAT dd/mm/yyyy (CE )

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +34

ISO 3166 CODE ES

INTERNET TLD .es

SPAIN (Spanish: España ( listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF SPAIN (Spanish: Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe
Europe
, with two large archipelagoes , the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
off the North African Atlantic coast, two cities, Ceuta and Melilla
Melilla
, in the North African mainland and several small islands in the Alboran Sea
Alboran Sea
near the Moroccan coast. The country\'s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar
Gibraltar
; to the north and northeast by France
France
, Andorra
Andorra
, and the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
; and to the west and northwest by Portugal
Portugal
and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the only European country to have a border with an African country ( Morocco
Morocco
) and its African territory accounts for nearly 5% of its population, mostly in the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
but also in Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla.

With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain
Spain
is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe
Europe
and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent . By population, Spain
Spain
is the sixth largest in Europe
Europe
and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid
Madrid
; other major urban areas include Barcelona
Barcelona
, Valencia
Valencia
, Seville
Seville
, Bilbao
Bilbao
and Málaga
Málaga
.

Modern humans
Modern humans
first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician
Phoenician
, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania
Hispania
, based on the earlier Phoenician
Phoenician
name Span or Spania. In the early Middle Ages, the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
was granted to the Visigoths
Visigoths
by Rome under the condition that the other germanic tribes would be exiled. Then after the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
fell the Visigoths
Visigoths
forged their own kingdom. After the Visigothic kingdom
Visigothic kingdom
fell, the Iberian Peninsula was taken by the Moors
Moors
except in the north where shortly after started a process known as Reconquista
Reconquista
. Spain
Spain
emerged as a unified country in the 15th century under the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
, who completed the eight centuries-long Reconquista
Reconquista
in 1492. In the early modern period, Spain
Spain
became one of history's first global empires , leaving a vast cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 500 million Spanish speakers
Spanish speakers
, making Spanish the world's second most spoken first language , after Mandarin Chinese.

Spain
Spain
is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy headed by King Felipe VI
Felipe VI
, who ascended in 2013. It is a middle power and a major developed country with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity . It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone
Eurozone
, the Council of Europe
Europe
(CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) , the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Schengen Area
Schengen Area
, the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) and many other international organisations. Spain
Spain
has a "permanent invitation" to the G20 summits that occur generally once a year.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples * 2.2 Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Gothic Kingdom * 2.3 Middle Ages: Muslim
Muslim
era and Reconquista
Reconquista
* 2.4 Imperial Spain
Spain
* 2.5 Liberalism, Labour movement and nation state * 2.6 Spanish Civil War, Francoism era * 2.7 Restoration of democracy

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Islands * 3.2 Mountains and rivers * 3.3 Climate * 3.4 Fauna
Fauna
and flora

* 4 Politics

* 4.1 Government * 4.2 Human rights

* 4.3 Administrative divisions

* 4.3.1 Autonomous communities * 4.3.2 Provinces and municipalities

* 4.4 Foreign relations * 4.5 Military

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Agriculture * 5.2 Tourism * 5.3 Energy * 5.4 Transport * 5.5 Science and technology * 5.6 Water supply
Water supply
and sanitation

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Urbanisation * 6.2 Peoples * 6.3 Minority groups * 6.4 Immigration * 6.5 Languages * 6.6 Education * 6.7 Health * 6.8 Religion

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 World Heritage Sites * 7.2 Literature * 7.3 Art * 7.4 Sculpture * 7.5 Cinema * 7.6 Architecture * 7.7 Music and dance * 7.8 Cuisine * 7.9 Sport * 7.10 Public holidays and festivals

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origins of the Roman name Hispania
Hispania
, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic - Phoenician
Phoenician
one. Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: Lady of Elche
Lady of Elche

The Renaissance
Renaissance
scholar Antonio de Nebrija
Antonio de Nebrija
proposed that the word Hispania
Hispania
evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis
Hispalis
, meaning "city of the western world".

Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician
Phoenician
word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". It may be a derivation of the Phoenician
Phoenician
I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian
Hadrian
show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet, and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits".

Hispania
Hispania
may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy
Italy
as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek ) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.

There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.

Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel
Isaac Abravanel
and Solomon ibn Verga , gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews
Jews
to reach Spain
Spain
were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain
Spain
by c. 350 BCE.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Spain
History of Spain
Reproduction of Altamira Cave paintings, in Cantabria
Cantabria

Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians
Iberians
, Basques
Basques
and Celts
Celts
. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians
Phoenicians
who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cadiz and Malaga
Malaga
. Phoenician
Phoenician
influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire
Carthaginian Empire
, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
against the expanding Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. After an arduous conquest , the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule. During the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish
Moorish
invaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Moorish
Moorish
kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain
Spain
become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.

Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain
Spain
led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain
Spain
joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalized world with economic and ecological challenges.

PREHISTORY AND PRE-ROMAN PEOPLES

Main article: Prehistoric Iberia
Prehistoric Iberia
Pre-Roman map of The Iberian Peninsula Celtic castro in Galicia

Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago. In Atapuerca fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins in Europe, the Homo antecessor . Modern humans
Modern humans
first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago. The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria
Cantabria
in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by Cro-Magnon
Cro-Magnon
. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe
Europe
was repopulated following the end of the last ice age .

The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
before the Roman conquest were the Iberians
Iberians
and the Celts
Celts
. The Iberians
Iberians
inhabited the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts
Celts
inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques
Basques
occupied the western area of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
and Vettones
Vettones
occupied areas in the central west. A number of cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians
Phoenicians
, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks
Greeks
in the East. Eventually, Phoenician- Carthaginians
Carthaginians
expanded inland towards the meseta, however due to the bellicose inland tribes the Carthaginians
Carthaginians
got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.

ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE GOTHIC KINGDOM

Main articles: Hispania
Hispania
and Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
Roman Theatre , Mérida Toledo , capital of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom

During the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic
Roman Republic
captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road
Roman road
.

The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania
Hispania
they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class. Hispania
Hispania
served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold, wool , olive oil , and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Hadrian
Hadrian
, Trajan
Trajan
, Theodosius I
Theodosius I
, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. Christianity was introduced into Hispania
Hispania
in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD. Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period. Reccared I
Reccared I
and bishops. Council III of Toledo , 589. Codex Vigilanus
Codex Vigilanus
, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial .

The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi
Suebi
and Vandals
Vandals
, together with the Sarmatian
Sarmatian
Alans
Alans
entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes who had crossed the Rhine
Rhine
in early 407 and ravaged Gaul
Gaul
. The Suebi
Suebi
established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal
Portugal
whereas the Vandals
Vandals
established themselves in southern Spain
Spain
by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.

The Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania
Spania
, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania
Hispania
was reunited under Visigothic rule .

The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza
Braulio of Zaragoza
and Isidore of Seville
Seville
played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture . Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo
Councils of Toledo
. This Gothic kingdom was the first independent Christian kingdom ruling in the Iberian Peninsula , and in the Reconquista
Reconquista
it was the referent for the different kingdoms fighting against the Muslim
Muslim
rule. Isidore created the first western encyclopaedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages.

MIDDLE AGES: MUSLIM ERA AND RECONQUISTA

Main articles: Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and Reconquista
Reconquista
The death of the Frankish leader Roland
Roland
defeated by a Basque and Muslim
Muslim
- Muladi
Muladi
(Banu Qasi ) alliance at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778) originated the Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
led by Íñigo Arista .

In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish
Moorish
Muslim
Muslim
armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.

Under Islamic law , Christians and Jews
Jews
were given the subordinate status of dhimmi . This status permitted Christians and Jews
Jews
to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims. Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí

Conversion to Islam
Islam
proceeded at an increasing pace. The muladíes ( Muslims
Muslims
of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
by the end of the 10th century.

The Muslim
Muslim
community in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people
Berber people
of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East. Over time, large Moorish
Moorish
populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River
Guadalquivir River
valley, the coastal plain of Valencia
Valencia
, the Ebro River
Ebro River
valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada
Granada
. Hypostyle hall in the Great Mosque of Córdoba

Córdoba , the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean
Mediterranean
trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims
Muslims
imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes
Averroes
, Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
and Maimonides
Maimonides
. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim
Muslim
and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim
Muslim
leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Petronilla of Aragon
Aragon
and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Barcelona
, dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon

In the 11th century, the Muslim
Muslim
holdings fractured into rival Taifa kingdoms, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids
Almoravids
and the Almohads
Almohads
restored unity upon the Muslim
Muslim
holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim
Muslim
fortunes. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains. Basilica of San Isidoro , León

The Reconquista
Reconquista
(Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista
Reconquista
is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga
Battle of Covadonga
won by Don Pelayo in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim
Muslim
rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim
Muslim
forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias
Kingdom of Asturias
along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim
Muslim
forces were driven from Galicia , which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. The Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session in Europe
Europe
was held in León (Cortes of León ). The Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism .

Muslim
Muslim
armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers , Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France
France
along the seacoast by the 760s. Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre
Navarre
and Aragon
Aragon
. For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim
Muslim
and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the Ebro
Ebro
and Douro
Douro
valleys. Franciscan Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull
and sufi Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
, both mystic theologists

The County of Barcelona
Barcelona
and the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 Majorca
Majorca
was conquered, so was Valencia
Valencia
in 1238. The Almohads transferred the capital of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
to Seville
Seville
.

The break-up of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a great Muslim
Muslim
resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish
Moorish
strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain
Spain
in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville
Seville
in 1248. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid
Marinid
dynasty of Morocco
Morocco
invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. After 800 years of Muslim
Muslim
presence in Spain, the last Nasrid sultanate of Granada
Granada
, a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
. Alfonso X
Alfonso X
, pretendant of the Holy Roman Empire crown and king of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile

From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull
. Abraham Cresques
Abraham Cresques
was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Roman law
Roman law
and its institutions were the model for the legislators. The king Alfonso X
Alfonso X
of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and published the Siete Partidas code. The Toledo School of Translators
Toledo School of Translators
is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, and Ancient Hebrew . The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe
Europe
. The Castilian language—more commonly known (especially later in history and at present) as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
, as did other Romance languages
Romance languages
of Spain
Spain
like the Catalan , Asturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages
Romance languages
in Latin Europe. Basque , the only non- Romance language
Romance language
in Spain, continued evolving from Early Basque to Medieval. The Glosas Emilianenses
Glosas Emilianenses
founded in the monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla
San Millán de la Cogolla
contain the first written words in both Basque and Spanish, having the first become an influence in the formation of the second as an evolution of Latin. Alhambra . Granada
Granada
was the last Taifa
Taifa
in the Peninsula.

The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily
Sicily
and even Athens. Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca
Salamanca
(1218/1254) were established. The Black Death
Black Death
of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.

IMPERIAL SPAIN

Main article: Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
School of Salamanca
School of Salamanca
(origin of modern international law theories) and Colegio de San Gregorio
Colegio de San Gregorio
of Valladolid
Valladolid
(origin of modern human rights theories). Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
and Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
.

In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada
Granada
from its last ruler Muhammad XII , ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia. That same year, Spain\'s Jews
Jews
were ordered to convert to Catholicism
Catholicism
or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
. The Treaty of Granada
Granada
guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims, for a few years before Islam
Islam
was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim
Muslim
population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. A few decades after the Morisco
Morisco
rebellion of Granada
Granada
known as the War of the Alpujarras , a significant proportion of Spain's formerly- Muslim
Muslim
population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa.

The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in the New World
New World
, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient
Orient
. The colonisation of the Americas started, with conquistadores like Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
and Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
. Miscegenation
Miscegenation
was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
meets Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and Ferdinand II of Aragon
Aragon
in the Alhambra
Alhambra

As Renaissance
Renaissance
New Monarchs , Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms. With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain
Spain
emerged as the first world power .

The unification of the crowns of Aragon
Aragon
and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain
Spain
and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain
Spain
remained a separate country, in social, political, laws, currency and language. Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire, including territorial claims María Pacheco , last leader of Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros
, one of the first modern revolutions

There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods
Revolt of the Brotherhoods
in Majorca
Majorca
and Valencia
Valencia
. After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla
Juan López de Padilla
, Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco
María Pacheco
went into exile. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean. Philip II and Charles V , Habsburg Spain
Habsburg Spain
. Charles was also Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

Spain
Spain
was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power . It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs —Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
, the Revolt of the Comuneros
Revolt of the Comuneros
, the Dutch Revolt , the Morisco
Morisco
Revolt , clashes with the Ottomans , the Anglo-Spanish War and wars with France
France
.

Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium
Belgium
, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set . This was an Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism . Spanish explorers brought back precious metals , spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe. The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age
Spanish Golden Age
. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe
Europe
devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of humanism , the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca
Salamanca
, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights. Europe
Europe
after the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia

In the late 16th century and first half of the 17th century, Spain was confronted by unrelenting challenges from all sides. Barbary pirates , under the aegis of the rapidly growing Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, disrupted life in many coastal areas through their slave raids and the renewed threat of an Islamic invasion . This was at a time when Spain was often at war with France.

The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe
Europe
and in the Mediterranean.

By the middle decades of a war- and plague -ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain
Spain
managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire
Habsburg empire
, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant
Protestant
forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal
Portugal
(with whom it had been united in a personal union of the crowns from 1580 to 1640) and the Netherlands , and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France
France
in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years\' War . The Family of Philip V . During the Enlightenment in Spain
Spain
a new royal family reigned, the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
.

In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain
Spain
went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France
France
and the Netherlands; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.

The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons , was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V , united the crowns of Castile and Aragon
Aragon
into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.

The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Military assistance for the rebellious British colonies in the American War of Independence improved the kingdom's international standing.

LIBERALISM, LABOUR MOVEMENT AND NATION STATE

Main articles: Mid-19th-century Spain
Mid-19th-century Spain
, Spanish American wars of independence , Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
, Anarchism in Spain
Anarchism in Spain
, and Spanish Second Republic
Spanish Second Republic
The Third of May 1808
The Third of May 1808
by Francisco de Goya depicts an episode of the Spanish Independence War .

In 1793, Spain
Spain
went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition . The subsequent War of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France
France
in 1795 at the Peace of Basel
Peace of Basel
in which Spain
Spain
lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
. The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy , then ensured that Spain
Spain
allied herself with France
France
in the brief War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
which ended with the British victory at the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal
Portugal
but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The ridiculed Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon\'s brother, Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
.

Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime. These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime. Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington\'s British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia
Russia
, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain
Spain
in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
. The Proclamation of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 in Cádiz
Cádiz

During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz
Cádiz
, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
dismissed the Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch . These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Laureano Figuerola , Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla
, Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
, Juan Prim
Juan Prim
, Francisco Serrano , Juan Bautista Topete , Adelardo López de Ayala
Adelardo López de Ayala
, Juan Álvarez de Lorenzana , Antonio Romero Ortiz

Spain's conquest by France
France
benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens ( Peninsulars ) over those born overseas (Criollos ) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people . Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain
Spain
and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain
Spain
held were Cuba and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
.

The Napoleonic War left Spain
Spain
economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars
Carlist Wars
. Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic , a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo (the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government). Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic in Barcelona, 1873. Francesc Pi i Margall
Francesc Pi i Margall
, was president and intellectual theoric of federalism .

In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines
Philippines
and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution
Philippine Revolution
broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain
Spain
losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of \'98 who were conducting an analysis of the country. Demonstration in Barcelona
Barcelona
after the Tragic Week events

Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa , with the colonisation of Western Sahara
Western Sahara
, Spanish Morocco
Morocco
and Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
. It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I ). The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco
Morocco
brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.

A period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923–1931) ended with the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic . The Republic offered political autonomy to the linguistically distinct regions of Basque Country , Catalonia
Catalonia
and Galicia and gave voting rights to women . During this period Asturian miners\' strike of 1934 occurred.

SPANISH CIVIL WAR, FRANCOISM ERA

Main articles: Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, Spanish Revolution of 1936
Spanish Revolution of 1936
, and Francoist Spain
Francoist Spain
They shall not pass!... Madrid
Madrid
will be the graveyard of fascism. Fascism was on rise in Europe
Europe
during Spanish Civil War.

The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
broke out in 1936. For three years the Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
and supported by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy
Italy
fought the Republican side, which was supported by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, Mexico
Mexico
and International Brigades
International Brigades
but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention . The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides . The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. In 1939, General Franco emerged victorious and became a dictator. Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
and Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
( Madrid
Madrid
1959) in the context of the Cold War
Cold War
. Spain
Spain
entered in United Nations in 1955.

The state as established under Franco was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the Axis . The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the Falange
Falange
Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, formed in 1937; the party emphasised falangism , a form of fascism that emphasised anti-communism , nationalism and Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
. Given Franco's opposition to competing political parties, the party was renamed the National Movement ( Movimiento Nacional
Movimiento Nacional
) in 1949.

After World War II Spain
Spain
was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This changed in 1955, during the Cold War
Cold War
period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
basin. In the 1960s, Spain
Spain
registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation , a mass internal migration from rural areas to cities and the creation of a mass tourism industry . Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism , promotion of a unitary national identity , the favouring of a very conservative form of Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
known as National Catholicism
Catholicism
, and discriminatory language policies .

RESTORATION OF DEMOCRACY

Main articles: Spanish transition to democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
and Spanish society after the democratic transition Federica Montseny
Federica Montseny
speaks at the meeting of the CNT in Barcelona
Barcelona
in 1977 after 36 years of exile.

In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in the exile met in the congress of the European Movement
European Movement
in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.

With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
succeeded to the position of King of Spain
King of Spain
and head of state in accordance with the franquist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy , the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities . The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha
1977 Massacre of Atocha
.

In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism
Basque nationalism
has coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed terrorist organisation ETA . The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy. On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government . King Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. José María Aznar
José María Aznar
, Jordi Pujol
Jordi Pujol
, Felipe VI
Felipe VI
and Adolfo Suárez
Adolfo Suárez
in the 1990s

During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña
La Movida Madrileña
and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio Peces-Barba . On 30 May 1982 Spain
Spain
joined NATO
NATO
, following a referendum after a strong social opposition. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 Spain
Spain
joined the European Economic Community , which later became the European Union
European Union
. The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González
Felipe González
in the Dirty war against ETA ; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.

On 1 January 2002, Spain
Spain
fully adopted the euro , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse. Spain
Spain
has been a member of the European Union
European Union
since 1986.

In 2002 the Prestige oil spill
Prestige oil spill
occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush
George W. Bush
in the Iraq War
Iraq War
, and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March 2004 a local Islamist
Islamist
terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid. Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA , evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist
Islamist
involvement. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election , the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident. The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
. Puerta del Sol
Puerta del Sol
square in Madrid
Madrid
, shown here on 20 May 2011, became a focal point and a symbol during the protests.

The proportion of Spain\'s foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis. In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage . Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.

The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis and high levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family
Royal family
and People\'s Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests . Catalan independentism was also on rise. In 2011, Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
's conservative People\'s Party won the election with 44.6% of votes, and Rajoy became the Spanish Prime Minister, after having been the leader of the opposition from 2004 to 2011, with a programme of cutting social spending. On 19 June 2014, the monarch , Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI
Felipe VI
. On 27 October 2017, following the Catalan independence referendum , Catalonia
Catalonia
unilaterally declared independence from Spain
Spain
to form the Catalan Republic . The Spanish government thus imposed direct rule on the region, calling for a new election. No country has recognised Catalonia
Catalonia
as a separate state.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Spain Topographic map of Spain
Spain

At 505,992 km2 (195,365 sq mi), Spain
Spain
is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe\'s fourth largest country . It is some 47,000 km2 (18,000 sq mi) smaller than France
France
and 81,000 km2 (31,000 sq mi) larger than the US state of California. Mount Teide
Teide
( Tenerife
Tenerife
) is the highest mountain peak in Spain
Spain
and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain
Spain
is a transcontinental country .

Spain
Spain
lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N , and longitudes 19° W and 5° E .

On the west, Spain
Spain
is bordered by Portugal
Portugal
; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(a British overseas territory
British overseas territory
) and Morocco
Morocco
, through its exclaves in North Africa ( Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
, and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera ). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
mountain range, it is bordered by France
France
and the Principality of Andorra
Andorra
. Along the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
in Girona
Girona
, a small exclave town called Llívia
Llívia
is surrounded by France.

Extending to 1,214 km (754 mi), the Portugal–Spain border
Portugal–Spain border
is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union
European Union
.

ISLANDS

Main article: List of islands of Spain

Spain
Spain
also includes the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
side of the Strait of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, known as plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands
Chafarinas Islands
and Alhucemas . The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. The isle of Alborán , located in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
between Spain
Spain
and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería
Almería
, Andalusia. The little Pheasant Island
Pheasant Island
in the River Bidasoa
Bidasoa
is a Spanish-French condominium .

Largest inhabited islands of Spain: Mt Teide
Teide
, Tenerife
Tenerife
, Canary Islands

ISLAND POPULATION

Tenerife
Tenerife
899,833

Majorca
Majorca
(Mallorca) 862,397

Gran Canaria
Gran Canaria
838,397

Lanzarote
Lanzarote
141,938

Ibiza
Ibiza
125,053

Fuerteventura
Fuerteventura
103,107

Menorca
Menorca
92,434

La Palma
La Palma
85,933

MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS

Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park
Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park
, World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees

Mainland Spain
Spain
is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central
Sistema Central
(Central System), Montes de Toledo
Montes de Toledo
, Sierra Morena
Sierra Morena
and the Sistema Bético
Sistema Bético
(Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén
Mulhacén
, located in Sierra Nevada , is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain
Spain
is the Teide
Teide
, a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central
Meseta Central
(often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.

There are several major rivers in Spain
Spain
such as the Tagus
Tagus
(Tajo), Ebro
Ebro
, Guadiana , Douro
Douro
(Duero), Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
, Júcar , Segura
Segura
, Turia and Minho (Miño). Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir
Guadalquivir
in Andalusia
Andalusia
.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Spain Somiedo Natural Park , Cantabrian Mountains
Cantabrian Mountains
, Asturias. The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast in Cartagena , Region of Murcia Tablas de Daimiel National Park
Tablas de Daimiel National Park
.

Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions:

* The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
.

* The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout Andalusia
Andalusia
, Extremadura
Extremadura
and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures. * The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain
Spain
(e.g. western Castile–León , northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid
Madrid
) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia ). Note areas with relatively high rainfall such as Galicia are not considered Mediterranean
Mediterranean
under local classifications, but classed as oceanic.

* The semi-arid climate (BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia , southern Valencia
Valencia
and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro
Ebro
valley, which crosses southern Navarre
Navarre
, central Aragon
Aragon
and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude. * The oceanic climate (Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country , Cantabria, Asturias
Asturias
, and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.

Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine and continental climates (Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range , the Central System , Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System , and a typical desert climate (BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia
Murcia
and eastern Canary Islands
Canary Islands
. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate .

FAUNA AND FLORA

Iberian Wolf
Iberian Wolf

The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and between Africa and Eurasia
Eurasia
, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.

The vegetation of Spain
Spain
is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude . Spain
Spain
includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Spain See also: Spanish Constitution of 1978 The Royal Palace in Madrid
Madrid

According to the Democracy Index
Democracy Index
of the EIU, Spain
Spain
is one of the 19 full democracies in the world.

The Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978
is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy . The constitutional history of Spain
Spain
dates back to the constitution of 1812. Impatient with the slow pace of democratic political reforms in 1976 and 1977, Spain's new King Juan Carlos , known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez
Adolfo Suárez
as Prime Minister. The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution.

As a result, Spain
Spain
is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain
Spain
has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.

The Spanish administration approved legislation in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life (Gender Equality Act). However, in the legislative branch, as of May 2017 only 140 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (40%). It places Spain
Spain
12th on a list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the lower house . In the Senate, there are only 101 women out of 263 (38.0%). The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report
Human Development Report
is 0.794, 12th in the world.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Spain
Government of Spain
See also: List of Spanish monarchs and Monarchs of Spain family tree
Monarchs of Spain family tree
Congress of Deputies , Madrid
Madrid

Spain
Spain
is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
(General Courts). The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers of Spain
Council of Ministers of Spain
presided over by the Prime Minister, nominated and appointed by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative elections. By political custom established by King Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.

The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.

* HEAD OF STATE

* King Felipe VI
Felipe VI
, since 19 June 2014

* HEAD OF GOVERNMENT

* Prime Minister of Spain
Prime Minister of Spain
(Presidente del Gobierno, literally President of the Government): Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
Brey , elected 20 November 2011.

* Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for the Presidency : Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría .

* CABINET

* Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) designated by the Prime Minister.

Spain
Spain
is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany
Germany
and Belgium; for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations , budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre
Navarre
also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre
Navarre
and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d\'Esquadra , Ertzaintza
Ertzaintza
, Policía Foral /Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria
Policía Canaria
).

HUMAN RIGHTS

Main article: Human rights in Spain See also: LGBT rights in Spain

The Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978
"protect all Spaniards
Spaniards
and all the peoples of Spain
Spain
in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".

According to Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light. Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address.

Spain
Spain
provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT
LGBT
community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain
Spain
is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with an 88% of society supporting the gay community compared to 11% who do not.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main article: Political divisions of Spain
Political divisions of Spain

The Spanish State is integrated by 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are integrated by provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.

Autonomous Communities

Main article: Autonomous communities of Spain
Autonomous communities of Spain
See also: Nationalities and regions of Spain
Nationalities and regions of Spain
Galicia Navarre
Navarre
Madrid
Madrid
La Rioja Aragon
Aragon
Catalonia
Catalonia
Valencia
Valencia
Castilla- La Mancha Extremadura
Extremadura
Portugal
Portugal
Castile and León Asturias
Asturias
Cantabria
Cantabria
Basque Country Murcia
Murcia
Andalusia
Andalusia
Ceuta
Ceuta
Melilla
Melilla
France
France
Balearic Islands Canary Islands Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
Atlantic Ocean Andorra
Andorra
Atlantic Ocean Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(UK)

Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "nationalities and regions of Spain
Spain
". The autonomous communities were to be integrated into adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economical traits. This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is literally known in Spain
Spain
as the "State of Autonomies".

The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy . The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.

The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers comprising:

* a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented; * a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain
King of Spain
; * a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.

Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia
Andalusia
also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, and Aragon.

The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia
Catalonia
and Navarre
Navarre
have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza
Ertzaintza
, Mossos d\'Esquadra and the Policía Foral
Policía Foral
respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza in Andalusia
Andalusia
or the BESCAM
BESCAM
in Madrid.

Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.

Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
. These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.

Provinces And Municipalities

Main articles: Provinces of Spain
Provinces of Spain
and Municipalities of Spain
Municipalities of Spain

Autonomous communities are subdivided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities . The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.

The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos
Javier de Burgos
, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia
Murcia
and Navarre
Navarre
are the only communities that are integrated by a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Spain Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
in a G-20
G-20
Summit in Mexico. Spain
Spain
is a permanent guest of the G-20
G-20
. The Ibero-American Summit
Ibero-American Summit
, in San Salvador
San Salvador
, 2008 Palau Reial de Pedralbes , in Barcelona, headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
.

After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations , enter the European Community , and define security relations with the West.

As a member of NATO
NATO
since 1982, Spain
Spain
has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain
Spain
prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.

Spain
Spain
has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America
Hispanic America
and the Philippines
Philippines
. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the historically liberal concept of " Hispanidad
Hispanidad
" or "Hispanismo ", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America
Hispanic America
through language, commerce, history and culture. Territorial disputes

Spain
Spain
claims Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, a 6-square-kilometre (2.3 sq mi) Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
army. According to United Nations, Spain
Spain
is the administrative power of the Western Sahara
Western Sahara
de iure.

The legal situation concerning Gibraltar
Gibraltar
was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
, in which Spain
Spain
ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain
Spain
first. Since the 1940s Spain
Spain
has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians
Gibraltarians
strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.

The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain
Spain
asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ". The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus, as there has been "continuous possession over a long period".

Another claim by Spain
Spain
is about the Savage Islands
Savage Islands
, a claim not recognised by Portugal
Portugal
. Spain
Spain
claims that they are rocks rather than islands, therefore claiming that there is no Portuguese territorial waters around the disputed islands. On 5 July 2013, Spain
Spain
sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.

Spain
Spain
claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island
Perejil Island
, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
. The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta
Ceuta
and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain
Spain
and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.

Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco
Morocco
claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla
Melilla
and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa; and Portugal
Portugal
and the other signatories of the Treaty of Vienna(1815) and their successor states do not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza
Olivenza
in the Alentejo
Alentejo
region of Portugal
Portugal
which was annexed by Spain
Spain
in 1801. Portugal
Portugal
considers the territory to be a single concelho and its freguesias to be part of the historical Portuguese mainland territory. Spain
Spain
does not dispute the juridical argument since it has been de facto occupying the territory and committing cultural and linguistic genocide for over two centuries even though the persecution of minority languages is a devolved competency of the autonomous community of Extremadura
Extremadura
it has been exercised from Madrid
Madrid
.

MILITARY

Main article: Spanish Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
Aircraft carrier/assault ship Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos
I (L61) , multirole fighter Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
, Boeing CH-47 Chinook
Boeing CH-47 Chinook
, universal tank Leopard 2
Leopard 2

The armed forces of Spain
Spain
are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Their Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
is the King of Spain
Spain
, Felipe VI
Felipe VI
.

The Spanish Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
are divided into three branches:

* Army (Ejército de Tierra) * Navy (Armada) * Air Force (Ejército del Aire)

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Spain Headquarters of Banco Santander in Santander

Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union
European Union
, as well as the Eurozone
Eurozone
's 4th largest.

The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 7.6% in October 2006, lower than many other European countries, and significantly below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy , and an education system which OECD
OECD
reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States
United States
and UK. Spain
Spain
is a member of the Schengen Area
Schengen Area
, the Eurozone
Eurozone
and the European Single Market .

By the mid-1990s the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain
Spain
was admitted into the Eurozone
Eurozone
in 1999.

Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain
Spain
is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India. This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language
Spanish language
and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets. The Torre Agbar
Agbar
in Barcelona
Barcelona

Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation ( Iberdrola
Iberdrola
was the world's largest renewable energy operator ), technology companies like Telefónica
Telefónica
, Abengoa
Abengoa
, Mondragon Corporation , Movistar
Movistar
, Hisdesat
Hisdesat
, Indra , train manufacturers like CAF , Talgo
Talgo
, global corporations such as the textile company Inditex
Inditex
, petroleum companies like Repsol
Repsol
and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial
Ferrovial
, Acciona
Acciona
, ACS , OHL and FCC .

In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
's quality of life survey placed Spain
Spain
among the top 10 in the world. In 2013 the same survey (now called the "Where-to-be-born index"), ranked Spain
Spain
28th in the world.

In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao
Bilbao
was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize , and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna
Iñaki Azkuna
, was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012. The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
received the European Green Capital Award
European Green Capital Award
in 2012.

AGRICULTURE

Main article: Agriculture in Spain

Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería
Almería
—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. A vineyard of Rioja

Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40–45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets , potatoes, legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.

Citrus fruits , vegetables, cereal grains , olive oil , and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products . Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain
Spain
became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
countries of the European Community .

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Spain Benidorm
Benidorm
, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations

The climate of Spain, its geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture and excellent infrastructure, has made Spain's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain
Spain
has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.

ENERGY

Main article: Energy in Spain
Energy in Spain

Spain
Spain
is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy. In 2010 Spain
Spain
became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States
United States
with a massive power station plant called La Florida , near Alvarado, Badajoz
Badajoz
. Spain
Spain
is also Europe's main producer of wind energy. In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain. On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors . Other renewable energies used in Spain
Spain
are hydroelectric , biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction).

Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain
Spain
are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas , coal , and oil . Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD
OECD
mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Spain A RENFE Class 730
RENFE Class 730
train on the Viaducto Martin Gil near Zamora

The Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting Madrid
Madrid
to the Basque Country , Catalonia, Valencia
Valencia
, West Andalusia
Andalusia
, Extremadura
Extremadura
and Galicia . Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic (Ferrol to Vigo
Vigo
), Cantabrian ( Oviedo
Oviedo
to San Sebastián ) and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
( Girona
Girona
to Cádiz
Cádiz
) coasts. Spain
Spain
aims to put one million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency . The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution."

Spain
Spain
has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China. As of October 2010, Spain
Spain
has a total of 3,500 km (2,174.80 mi) of high-speed tracks linking Málaga
Málaga
, Seville
Seville
, Madrid, Barcelona
Barcelona
, Valencia
Valencia
and Valladolid
Valladolid
, with the trains reaching speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph). On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV
TGV
. Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.54% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen
Shinkansen
(99%). Should the aims of the ambitious AVE
AVE
programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain
Spain
will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid
Madrid
in less than three hours and Barcelona
Barcelona
within four hours.

There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid
Madrid
(Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world\'s 15th busiest airport , as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona
Barcelona
(El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca
Majorca
(23 million passengers), Málaga
Málaga
(13 million passengers), Las Palmas
Las Palmas
(Gran Canaria) (11 million passengers), Alicante
Alicante
(10 million passengers) and smaller, with the number of passengers between 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife (two airports), Valencia
Valencia
, Seville
Seville
, Bilbao
Bilbao
, Ibiza
Ibiza
, Lanzarote
Lanzarote
, Fuerteventura
Fuerteventura
. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Main article: Science and technology in Spain Roque de los Muchachos Observatory , Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias

In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain
Spain
was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were Miguel Servet
Miguel Servet
, Santiago Ramón y Cajal , Narcís Monturiol
Narcís Monturiol
, Celedonio Calatayud , Juan de la Cierva , Leonardo Torres y Quevedo , Margarita Salas
Margarita Salas
and Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
.

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Spain

Water supply and sanitation in Spain is characterised by universal access and generally good service quality, while tariffs are among the lowest in the EU. Almost half of the population is served by private or mixed private-public water companies, which operate under concession contracts with municipalities. The largest of the private water companies, with a market share of about 50% of the private concessions, is Aguas de Barcelona
Barcelona
( Agbar
Agbar
). However, the large cities are all served by public companies except Barcelona
Barcelona
and Valencia. The largest public company is Canal de Isabel II , which serves the metropolitan area of Madrid.

Droughts affect water supply in Southern Spain, which increasingly is turning towards seawater desalination to meet its water needs.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Spain See also: List of Spanish autonomous communities by population

In 2008 the population of Spain
Spain
officially reached 46 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal (Spain's Municipal Register). Spain's population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid
Madrid
, the most populated areas lie around the coast. The population of Spain
Spain
more than doubled since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.

Native Spaniards
Spaniards
make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward, based initially on the return of many Spaniards
Spaniards
who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
(4%). In 2005, Spain
Spain
instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.

In 2008, Spain
Spain
granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain
Spain
also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute .

Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Around 240,000 Spaniards
Spaniards
emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru
Peru
and Mexico
Mexico
. Another 450,000 left in the 17th century. Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards
Spaniards
emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina
Argentina
and Brazil
Brazil
. Approximately two million Spaniards
Spaniards
migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.

URBANISATION

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Spain Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE)

RANK NAME AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY POP. RANK NAME AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY POP.

Madrid
Madrid

Barcelona
Barcelona
1 Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
3,165,235 11 Alicante
Alicante
Valencia
Valencia
332,067

Valencia
Valencia

Seville
Seville

2 Barcelona
Barcelona
Catalonia
Catalonia
1,602,386 12 Córdoba Andalusia
Andalusia
328,041

3 Valencia
Valencia
Valencia
Valencia
786,424 13 Valladolid
Valladolid
Castile and León
Castile and León
306,830

4 Seville
Seville
Andalusia
Andalusia
696,676 14 Vigo
Vigo
Galicia 294,997

5 Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Aragon
Aragon
666,058 15 Gijón
Gijón
Asturias
Asturias
275,735

6 Málaga
Málaga
Andalusia
Andalusia
566,913 16 L\'Hospitalet Catalonia
Catalonia
253,518

7 Murcia
Murcia
Murcia
Murcia
439,712 17 A Coruña
A Coruña
Galicia 244,810

8 Palma Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
399,093 18 Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
Basque Country 242 092

9 Las Palmas
Las Palmas
Canary Islands
Canary Islands
382,283 19 Granada
Granada
Andalusia
Andalusia
237,540

10 Bilbao
Bilbao
Basque Country 347,574 20 Elche
Elche
Valencia
Valencia
228,647

Metropolitan areas Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Spain
Spain
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008 The urban transformation of Bilbao
Bilbao
has been hailed as an example of "smart city ".

Source: "Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)

e • d RANK METRO AREA Autonomous community POPULATION

GOVERNMENT DATA OTHER ESTIMATIONS

1 Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
Madrid
6,052,247 5.4 – 6.5 m

2 Barcelona
Barcelona
Catalonia
Catalonia
5,030,679 4.2 – 5.1 m

3 Valencia
Valencia
Valencia
Valencia
1,551,585 1.5 – 2.3 m

4 Seville
Seville
Andalusia
Andalusia
1,294,867 1.2 – 1.3 m

5 Málaga
Málaga
Andalusia
Andalusia
953,251

6 Bilbao
Bilbao
Basque Country 910,578

7 Oviedo
Oviedo
Gijón
Gijón
Avilés
Avilés
Asturias
Asturias
835,053

8 Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Aragon
Aragon
746,152

9 Alicante
Alicante
Elche
Elche
Valencia
Valencia
698,662

10 Murcia
Murcia
Murcia
Murcia
643,854

PEOPLES

Main articles: Spanish people
Spanish people
and Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain
Spain

The Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978
, in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities —nationalities — and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.

Spain
Spain
is de facto a plurinational state . The idendity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques
Basques
, Catalans , Galicians , Andalusians and Valencians , although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.

It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain
Spain
complex and far from univocal.

MINORITY GROUPS

Map portraying the major Immigrant countries of origin as of 2008

Spain
Spain
has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan
Sub-Saharan
countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian
South Asian
and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans
Germans
, French and others.

The arrival of the gitanos , a Romani people
Romani people
, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million. There are also the mercheros (also quinquis), a formerly nomadic minority group. Their origin is unclear.

Historically, Sephardi Jews
Jews
and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain
Spain
and with a contribution to Spanish culture. The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews.

IMMIGRATION

Main article: Immigration to Spain
Immigration to Spain
Percentage distribution of foreign population in Spain
Spain
in 2005

According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain
Spain
in 2011, or 12% of the total population. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan , approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian . Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, Bulgarian , and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians . Since 2000, Spain
Spain
has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.

Within the EU, Spain
Spain
had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus
Cyprus
, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008. The number of immigrants in Spain
Spain
had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million. In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.

Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain
Spain
was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived. In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain
Spain
was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.

In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security. The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer. What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of Spain
Languages of Spain
The languages of Spain (simplified)

Spain
Spain
is openly multilingual, and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards
Spaniards
and the peoples of Spain
Spain
in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.

Spanish (español)—officially recognised in the constitution as Castilian (castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. The constitution also establishes that "all other Spanish languages"—that is, all other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes , their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain
Spain
represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."

The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are:

* Basque (euskara) in the Basque Country and Navarre
Navarre
; * Catalan (català) in Catalonia
Catalonia
, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
and in the Valencian Community
Valencian Community
, where its distinct modality of the language is officially known as Valencian (valencià); and * Galician (galego) in Galicia

As a percentage of the general population, Basque is spoken by 2%, Catalan (or Valencian) by 17%, and Galician by 7% of all Spaniards. In the riojan monastery of San Millán de Suso there were found the first written records of both basque and Spanish languages (Glosas Emilianenses ).

In Catalonia
Catalonia
, Aranese (aranés), a local variety of the Occitan language , has been declared co-official along with Catalan and Spanish since 2006. Occitan itself is spoken only in the comarca of Val d\'Aran by roughly 6,700 people. Other Romance minority languages , though not official, have special recognition, such as the Astur-Leonese
Astur-Leonese
group (Asturian – asturianu, also called bable – in Asturias
Asturias
and Leonese – llionés – in Castile and León
Castile and León
) and Aragonese (aragonés) in Aragon
Aragon
.

In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla
Melilla
, Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Spain Concepción Arenal
Concepción Arenal
, krausist and pioneer of the Asociación para la Enseñanza de la Mujer

State education in Spain
Spain
is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education. In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law). Since 1970 to 2014, Spain
Spain
has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE).

Institución Libre de Enseñanza
Institución Libre de Enseñanza
was an educational project that developed in Spain
Spain
for the half a century of about 1876–1936 by Francisco Giner de los Ríos
Francisco Giner de los Ríos
and Gumersindo de Azcárate . The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism . Concepción Arenal in feminism and Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
in neuroscience were in the movement.

HEALTH

Main article: Health care in Spain

The health care system of Spain
Spain
( Spanish National Health System ) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
. The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain. The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD
OECD
.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Spain See also: Christianity in Spain , Islam
Islam
in Spain
Spain
, Judaism in Spain
Judaism in Spain
, Hinduism in Spain , and Bahá\'í Faith in Spain
Spain

RELIGIONS IN SPAIN

Roman Catholicism   70.2%

No Religion   25.0%

Other Faith   2.6%

No Answer   2.1%

Numbers from the following source:

Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
has long been the main religion of Spain, and although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain
Spain
students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism
Catholicism
is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam, Judaism, and evangelical Christianity is also recognised in law. According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 70% of Spaniards
Spaniards
self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identify with no religion . Most Spaniards
Spaniards
do not participate regularly in religious services. This same study shows that of the Spaniards
Spaniards
who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Recent polls and surveys have revealed that atheists and agnostics comprise anywhere from 20% to 27% of the Spanish population. Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
Cathedral , A Coruña

Altogether, about 9% of the entire Spanish population attends religious services at least once per month. Though Spanish society has become considerably more secular in recent decades, the influx of Latin American immigrants, who tend to be strong Catholic practitioners, has helped the Catholic Church to recover.

There have been four Spanish Popes. Damasus I , Calixtus III , Alexander VI and Benedict XIII . Spanish mysticism was an important intellectual fight against Protestantism with Teresa of Ávila
Teresa of Ávila
, a reformist nun, ahead. The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and Francisco Javier . In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe
Pedro Arrupe
and Ignacio Ellacuría
Ignacio Ellacuría
were inside the movement of Liberation Theology .

Protestant
Protestant
churches have about 1,200,000 members. There are about 105,000 Jehovah\'s Witnesses . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz
Moratalaz
District of Madrid. Ignatius of Loyola
Ignatius of Loyola
, Teresa de Jesús and Francisco Javier prominent figures of Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
.

A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were about 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain
Spain
as of 2012 , accounting for 3–4% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from Morocco
Morocco
and other African countries. More than 514,000 (30%) of them had Spanish nationality.

The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus
Hindus
, Buddhists
Buddhists
, Sikhs
Sikhs
and Muslims
Muslims
. After the Reconquista
Reconquista
in 1492, Muslims
Muslims
did not live in Spain
Spain
for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco
Morocco
and Western Sahara
Western Sahara
full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria.

Judaism
Judaism
was practically non-existent in Spain
Spain
from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews
Jews
were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews
Jews
in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews
Jews
are thought to have lived in Spain
Spain
prior to its expulsion.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Spain
Culture of Spain

Culturally, Spain
Spain
is a Western country . Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain
Spain
one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music has been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain
Spain
also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.

WORLD HERITAGE SITES

Main article: World Heritage Sites in Spain
World Heritage Sites in Spain
See also: Castles in Spain
Spain
and Cathedrals in Spain
Cathedrals in Spain
The pre- Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
of Santa María del Naranco
Santa María del Naranco
Burgos Cathedral
Burgos Cathedral
Aljafería of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Llotja de la Seda
Llotja de la Seda
in Valencia
Valencia
The Hanging Houses of Cuenca at the Museo de Arte Abstracto Español
Museo de Arte Abstracto Español
The Sagrada Família
Sagrada Família
in Barcelona
Barcelona

It should be noted that after Italy
Italy
(49) and China (45), Spain
Spain
is the third country in the world with the most World Heritage Sites . At the present time it has 44 recognised sites, including the landscape of Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley
Côa Valley
and Siega Verde , which is shared with Portugal
Portugal
(the Portuguese part being in the Côa Valley, Guarda ), and the Heritage of Mercury , shared with Slovenia
Slovenia
. In addition, Spain
Spain
has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage
Intangible cultural heritage
, or "Human treasures", Spain
Spain
ranks first in Europe
Europe
according to UNESCO\'s Intangible Cultural Heritage List , tied with Croatia
Croatia
.

* 1984 – Alhambra
Alhambra
, Generalife
Generalife
and Albayzín
Albayzín
(Granada, Andalusia). * 1984 – Burgos Cathedral
Burgos Cathedral
(Burgos, Castile-León). * 1984 – Historic centre of Córdoba
Historic centre of Córdoba
(Córdoba, Andalusia). * 1984 – Monastery and Royal Site of El Escorial
El Escorial
(Madrid). * 1984 – Works of Antoni Gaudí
Gaudí
(Barcelona, Catalonia). * 1985 – Cave of Altamira and Palaeolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain
Spain
(Asturias, Basque Country and Cantabria
Cantabria
regions). * 1985 – Monuments of Oviedo
Oviedo
and the Kingdom of Asturias (Asturias). * 1985 – Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches (Ávila, Castile-León). * 1985 – Old Town of Segovia
Segovia
and its Aqueduct (Segovia, Castile-León). * 1985 – Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
(Old Town) (A Coruña, Galicia). * 1986 – Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 1986 – Historic City of Toledo (Toledo, Castile-La Mancha). * 1986 – Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Architecture of Aragon
Aragon
(Provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in Aragon). * 1986 – Old Town of Cáceres (Cáceres, Extremadura). * 1987 – Cathedral , Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (Seville, Andalusia). * 1988 – Old City of Salamanca
Salamanca
(Salamanca, Castile-León). * 1991 – Poblet Monastery
Poblet Monastery
(Tarragona, Catalonia). * 1993 – Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida
Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida
(Badajoz, Extremadura). * 1993 – Route of Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
(Provinces of Burgos, León and Palencia in Castile-León, Provinces of A Coruña
A Coruña
and Lugo in Galicia, La Rioja, Navarre, and the Province of Huesca in Aragon). * 1993 – Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe (Cáceres, Extremadura). * 1994 – Doñana National Park
Doñana National Park
(Provinces of Cádiz, Huelva and Seville
Seville
in Andalusia). * 1996 – Historic Walled Town of Cuenca (Cuenca, Castile-La Mancha). * 1996 – Silk Exchange of Valencia
Valencia
(Valencia). * 1997 – Las Médulas
Las Médulas
(León, Castile-León). * 1997 – Palau de la Música Catalana
Palau de la Música Catalana
and Hospital de Sant Pau
Hospital de Sant Pau
in Barcelona
Barcelona
(Barcelona, Catalonia). * 1997 – Pirineos – Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
(Huesca, Aragon
Aragon
– Spanish part / Midi-Pyrénées and Aquitaine – French part). (Shared with France). * 1997 – San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries (La Rioja). * 1998 (2010) – Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley (Guarda, Norte Region – Portuguese part) and Siega Verde (Salamanca, Castile-León – Spanish part). (Shared with Portugal). * 1998 – Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(Andalusia, Aragon, Castile-La Mancha, Catalonia, Murcia
Murcia
and Valencia
Valencia
regions). * 1998 – University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid). * 1999 – Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture (Ibiza, Balearic Islands). * 1999 – San Cristóbal de La Laguna
San Cristóbal de La Laguna
(Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 2000 – Archaeological Ensemble of Tarraco
Tarraco
(Tarragona, Catalonia). * 2000 – Archaeological Site of Atapuerca
Archaeological Site of Atapuerca
(Burgos, Castile-León). * 2000 – Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí
(Lleida, Catalonia). * 2000 – Palmeral of Elche
Elche
(Alicante, Valencia). * 2000 – Roman Walls of Lugo (Lugo, Galicia). * 2001 – Aranjuez
Aranjuez
Cultural Landscape (Madrid). * 2003 – Renaissance
Renaissance
Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda
Úbeda
and Baeza (Jaén, Andalusia). * 2006 – Vizcaya Bridge
Vizcaya Bridge
(Biscay, Basque Country). * 2007 – Teide
Teide
National Park (Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). * 2009 – Tower of Hercules
Tower of Hercules
(A Coruña, Galicia). * 2011 – Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (Majorca, Balearic Islands). * 2012 – Heritage of Mercury . Almadén
Almadén
(Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha – Spanish part) and Idrija
Idrija
(Slovene Littoral – Slovenian part). (Shared with Slovenia).

LITERATURE

Main articles: Spanish literature
Spanish literature
, Royal Spanish Academy
Royal Spanish Academy
, and Instituto Cervantes
Instituto Cervantes
See also: Basque literature , Catalan literature , Galician literature , and Latin American literature
Latin American literature
Corral de comedias de Almagro , Spanish Golden Age
Spanish Golden Age
theatre with Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
and Calderon de la Barca
Calderon de la Barca

The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim
Muslim
Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the Kharjas (Jarchas). Bronze statues of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza
Sancho Panza
in the Plaza de España in Madrid
Madrid

During the Reconquista
Reconquista
, the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid
Cantar de Mio Cid
was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life.

Other major plays from the medieval times were Mester de Juglaría , Mester de Clerecía , Coplas por la muerte de su padre
Coplas por la muerte de su padre
or El Libro de buen amor (The Book
Book
of Good Love).

During the Renaissance
Renaissance
the major plays are La Celestina and El Lazarillo de Tormes , while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León
Luis de León
, San Juan de la Cruz
San Juan de la Cruz
, Santa Teresa de Jesús , etc.

The Baroque
Baroque
is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
. The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo
Francisco de Quevedo
, Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
, Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina
Tirso de Molina
.

During the Enlightenment we find names such as Leandro Fernández de Moratín , Benito Jerónimo Feijóo
Benito Jerónimo Feijóo
, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
or Leandro Fernández de Moratín
Leandro Fernández de Moratín
. Tirant lo Blanch
Tirant lo Blanch
final page

During the Romanticism
Romanticism
, José Zorrilla
José Zorrilla
created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio . Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
, José de Espronceda , Rosalía de Castro
Rosalía de Castro
or Mariano José de Larra
Mariano José de Larra
.

In Realism we find names such as Benito Pérez Galdós
Benito Pérez Galdós
, Emilia Pardo Bazán , Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal
Concepción Arenal
, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo . Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.

The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba
Cuba
by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno , Pío Baroja
Pío Baroja
, and José Martínez Ruiz
José Martínez Ruiz
(Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán
Ramón del Valle-Inclán
, Antonio Machado
Antonio Machado
, Ramiro de Maeztu
Ramiro de Maeztu
, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98. Ramón del Valle-Inclán
Ramón del Valle-Inclán
, Benito Pérez Galdós and Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca

The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset —a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.

Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez
Juan Ramón Jiménez
, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal
Ramón Menéndez Pidal
, Gregorio Marañón
Gregorio Marañón
, Manuel Azaña , Maria Zambrano , Eugeni d\'Ors , Clara Campoamor and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala
Ramón Pérez de Ayala
, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna
Ramón Gómez de la Serna
. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Salvador de Madariaga
Salvador de Madariaga
, another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe
Europe
and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International .

The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén
Jorge Guillén
, Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca
, Vicente Aleixandre
Vicente Aleixandre
, Dámaso Alonso . All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards. Miguel Delibes
Miguel Delibes
describes the situation of rural Spain
Spain
after the Rural flight in the 1950s.

The two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
laureate Camilo José Cela and Miguel Delibes from Generation of \'36 . Spain
Spain
is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
, and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray
José Echegaray
, Jacinto Benavente , Juan Ramón Jiménez
Juan Ramón Jiménez
, Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela . The Portuguese writer José Saramago , also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Saramago was also well known by his Iberist ideas.

The Generation of \'50 are also known as the children of the civil war. Rosa Chacel
Rosa Chacel
, Gloria Fuertes , Jaime Gil de Biedma , Juan Goytisolo , Carmen Martín Gaite , Ana María Matute , Juan Marsé , Blas de Otero , Gabriel Celaya
Gabriel Celaya
, Antonio Gamoneda
Antonio Gamoneda
, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa .

ART

Main article: Spanish art
Spanish art
Las Meninas
Las Meninas
(1656), Diego Velázquez , Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado

Artists from Spain
Spain
have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements . Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art
Spanish art
has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean
Mediterranean
heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish
Moorish
and influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia
Andalusia
is still evident today. European influences include Italy, Germany
Germany
and France, especially during the Renaissance
Renaissance
Spanish Baroque
Baroque
and Neoclassical periods. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture
Pre-Romanesque art and architecture
, Herrerian
Herrerian
architecture or the Isabelline Gothic
Isabelline Gothic
.

During the Golden Age
Golden Age
we find painters such as El Greco
El Greco
, José de Ribera , Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
and Francisco Zurbarán
Francisco Zurbarán
. Also inside Baroque
Baroque
period Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, like Las Meninas
Las Meninas
or Las Hilanderas .

Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War , the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the raise of contemporary state-nations.

Joaquín Sorolla
Joaquín Sorolla
is a well-known impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
, Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
, Juan Gris
Juan Gris
and Joan Miró
Joan Miró
.

SCULPTURE

The Comb of the Wind of Eduardo Chillida
Eduardo Chillida
in San Sebastián
San Sebastián

The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete ( Valladolid
Valladolid
School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo
Cathedral of Toledo
, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez , Diego de Siloé
Diego de Siloé
, Juan de Juni
Juan de Juni
and Damián Forment .

There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School , to which Juan Martínez Montañés
Juan Martínez Montañés
belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada
Granada
School , to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.

Other notable Andalusian Baroque
Baroque
sculptors were Pedro de Mena , Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán , Juan de Mesa
Juan de Mesa
and Pedro Duque Cornejo . In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González , Pablo Gargallo
Pablo Gargallo
, Eduardo Chillida
Eduardo Chillida
and Pablo Serrano .

CINEMA

Main article: Cinema of Spain
Cinema of Spain
Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
and Penélope Cruz in Oviedo
Oviedo
(Princess of Asturias
Asturias
Awards )

Spanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan\'s Labyrinth and Volver
Volver
. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s ( La Movida Madrileña
La Movida Madrileña
). Mario Camus
Mario Camus
and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez .

Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón
Segundo de Chomón
, Florián Rey
Florián Rey
, Luis García Berlanga , Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
, Julio Medem
Julio Medem
, Isabel Coixet
Isabel Coixet
, Alejandro Amenábar
Alejandro Amenábar
, Icíar Bollaín
Icíar Bollaín
and brothers David Trueba
David Trueba
and Fernando Trueba
Fernando Trueba
.

Actresses Sara Montiel
Sara Montiel
and Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
or actor Antonio Banderas are among those who have become Hollywood stars.

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Spanish architecture
Spanish architecture
Historic old town of Cáceres The modern Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia
Valencia

Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty . Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid , which built its famed palace complex in Granada
Granada
.

Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar
Mudéjar
style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.

The arrival of Modernism
Modernism
in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in Barcelona
Barcelona
, known as modernisme , produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí
Gaudí
is one. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC
GATEPAC
. Spain
Spain
is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo
Rafael Moneo
, Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
, Ricardo Bofill
Ricardo Bofill
as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.

MUSIC AND DANCE

Main article: Music of Spain
Music of Spain
Flamenco
Flamenco
is an Andalusian artistic form that evolved from the Seguidilla .

Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco , a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria
Cantabria
and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.

In the field of classical music, Spain
Spain
has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz
Isaac Albéniz
, Manuel de Falla
Manuel de Falla
and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo
Plácido Domingo
, José Carreras , Montserrat Caballé
Montserrat Caballé
, Alicia de Larrocha , Alfredo Kraus , Pablo Casals
Pablo Casals
, Ricardo Viñes
Ricardo Viñes
, José Iturbi
José Iturbi
, Pablo de Sarasate , Jordi Savall
Jordi Savall
and Teresa Berganza . In Spain
Spain
there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona
Barcelona
, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid
Madrid
. Major opera houses include the Teatro Real
Teatro Real
, the Gran Teatre del Liceu , Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía .

Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain
Spain
each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar
Sónar
which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts. Both festivals mark Spain
Spain
as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.

The most popular traditional musical instrument , the guitar, originated in Spain. Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros , mainly in Asturias
Asturias
and Galicia.

CUISINE

Main article: Spanish cuisine
Spanish cuisine
Paella
Paella
, a traditional Valencian dish

Spanish cuisine
Spanish cuisine
consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean
Mediterranean
roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:

MEDITERRANEAN Spain
Spain
– all such coastal regions, from Catalonia
Catalonia
to Andalusia
Andalusia
– heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho ; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia
Valencia
and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia.

INNER Spain
Spain
– Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantious stews such as cocido madrileño . Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham
Spanish ham
, or immersed in olive oil , like Manchego cheese
Manchego cheese
.

ATLANTIC Spain
Spain
– the whole Northern coast, including Asturian , Basque , Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako . Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, like the Basque-style cod , albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Spain
Sport in Spain
Football is the most popular sport in Spain
Spain

While varieties of football had been played in Spain
Spain
as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain
Spain
has been dominated by English style association football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid
Madrid
C.F. and FC Barcelona
Barcelona
are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. The country\'s national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
in 2010 , and is the first team to ever win three back-to-back major international tournaments.

Basketball
Basketball
, tennis , cycling, handball , futsal , motorcycling and, lately, Formula One
Formula One
are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain
Spain
is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
that were hosted in Barcelona
Barcelona
, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing .

Rafael Nadal
Rafael Nadal
is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won several Grand Slam titles including the Wimbledon 2010 men's singles. In north Spain, the game of pelota is very popular. Alberto Contador
Alberto Contador
is the leading Spanish cyclist and has won several Grand Tour titles including two Tour de France
France
titles.

PUBLIC HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS

Main articles: Public holidays in Spain , Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain
Spain
, and Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain
Spain
San Fermín
San Fermín
festival, Pamplona
Pamplona

Public holidays celebrated in Spain
Spain
include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic ), national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España ) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America
Discovery of America
and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon
Aragon
and throughout Spain.

There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain
Spain
to experience one of these festivals. One of the most famous is San Fermín
San Fermín
, in Pamplona
Pamplona
. While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls , which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
, which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.

Other festivals include the carnivals in the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
, the Falles
Falles
in Valencia
Valencia
or the Holy Week
Holy Week
in Andalusia
Andalusia
and Castile and León .

SEE ALSO

* Outline of Spain * Spain
Spain
– book

NOTES

* ^ A B The Spanish Constitution does not establish any official name for Spain, even though the terms España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document. Nonetheless, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established in an ordinance published in 1984 that the denominations España (Spain) and Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain
Spain
in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the official name by many international organisations.

* ^ A B In Spain, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages . In each of these, Spain's official name (Spanish: Reino de España, pronounced: ) is as follows:

* Aragonese : Reino d'Espanya, IPA: * Asturian : Reinu d'España, IPA: * Basque : Espainiako Erresuma, IPA:

* Catalan : Regne d'Espanya, IPA:

* Valencian:

* Galician : Reino de España, IPA: * Occitan : Reiaume d'Espanha, IPA:

* ^ The official Spanish language
Spanish language
of the State is established in the Section 3 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978
Spanish Constitution of 1978
to be Castilian. In some autonomous communities , Catalan 20%, Galician 5% and Basque 2% are co-official languages. Aragonese , Asturian , and Occitan (locally known as Aranese ) have some degree of official recognition. * ^ European Union
European Union
(EU) since 1993. * ^ As of July 2016, Spain's population was 46,468,102. In the same month the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 41,996,253. The number of foreigners (i.e. immigrants, ex-pats and refugees) permanently living in Spain
Spain
was estimated to be at 4,426,811 (9.54%) in 2015. * ^ The Peseta before 2002. * ^ The .eu
.eu
domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union
European Union
member states. Also, the .cat
.cat
domain is used in Catalan-speaking territories , .gal in Galicia and .eus
.eus
in the Basque-speaking area . * ^ See list of transcontinental countries . * ^ The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system. * ^ The poets Martial
Martial
, Quintilian
Quintilian
and Lucan
Lucan
were also born in Hispania. * ^ The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central
Meseta Central
(Inner Plateau) handed to them by the Arab rulers. * ^ For the related expulsions that followed see Morisco
Morisco
. * ^ The term "nationality" was chosen carefully in order to avoid the more politically charged term "nation", however in recent years it has been proposed to use this term in the Constitution and officially recognise Spain
Spain
as a plurinational state ("nation of nations").

REFERENCES

* ^ Acuerdo entre el Reino de de España y Nueva Zelanda, Acuerdo entre el reino de España y el reino de Marruecos Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.; licenses permissions Tratado de la Unión Europea Archived 25 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Presidency of the Government (11 October 1997). "Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado
Boletín Oficial del Estado
núm. 244 (in Spanish). * ^ "The Spanish Constitution". Lamoncloa.gob.es. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013. * ^ A B C D E Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Sociological Research) (October 2017). "Barómetro de septiembre de 2017" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 41. Retrieved 13 October 2017. * ^ "Anuario estadístico de España 2008. 1ª parte: entorno físico y medio ambiente" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain). Retrieved 14 April 2015. * ^ "Cifras de Población a 1 de julio de 2016. Estadística de migraciones. Primer semestre de 2016. Datos Provisionales" (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). 16 December 2016. * ^ A B C D "Spain". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 May 2017. * ^ " Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
of equivalized disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat
Eurostat
Data Explorer. Retrieved 8 September 2017. * ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. * ^ A B "Iberia vs Hispania: Origen etimológico". * ^ Esparza, José Javier (2007). La gesta española : historia de España en 48 estampas, para quienes han olvidado cuál era su nación (1a. ed.). Barcelona: Áltera. ISBN 9788496840140 . * ^ "La Constitución española de 1978. Título preliminar." (in Spanish). Página oficial del Congreso de los Diputados. Retrieved 30 September 2017. * ^ Whitehouse, Mark (6 November 2010). "Number of the Week: $10.2 Trillion in Global Borrowing". The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
. * ^ ABC. ""I-span-ya", el misterioso origen de la palabra España".

* ^ #Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, ISBN 978-84-9815-764-2 * ^ Burke, Ulick Ralph (1895). A History of Spain
History of Spain
from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Volume 1. London: Longmans, Green & Co. p. 12. * ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Spain". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ A B Anthon, Charles (1850). A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 14. * ^ Abrabanel, Commentary on the First Prophets (Pirush Al Nevi'im Rishonim), end of II Kings, pp. 680–681, Jerusalem 1955 (Hebrew). See also Shelomo (also spelled Sholomo, Solomon or Salomón) ibn Verga, Shevet Yehudah, pp. 6b-7a, Lemberg 1846 (Hebrew) * ^ A B (Pike et al. 2012 , pp. 1409-14013) * ^ "\'First west Europe
Europe
tooth\' found". BBC. 30 June 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2008. * ^ Typical Aurignacian
Aurignacian
items were found in Cantabria
Cantabria
(Morín, El Pendo, El Castillo ), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP. citation: "It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish world" * ^ Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
fighters look back, BBC News, 23 February 2003 * ^ "Relatives of Spaniards
Spaniards
who fled Franco granted citizenship". The Daily Telegraph. London. 28 December 2008. Retrieved 18 January 2014. * ^ "El contubernio que preparó la democracia". EL PAÍS. * ^ "Contubernio de Múnich: 50 años". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. * ^ "El contubernio de Munich". LA VANGUARDIA. * ^ "Speech by Mrs Nicole FONTAINE, President of the European Parliament on the occasion of the presentation of the Sakharov Prize 2000 to Basta ya!". * ^ Pfanner, Eric (11 July 2002). "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the \'club\' : Spain\'s euro bonanza". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 9 August 2008. See also: "Spain\'s economy / Plain sailing no longer". The Economist. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2008. * ^ " Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
\'claims Madrid
Madrid
bombings\'". BBC. 14 March 2004. Retrieved 13 August 2008. See also: " Madrid
Madrid
bombers get long sentences". BBC. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Bailey, Dominic (14 March 2004). " Spain
Spain
votes under a shadow". BBC. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Ortiz, Fiona (22 April 2013). "Spain\'s population falls as immigrants flee crisis". Reuters. Retrieved 2 September 2017. * ^ Alandete, David (27 October 2017). "Análisis Is Catalonia independent?". El País
El País
. * ^ Piñol, Pere Ríos, Àngels (27 October 2017). "El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia". El País (in Spanish). * ^ "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain
Spain
takeover bid". BBC. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. * ^ "Catalan crisis: Spain
Spain
PM Rajoy demands direct rule". BBC. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. * ^ " Catalonia
Catalonia
independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament". Barcelona, Madrid: BBC News. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017. * ^ Sandford, Alasdair (27 October 2017). "Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid
Madrid
could mean". euronews. Retrieved 27 October 2017. * ^ Medina García, Eusebio (2006). «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera hispano-lusa (La Raya)». Revista de Estudios Extremeños. Tomo LXII (II Mayo-Agosto). 0210-2854, pags. 713–723. * ^ "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, city-data.com, April 2006. * ^ Media:Koppen World Map.png * ^ John Hooper, The New Spaniards, 2001, From Dictatorship to Democracy * ^ Spain\'s fast-living king turns 70 BBC News
BBC News
Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18 June 2009 * ^ "Spanish Constitution". Senado.es. Retrieved 1 November 2011. * ^ "SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality". Ipsnews.net. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2014. * ^ "Spain: Gender Equality Law Triumphs over Rightwing Opposition". ipsnews.net. Retrieved 1 November 2010. * ^ "Women in the current Spanish Congress". * ^ "Women in National Parliaments". Ipu.org. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010. * ^ " Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2007/2008" (PDF). Hdr.undp.org. p. 330. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2014. * ^ "Catalonians vote for more autonomy". CNN. 18 June 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2008. See also: "Economic Survey: Spain
Spain
2005". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Country Briefings: Spain". The Economist. Retrieved 9 August 2008. and "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government" (PDF). The World Bank
The World Bank
. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "La Constitución española de 1978. Preámbulo." (in Spanish). Página oficial del Congreso de los Diputados. Retrieved 8 October 2017. * ^ Spain
Spain
2015/2016". Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 June 2016. * ^ "Analysis of 8 years of Gender Violence Law in Spain
Spain
Gender violence and justice". justiciadegenero.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017. * ^ Rincón, Reyes (25 November 2015). "The successes and failures of Spain\'s fight against domestic abuse". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 9 May 2017. * ^ "Global Acceptance of Homosexuality". Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
. 4 June 2013. * ^ Article 143 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution in reference to Article 2 * ^ Chapter 3. Autonomous Communities. 147th Article. Spanish Constitution of 1978. Retrieved 10 December 2007 * ^ "Estatut" (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ "Nuevo Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias". .gobiernodecanarias.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ "BOCAe32.QXD" (PDF) (in Catalan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ "Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón". Narros.congreso.es. Archived from the original on 11 December 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ "Unidad de Policía de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía" (in Spanish). Cartujo.org. Retrieved 23 October 2007. * ^ Articles 140 and 141. Spanish Constitution of 1978 * ^ http://www.arso.org/Olasp.pdf * ^ "Tratado de Utretch – Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(Spanish)". mgar.net. Retrieved 9 August 2008. * ^ "Q&A: Gibraltar\'s referendum". BBC News. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 19 February 2010. * ^ "Resolution 2070: Question of Gibraltar" (PDF). United Nations. 16 December 1965. Retrieved 19 February 2010. * ^ "Resolution 2231: Question of Gibraltar" (PDF). United Nations. 20 December 1966. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2010. * ^ "La cuestión de Gibraltar" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain. January 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2010. * ^ Peter Gold (2005). Gibraltar: British or Spanish?. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-415-34795-2 . * ^ UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (1999). "Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories. Appendix 1: Profiles for Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands ">(PDF). Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2005. Retrieved 19 December 2005. * ^ Spain\'s letter to the UN (PDF) (in Spanish), UN, September 2013 * ^ " Spain
Spain
disputes Portugal
Portugal
islands" The Portugal
Portugal
News . Retrieved 9 September 2013. * ^ "Article 62 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978". Official site of the Royal Household of HM the King. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "Article 8 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978". Official site of the Spanish Senate. Retrieved 29 November 2008. * ^ Lauren A. Benton (1990). Invisible Factories: The Informal Economy and Industrial Development in Spain. SUNY Press. * ^ Roberto A. Ferdman, Spain\'s Black Market Economy Is Worth 20% of Its GDP: One million Spanish people
Spanish people
have jobs in the underground economy, The Atlantic (16 July 2013) * ^ Angel Alañón ">(PDF). OECD. Retrieved 9 August 2008. * ^ "A good bet?". The Economist. Business. Madrid. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009. * ^ "Spain\'s Iberdrola
Iberdrola
signs investment accord with Gulf group Taqa". Forbes. 25 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010.

* ^ "Big in America?". The Economist. Business. Madrid. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 14 May 2009. * ^ http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf * ^ "The lottery of life". The Economist. * ^ "Prize Laureates". leekuanyewworldcityprize.com.sg. * ^ "World Mayor: The 2012 results". worldmayor.com. * ^ "European Green Capital". Europa (web portal). * ^ "Global Guru analysis". The Global Guru. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "Economic report" (PDF). Bank of Spain
Bank of Spain
. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Morning Edition (15 July 2010). " Spain
Spain
Is World\'s Leader in Solar Energy". NPR. Retrieved 4 September 2010. * ^ " Spain
Spain
becomes solar power world leader". Europeanfutureenergyforum.com. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2010. * ^ " Spain
Spain
becomes the first European wind energy producer after overcoming Germany
Germany
for the first time". Eolic Energy News. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ "Asociación Empresarial Eólica – Spanish Wind Energy Association – Energía Eólica". Aeeolica.es. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ Méndez, Rafael (9 November 2009). "La eólica supera por primera vez la mitad de la producción eléctrica". El País
El País
(in Spanish). Ediciones El País. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "Wind power in Spain
Spain
breaks new instantaneous power record". renovablesmadeinspain.es. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ Morning Edition (9 November 2010). "14 reactores nucleares movidos por el viento". El País. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ Morning Edition. "La Fuerza del Mar". revista.consumer.es. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. Source: IEA/ OECD
OECD
. Archived 16 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Algae Based Biofuels in Plain English: Why it Matters, How it Works. (algae algaebiofuels carbonsequestration valcent vertigro algaebasedbiofuels ethanol)". Triplepundit.com. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. * ^ " Spain
Spain
to Put 1 million Electric Cars on the Road". Triplepundit.com. 30 July 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. * ^ "The Need for Speed–High Speed Rail in Europe: Do You Speak Spanish? Europe
Europe
on Track". Blog.raileurope.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. * ^ " Spain
Spain
has developed Europe\'s largest high-speed rail network Olive Press Newspaper". Theolivepress.es. Retrieved 1 November 2011.

* ^ "El AVE
AVE
español, el más veloz del mundo y el segundo en puntualidad". El Mundo. Spain. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ " Spain
Spain
powers ahead with high-speed rail". railpro.co.uk. January 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ IWA 2006 International Statistics for Water Services * ^ "Population Figures". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (National Statistics Institute). Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Joseph Harrison, David Corkill (2004). "Spain: a modern European economy". Ashgate Publishing. p.23. ISBN 0-7546-0145-5 * ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008 Archived 6 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
." (PDF). Eurostat
Eurostat
. 6 July 2010. * ^ "Migration to Latin America.". Leiden University. Retrieved 18 January 2014. * ^ Axtell, James (September–October 1991). "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America". Humanities. 12 (5): 12–18. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008. * ^ " Spain
Spain
– People". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014. * ^ "Spain". Focus-migration.de. Retrieved 18 January 2014. * ^ "Bilbao, un ejemplo urbanístico para el mundo. El Correo". El Correo. * ^ "Azkuna: "El premio no es para mí, sino para los bilbaínos". El Correo". El Correo. * ^ "World Mayor: The 2012 results". * ^ "Áreas urbanas +50". Ministry of Public Works and Transport . 2013. * ^ A B "World Urban Areas: Population ">(PDF). Demographia . Retrieved 10 August 2008. * ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision), (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007. * ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2009 revision) Archived 25 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
., (United Nations, 2010), Table A.12. Data for 2007. * ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
, Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, OECD
OECD
Territorial Reviews, ( OECD
OECD
Publishing, 2006), Table 1.1 * ^ "Rival nationalisms in a plurinational state: Spain, Catalonia and the Basque Country". Oxford University Press. * ^ "España, una nación de naciones" (PDF). University of Navarre. * ^ "Nacionalidades históricas". El País. Retrieved 9 May 2016. * ^ "Immigration statistics". BBC. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España" (PDF). Msc.es. Retrieved 21 May 2016. * ^ "Estimations" (JPG). Gfbv.it. Retrieved 21 May 2016. * ^ "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2010. The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of 650,000. * ^ Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and Professor Elspeth Guild, page 87-8 (09.2010 figures) * ^ "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2008. * ^ Sephardim – Jewish Virtual Library by Rebecca Weiner * ^ "El regreso de los judíos sefardíes a España". euronewses. * ^ INE, 2011. * ^ "Financial crisis reveals vulnerability of Spain\'s immigrants – Feature". The Earth Times. 18 November 2009. * ^ "Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Spain: Immigrants Welcome". Business Week. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Immigrants Fuel Europe\'s Civilization Clash". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. and "Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "Population in Europe
Europe
in 2005" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Spain
Spain
to increase immigration budget, 10 October 2007 * ^ Spain\'s Immigration System Runs Amok, 17 September 2008 * ^ Tremlett, Giles (9 May 2005). " Spain
Spain
grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ "Population series from 1998". INE Spanish Statistical Institute. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2008. * ^ "Europeans Favour Spain
Spain
for Expat Jobs". News.bg. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ Plan de Retorno Voluntario Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Gobierno de España * ^ Spain\'s Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work, The Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2009 * ^ A B 580.000 personas se van de España. El País. Edición Impresa. 8 October 2011 * ^ Conversi, Daniele (2002). "The Smooth Transition: Spain\'s 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question" (PDF). National Identities, Vol 4, No. 3. Carfax Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2008. * ^ Preamble to the Constitution Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
(27 December 1978). "Spanish Constitution". Tribunal Constitucional de España. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012. * ^ Third article. Cortes Generales
Cortes Generales
(27 December 1978). "Spanish Constitution". Tribunal Constitucional de España. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012. * ^ "CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– 5pain". Cia.gov. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ "Junta General del Principado de Asturias". Junta General del Principado de Asturias. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2008. * ^ "El semanario alemán Stern retrata la cara más oscura de Mallorca" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 9 August 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2014. * ^ La Ley Orgánica 2/2006. Retrieved 23 September 2009 * ^ Ley Orgánica 8/2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013 * ^ De la LGE a la LOMCE: Así son las siete leyes educativas españolas de la democracia. teinteresa.es * ^ World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance (PDF), Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation, ISBN 92-4-156198-X * ^ "Health care in Spain: Beneficiairies". seg-social.es. Retrieved 24 September 2017. * ^ Ley 26/1992, Documento BOE-A-1992-24855, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado * ^ Ley 25/1992, Documento BOE-A-1992-24854, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado * ^ Ley 24/1992, Documento BOE-A-1992-24853, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado * ^ "WVS Database". World Values Survey. Institute for Comparative Survey Research. March 2015. * ^ "Gallup International Religiosity Index" (PDF). The Washington Post. WIN-Gallup International. April 2015. * ^ "Federación de Entidades Religiosas Evangélicas de España – FEREDE". Ferede.org. Retrieved 4 September 2010. * ^ " Spain
Spain
– LDS Newsroom". Lds.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2010. * ^ "Explotación estadística del censo de ciudadanos musulmanes en España referido a fecha 31/12/2012" (PDF). Unión de Comunidades Islámicas de España: 6–9. 2012. * ^ Kamen, Henry (1999). The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Yale University Press
Yale University Press
. pp. 29–31. * ^ "Spain". UNESCO
UNESCO
Culture Sector. Retrieved 14 September 2014. * ^ " Spain
Spain
– Intangible Cultural Heritage". UNESCO
UNESCO
Culture Sector. Retrieved 14 September 2014. * ^ Jordan, Barry; Morgan-Tamosunas, Rikki (1998). Contemporary spanish cinema. Manchester University Press
Manchester University Press
. * ^ Cruz, Jo (1999). Edited by David R. Blanks and Michael Frassetto, ed. Western Views of Islam
Islam
in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception and Other. New York: Saint Martin's Press. p. 56. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ "Music Festivals, UK Festivals and London Festivals". Spoonfed.co.uk. Retrieved 1 November 2011. * ^ "The History of the Guitar in Spain". Linguatics.com. Retrieved 30 April 2011. * ^ A B Richardson, Paul (19 August 2007). "Spain\'s perfect paella". The Times. London. Retrieved 6 August 2010. * ^ DiGregorio, Sarah (1 December 2009). " Spain
Spain
Gain at Mercat Negre". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 6 August 2010. * ^ "Bank holidays in Spain". bank-holidays.com. Retrieved 13 August 2008.

FURTHER READING

* Gates, David (2001). The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War. Da Capo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-306-81083-1 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutSPAINat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* "Spain". The World Factbook
The World Factbook
. Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
. * Spain
Spain
from UCB Libraries GovPubs * Spain
Spain
at DMOZ
DMOZ
* Spain
Spain
from the BBC News
BBC News
* Key Development Forecasts for Spain
Spain
from International Futures
International Futures

Government

* E-Government portal for Spain

Maps

* Wikimedia Atlas of Spain * Geographic data related to Spain
Spain
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

Tourism

* Official tourism portal for Spain

ARTICLES RELATED TO SPAIN

* v * t * e

Spain
Spain
articles

HISTORY

.