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The Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
in the 15th century was one of the first European powers to begin building a colonial empire . The Portuguese Renaissance was a period of exploration during which Portuguese sailors discovered several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores
Azores
, Madeira
Madeira
, and Cape Verde
Cape Verde
, explored and colonized the African coast , discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope , discovered Brazil
Brazil
, explored the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia
Asia
, and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to Ming China and to Japan
Japan
.

The Portuguese Renaissance
Portuguese Renaissance
produced a plethora of poets, historians, critics, theologians, and moralists, for whom the Portuguese Renaissance was their golden age. The Cancioneiro Geral by Garcia de Resende (printed 1516) is taken to mark the transition from Old Portuguese to the modern Portuguese language
Portuguese language
.

CONTENTS

* 1 John I * 2 Edward

* 3 Afonso V

* 3.1 Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
* 3.2 Afonsine Ordinances

* 4 Imperial expansion (1481–1557) * 5 Sebastian I * 6 Dynastic crisis and union with Spain
Spain

* 7 Explorations

* 7.1 Reasons for exploration

* 7.2 Portuguese nautical science

* 7.2.1 Ships * 7.2.2 Celestial navigation
Celestial navigation
* 7.2.3 Sailing
Sailing
techniques * 7.2.4 Cartography

* 7.3 Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
* 7.4 Portuguese in Asia
Asia
* 7.5 Portuguese discoveries
Portuguese discoveries
and explorations (1415–1543) * 7.6 Chronology of the Portuguese discoveries
Portuguese discoveries

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References

JOHN I

John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
acceded in 1390 and ruled in peace, pursuing the economic development of his realm. The only significant military action was the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1415. By this step he aimed to control navigation of the African coast. But in the broader perspective, this was the first step opening the Arab world to medieval Europe, which in fact led to the Age of Discovery with Portuguese explorers sailing across the whole world.

Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit, very keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time with a benevolent and kind personality. His love for knowledge and culture was passed to his sons, often collectively referred to by Portuguese historians as the "illustrious generation " (Ínclita Geração): Edward , the future king, was a poet and a writer; Peter , the Duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time; and Prince Henry the Navigator , the duke of Viseu, invested heavily in science and the development of nautical pursuits. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, Isabella, married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy , and enjoyed an extremely refined court culture in his lands; she was the mother of Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold
.

EDWARD

Prince Henry, the Navigator

Under king Edward , the colony at Ceuta
Ceuta
rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury, and it was realised that without the city of Tangier
Tangier
, possession of Ceuta
Ceuta
was worthless. In 1437, Duarte\'s brothers Henry and Ferdinand persuaded him to launch an attack on the Marinid
Marinid
sultanate of Morocco
Morocco
. The expedition was not unanimously supported: Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra , and the Infante John were both against the initiative; they preferred to avoid conflict with the king of Morocco. Their instincts proved to be justified. The resulting attack on Tangier
Tangier
, led by Henry, was a debacle. Failing to take the city in a series of assaults, the Portuguese siege camp was soon itself surrounded and starved into submission by a Moroccan relief army. In the resulting treaty, Henry promised to deliver Ceuta
Ceuta
back to the Marinids in return for allowing the Portuguese army to depart unmolested. Duarte's youngest brother, Ferdinand, was handed over to the Marinids as a hostage for the final handover of the city.

AFONSO V

TREATY OF TORDESILLAS

Main article: Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas

Meanwhile, colonization progressed in the Azores
Azores
and Madeira
Madeira
, where sugar and wine were now produced; above all, the gold brought home from Guinea
Guinea
stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese. It had become clear that, apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. Under Afonso V (1443–1481), surnamed the African, the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
was explored as far as Cape St Catherine (Cabo Santa Catarina), and three expeditions (1458, 1461 and 1471) were sent to Morocco; in 1471 Arzila and Tangier
Tangier
were captured from the Moors. Under John II (1481–1495) the fortress of São Jorge da Mina , the modern Elmina, was founded for the protection of the Guinea
Guinea
trade. Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
, discovered the Congo in 1482 and reached Cape Cross
Cape Cross
in 1486; Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
doubled the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
in 1488, thus proving that the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
was accessible by sea.

After 1492 the discovery of the West Indies
West Indies
by Christopher Columbus rendered desirable a delimitation of the Spanish and Portuguese spheres of exploration. This was accomplished by the Treaty of Tordesillas (June 7, 1494), which modified the delimitation authorized by Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
in two bulls issued on May 4, 1493. The treaty gave to Portugal
Portugal
all lands that might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic
Arctic
Pole to the Antarctic
Antarctic
, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde
Cape Verde
. Spain
Spain
received the lands discovered west of this line. The known means of measuring longitude were so inexact, however, that the line of demarcation could not in practice be determined (see J. de Andrade Corvo in Journal das Ciências Matemáticas, xxxi.147–176, Lisbon, 1881), so the treaty was subject to very diverse interpretations. On its provisions were based both the Portuguese claim to Brazil
Brazil
and the Spanish claim to the Moluccas
Moluccas
(see East Indies#History ). The treaty was chiefly valuable to the Portuguese as a recognition of the prestige they had acquired. That prestige was enormously enhanced when, in 1497–1499, Vasco da Gama completed the voyage to India.

The tendency to secrecy and falsification of dates casts doubts about the authenticity of many primary sources . Several historians have hypothesized that John II may have known of the existence of Brazil and North America
North America
as early as 1480, thus explaining his wish in 1494 at the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
to push the line of influence further west. Many historians suspect that the real documents would have been placed in the Library of Lisbon. Unfortunately, due to the fire following the earthquake of 1755 , nearly all of the library's records were destroyed, but an extra copy available in Goa
Goa
was transferred to Lisbon
Lisbon
Tower of Tombo during the following 100 years. The Corpo Cronológico (Chronological Corpus), a collection of manuscripts on the Portuguese explorations and discoveries in Africa, Asia
Asia
and Latin America, was inscribed on UNESCO ’s Memory of the World Register
Memory of the World Register
in 2007 in recognition of its historical value "for acquiring knowledge of the political, diplomatic, military, economic and religious history of numerous countries at the time of the Portuguese Discoveries."

AFONSINE ORDINANCES

King Afonso V of Portugal
Portugal

While the Crown was thus acquiring new possessions, its authority in Portugal
Portugal
was temporarily overshadowed by the growth of aristocratic privilege. After the death of Edward, further attempts to curb the power of the nobles were made by his brother, D. Pedro, duke of Coimbra , who acted as regent during the minority of Afonso V of Portugal
Portugal
(1438–1447). The head of the aristocratic opposition was the Duke of Braganza
Duke of Braganza
, who contrived to secure the sympathy of the king and the dismissal of the regent. The quarrel led to civil war, and on 20 May 1449, D. Pedro was defeated and killed at the Battle of Alfarrobeira . Thenceforward the grants made by John I were renewed and extended on so lavish a scale that the Braganza estates alone comprised about a third of the whole kingdom.

An unwise foreign policy simultaneously injured the royal prestige, for Afonso married his own niece, Joanna , daughter of Henry IV of Castile , and claimed the kingdom of Castile in her name. At the Battle of Toro , in 1476, he fought an indecisive battle that made him realize that his claims to the Castilian throne were not achievable. However, Portugal
Portugal
defeated Castile in the naval war (1475–79) of the same conflict ( War of the Castilian Succession
War of the Castilian Succession
), capturing a large Castilian fleet -full of gold- in the Battle of Guinea
Guinea
(1478).

In 1479 Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella
and Alfonso signed the Treaty of Alcáçovas , by which Joanna was relegated to a convent and Portugal won the hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean.

His successor, John II (1481–1495), reverted to the policy of matrimonial alliances with Castile and friendship with England
England
. Finding, as he said, that the liberality of former kings had left the Crown "no estates except the high roads of Portugal," he determined to crush the feudal nobility and seize its territories. The Portuguese Cortes held at Évora
Évora
(1481) empowered judges nominated by the Crown to administer justice in all feudal domains. The nobles resisted this infringement of their rights, but their leader, Fernando II, Duke of Braganza , was beheaded for high treason in 1483; in 1484 the king stabbed to death his own brother-in-law, Diogo, Duke of Viseu
Diogo, Duke of Viseu
; and eighty other members of the aristocracy were executed afterwards. Thus John "the Perfect," as he was called, assured the supremacy of the Crown. He was succeeded in 1495 by Manuel I , who was named "the Great" or "the Fortunate," because in his reign the sea route to India was discovered and a Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
founded.

IMPERIAL EXPANSION (1481–1557)

King John II in Chronica d'El-Rei D. João II; Rui de Pina , c. 1497-1504.

John II (r. 1481–1495) famously restored the policies of Atlantic exploration, reviving the work of his great-uncle, Henry the Navigator . The Portuguese explorations were his main priority in government, pushing south the known coast of Africa
Africa
with the purpose of discovering the maritime route to India and breaking into the spice trade . Manuel I (r. 1495–1521) proved a worthy successor to his cousin John II, supporting Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce.

Under John III (r. 1521–1557), Portuguese possessions were extended in Asia
Asia
and in the New World through the Portuguese colonization of Brazil
Brazil
. John III's policy of reinforcing Portugal's bases in India (such as Goa
Goa
) secured Portugal's monopoly over the spice trade of cloves and nutmeg from the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
. As a result, John III has been called the "Grocer King". On the eve of his death in 1557, the Portuguese empire
Portuguese empire
spanned almost 1 billion acres (about 4 million square kilometers). During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, and Japan, during the Muromachi period
Muromachi period
(see Nanban trade
Nanban trade
). John III abandoned Muslim
Muslim
territories in North Africa
Africa
in favor of trade with India and investment in Brazil. In Europe, he improved relations with the Baltic region
Baltic region
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
, hoping that this would bolster Portuguese trade.

SEBASTIAN I

Sebastian of Portugal
Portugal
was the penultimate Portuguese monarch of the House of Aviz
House of Aviz
. He was the son of John Manuel, Prince of Portugal
Portugal
, and his wife, Joanna of Austria . Sebastian succeeded to the throne at the age of three, on the death of King John III, his paternal grandfather. Soon after his birth, his mother Joanna of Spain
Spain
left her infant son to serve as Regent
Regent
of Spain
Spain
for her father, Emperor Charles V . After his abdication in 1556, she served in the same capacity for her brother Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
. Joanna remained in Spain
Spain
until her death in 1573, never to see her son again. Since Sebastian was still a child, the regency was handled first by his paternal grandmother, Catherine of Austria , and then by his great-uncle, Cardinal Henry of Évora
Évora
. During this period Portugal
Portugal
continued colonial expansion in Angola , Mozambique , and Malacca , as well as the annexation of Macau in 1557. D. Sebastião I. R. de Portugal
Portugal
XVI.

During Sebastian's short personal reign, he strengthened ties with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, England
England
and France through diplomatic efforts. He also restructured much of the administrative, judicial and military life in his kingdom. In 1568, Sebastian created scholarships to provide financial assistance to students who wished to study medicine or pharmacy at the University of Coimbra
University of Coimbra
. In 1569, Sebastian ordered Duarte Nunes de Leão to compile all the laws and legal documents of the kingdom in a collection of Leis Extravagantes known as Código Sebastiânico (Sebastian’s code).

During the great plague of Lisbon
Lisbon
in 1569, Sebastian sent for doctors from Seville
Seville
to help the Portuguese doctors fight the plague. He created two hospitals in Lisbon
Lisbon
to take care of the afflicted. In his concern for the widows and orphans of those killed by the plague, he created several Recolhimentos (shelters), known as the Recolhimento de Santa Marta (shelter of Santa Marta) and the Recolhimento dos Meninos (shelter of the children), and provided wet nurses to take care of the babies.

Sebastian created laws for the military, the Lei das Armas, that would become a military organization model. In 1570 Goa
Goa
was attacked by the Indian army, but the Portuguese were successful in repulsing the assault. Also in 1570, Sebastian ordered that Brazilian Indians should not be used as slaves and ordered the release of those held in captivity.

The Celeiros Comuns (Communal Granaries) were inaugurated in 1576 on Sebastian's orders. These were lending institutions intended to help to poor farmers when farm production decreased, giving credit, lending seeds and commodities to the needy, and allowing them to pay back with farm products when they recovered from losses.

In 1577 Sebastian's ordinance Da nova ordem do juízo, sobre o abreviar das demandas, e execução dellas decreased the time for handling legal actions, regulated the action of lawyers, scribes and other court officials, and created fines for delays.

Sebastian disappeared (and was presumably killed in action) in the battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578, after the brief reign of King Henry triggering the Portuguese succession crisis.

DYNASTIC CRISIS AND UNION WITH SPAIN

Main articles: 1580 Portuguese succession crisis , War of the Portuguese Succession , Battle of Ksar El Kebir
Battle of Ksar El Kebir
, and Iberian Union
Iberian Union

Following the Portuguese crisis of succession , a dynastic union joined the crowns of Castile, Portugal
Portugal
and Aragon along with their respective colonial possessions, under the rule of the Habsburg dynasty

The unification of the peninsula had long been a goal of the region's monarchs with the intent of restoring the Visigothic monarchy .

The history of Portugal
Portugal
from the dynastic crisis in 1578 to the first Braganza Dynasty
Braganza Dynasty
monarchs was a period of transition. The Portuguese Empire 's spice trade was peaking at the start of this period. It continued to enjoy widespread influence after Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
had finally reached the East by sailing around Africa
Africa
in 1497–98.

EXPLORATIONS

This section MAY STRAY FROM THE TOPIC OF THE ARTICLE. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page . (July 2017)

Main articles: Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
and Portuguese discoveries
Portuguese discoveries

REASONS FOR EXPLORATION

Portugal's long shoreline, with its many harbours and rivers flowing westward to the Atlantic ocean
Atlantic ocean
was the ideal environment to raise generations of adventurous seamen. As a seafaring people in the south-westernmost region of Europe
Europe
, the Portuguese became natural leaders of exploration during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Faced with the options of either accessing other European markets by sea (by exploiting its seafaring prowess) or by land (and facing the task of crossing Castile and Aragon territory) it is not surprising that goods were sent via the sea to England
England
, Flanders
Flanders
, Italy
Italy
and the Hanseatic league
Hanseatic league
towns. The Padrão dos Descobrimentos
Padrão dos Descobrimentos
("Monument to the Discoveries") in Lisbon
Lisbon

Having fought to achieve and to retain independence, the nation's leadership had also a desire for fresh conquests. Added to this was a long struggle to expel the Moors
Moors
that was religiously sanctioned and influenced by foreign crusaders with a desire for martial fame. Making war on Islam
Islam
seemed to the Portuguese both their natural destiny and their duty as Christians
Christians
.

One important reason was the need to overcome the expensive eastern trade routes, dominated first by the republics of Venice and Genoa in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
, and then controlled by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, barring European access, and going through North Africa
Africa
and the historically important combined-land-sea routes via the Red Sea. Both spice and silk were big businesses of the day, and arguably, spices which were used as medicine , drugs and preservatives was something of a necessity—at least to those Europeans of better than modest means.

The Portuguese economy had benefited from its connections with neighbouring Muslim
Muslim
states. A money economy was well enough established for 15th century workers in the countryside as well as in the towns to be paid in currency . The agriculture of the countryside had diversified to the point where grain was imported from Morocco
Morocco
(a symptom of an economy dependent upon Portugal's), while specialised crops occupied former grain-growing areas: vineyards, olives, or the sugar factories of the Algarve
Algarve
, later to be reproduced in Brazil (Braudel 1985). Most of all, the Aviz dynasty that had come to power in 1385 marked the semi-eclipse of the conservative land-oriented aristocracy (See The Consolidation of the Monarchy in Portugal
Portugal
.) A constant exchange of cultural ideals made Portugal
Portugal
a centre of knowledge and technological development. Due to these connections with Islamic kingdoms, many mathematicians and experts in naval technology appeared in Portugal. The Portuguese government impelled this even further by taking full advantage of this and by creating several important research centres in Portugal, where Portuguese and foreign experts made several breakthroughs in the fields of mathematics, cartography and naval technology. Sagres and Lagos in the Algarve become famous as such places.

PORTUGUESE NAUTICAL SCIENCE

Further information: Portuguese Renaissance
Portuguese Renaissance

The successive expeditions and experience of the pilots led to a fairly rapid evolution of Portuguese nautical science, creating an elite of astronomers , navigators , mathematicians and cartographers , among them stood Pedro Nunes
Pedro Nunes
with studies on how to determine the latitudes by the stars and João de Castro
João de Castro
.

Ships

A modern replica of a Portuguese caravel

Until the 15th century, the Portuguese were limited to coastal cabotage navigation using barques and barinels (ancient cargo vessels used in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
). These boats were small and fragile, with only one mast with a fixed quadrangular sail and did not have the capabilities to overcome the navigational difficulties associated with Southward oceanic exploration, as the strong winds , shoals and strong ocean currents easily overwhelmed their abilities. They are associated with the earliest discoveries, such as the Madeira
Madeira
Islands, the Azores , the Canaries , and to the early exploration of the north west African coast as far south as Arguim in the current Mauritania
Mauritania
.

The ship that truly launched the first phase of the Portuguese discoveries along the African coast was the caravel , a development based on existing fishing boats. They were agile and easier to navigate, with a tonnage of 50 to 160 tons and 1 to 3 masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing luffing . The caravel benefited from a greater capacity to tack . The limited capacity for cargo and crew were their main drawbacks, but did not hinder its success. Limited crew and cargo space was acceptable, initially, because as exploratory ships, their "cargo" was what was in the explorer's feedback of a new territory, which only took up the space of one person. Among the famous caravels are Berrio and Caravela Annunciation.

With the start of long oceanic sailing also large ships developed. "Nau" was the Portuguese archaic synonym for any large ship, primarily merchant ships . Due to the piracy that plagued the coasts, they began to be used in the navy and were provided with cannon windows, which led to the classification of "naus" according to the power of its artillery. They were also adapted to the increasing maritime trade: from 200 tons capacity in the 15th century to 500, they become impressive in the 16th century, having usually two decks , stern castles fore and aft, two to four masts with overlapping sails. In India travels in the sixteenth century there were also used carracks , large merchant ships with a high edge and three masts with square sails, that reached 2000 tons.

Celestial Navigation

Ephemeris
Ephemeris
by Abraham Zacuto
Abraham Zacuto
in Almanach Perpetuum, 1496

In the thirteenth century celestial navigation was already known, guided by the sun position. For celestial navigation the Portuguese, like other Europeans, used Arab
Arab
navigation tools, like the astrolabe and quadrant , which they made easier and simpler. They also created the cross-staff , or cane of Jacob, for measuring at sea the height of the sun and other stars. The Southern Cross
Southern Cross
become a reference upon arrival at the Southern hemisphere by João de Santarém and Pedro Escobar in 1471, starting the celestial navigation on this constellation. But the results varied throughout the year, which required corrections.

To this the Portuguese used the astronomical tables ( Ephemeris
Ephemeris
), precious tools for oceanic navigation, which have experienced a remarkable diffusion in the fifteenth century. These tables revolutionized navigation, allowing to calculate latitude . The tables of the Almanach Perpetuum, by astronomer Abraham Zacuto
Abraham Zacuto
, published in Leiria
Leiria
in 1496, were used along with its improved astrolabe, by Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
.

Sailing
Sailing
Techniques

Map of the five major oceanic gyres

Besides coastal exploration, Portuguese also made trips off in the ocean to gather meteorological and oceanographic information (in these were discovered the archipelagos of Madeira
Madeira
and the Azores, and Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
). The knowledge of wind patterns and currents , the trade winds and the oceanic gyres in the Atlantic, and the determination of latitude led to the discovery of the best ocean route back from Africa: crossing the Central Atlantic to the latitude of the Azores, using the permanent favorable winds and currents that spin clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere because of atmospheric circulation and the effect of Coriolis , facilitating the way to Lisbon
Lisbon
and thus enabling the Portuguese venturing increasingly farther from shore, the maneuver that became known as the "volta do mar " (English: return of the sea).

Cartography

Pre-mercator navigation chart of the Coast of Africa
Africa
(1571), by Fernão Vaz Dourado
Fernão Vaz Dourado
(Torre do Tombo, Lisbon)

It is thought that Jehuda Cresques
Jehuda Cresques
, son of the Catalan cartographer Abraham Cresques have been one of the notable cartographers at the service of Prince Henry. However the oldest signed Portuguese sea chart is a Portolan made by Pedro Reinel in 1485 representing the Western Europe
Europe
and parts of Africa, reflecting the explorations made by Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
. Reinel was also author of the first nautical chart known with an indication of latitudes in 1504 and the first representation of a Wind
Wind
rose .

With his son, cartographer Jorge Reinel and Lopo Homem , they participated in the making of the atlas known as "Lopo Homem-Reinés Atlas" or " Miller Atlas
Miller Atlas
", in 1519. They were considered the best cartographers of their time, with Emperor Charles V wanting them to work for him. In 1517 King Manuel I of Portugal
Portugal
handed Lopo Homem a charter giving him the privilege to certify and amend all compass needles in vessels.

In the third phase of the former Portuguese nautical cartography, characterized by the abandonment of the influence of Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's representation of the East and more accuracy in the representation of lands and continents, stands out Fernão Vaz Dourado
Fernão Vaz Dourado
( Goa
Goa
~ 1520 – ~ 1580), whose work has extraordinary quality and beauty, giving him a reputation as one of the best cartographers of the time. Many of his charts are large scale.

HENRY THE NAVIGATOR

It was the genius of Prince Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
that coordinated and utilized all these tendencies towards expansion. Prince Henry placed at the disposal of his captains the vast resources of the Order of Christ , of which he was the head, and the best information and most accurate instruments and maps that could be obtained. He sought to effect a meeting with the half-fabulous Christian Empire of "Prester John " by way of the "Western Nile" (the Sénégal River ), and, in alliance with that potentate, to crush the Turks and liberate the Holy Land . The concept of an ocean route to India appears to have originated after his death. On land he again defeated the Moors, who attempted to retake Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1418; but in an expedition to Tangier
Tangier
, undertaken in 1437 by King Edward (1433–1438), the Portuguese army was defeated, and could only escape destruction by surrendering as a hostage Prince Ferdinand , the king's youngest brother. Ferdinand, known as "the Constant", from the fortitude with which he endured captivity, died unransomed in 1443. By sea Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa
Africa
and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. In 1433 Cape Bojador
Cape Bojador
was rounded; in 1434 the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon
Lisbon
; and slave trading soon became the most profitable branch of Portuguese commerce, until India was reached. The Senegal was reached in 1445, Cape Verde
Cape Verde
was passed in the same year, and in 1446 Álvaro Fernandes
Álvaro Fernandes
pushed on almost as far as Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
. This was probably the farthest point reached before the Navigator died in 1460. Another vector of the discoveries were the voyages westward, during which the Portuguese discovered the Sargasso Sea
Sargasso Sea
and possibly sighted the shores of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
well before 1492.

PORTUGUESE IN ASIA

The effort to colonize and maintain territories scattered around the entire coast of Africa
Africa
and its surrounding islands, Brazil, India and Indic territories such as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Japan
Japan
, China
China
, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Timor
Timor
was a challenge for a population of only one million. Combined with constant competition from the Spanish this led to a desire for secrecy about every trade route and every colony. As a consequence, many documents that could reach other European countries were in fact fake documents with fake dates and faked facts, to mislead any other nation's possible efforts.

PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES AND EXPLORATIONS (1415–1543)

Main article: Portuguese discoveries
Portuguese discoveries
Portuguese discoveries and explorations: first arrival places and dates; main Portuguese spice trade routes in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(blue); territories of the Portuguese empire
Portuguese empire
under King John III rule (1521–1557) (green)

CHRONOLOGY OF THE PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES

* 1147 — Voyage of the Adventurers. Soon before the siege of Lisbon
Lisbon
by the crusaders, a Muslim
Muslim
expedition left in search of legendary Islands offshore. They were not heard of again. * 1336 — Possible first expedition to the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
with additional expeditions in 1340 and 1341, though this is disputed. * 1412 — Prince Henry, the Navigator , orders the first expeditions to the African Coast and Canary Islands. * 1419 — João Gonçalves Zarco
João Gonçalves Zarco
and Tristão Vaz Teixeira discovered Porto Santo island
Porto Santo island
, in the Madeira
Madeira
group. * 1420 — The same sailors and Bartolomeu Perestrelo discovered the island of Madeira
Madeira
, which at once began to be colonized. * 1422 — Cape Nao, the limit of Moorish navigation is passed as the African Coast is mapped. * 1427 — Diogo de Silves discovered the Azores, which was colonized in 1431 by Gonçalo Velho Cabral. * 1434 — Gil Eanes
Gil Eanes
sailed round Cape Bojador, thus destroying the legends of the ‘Dark Sea’. * 1434 — the 32 point compass-card replaces the 12 points used until then. * 1435 — Gil Eanes
Gil Eanes
and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia discovered Garnet Bay (Angra dos Ruivos) and the latter reached the Gold
Gold
River (Rio de Ouro). * 1441 — Nuno Tristão
Nuno Tristão
reached Cape White. * 1443 — Nuno Tristão
Nuno Tristão
penetrated the Arguim Gulf. Prince Pedro granted Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
the monopoly of navigation, war and trade in the lands south of Cape Bojador
Cape Bojador
. * 1444 — Dinis Dias reached Cape Green (Cabo Verde). * 1445 — Álvaro Fernandes
Álvaro Fernandes
sailed beyond Cabo Verde and reached Cabo dos Mastros (Cape Red) * 1446 — Álvaro Fernandes
Álvaro Fernandes
reached the northern Part of Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
* 1452 — Diogo de Teive discovers the Islands of Flores and Corvo. * 1458 — Alvise Cadamosto
Alvise Cadamosto
discovers the first Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands. * 1460 — Death of Prince Henry, the Navigator. His systematic mapping of the Atlantic reached 8° N on the African Coast and 40° W in the Atlantic (Sargasso Sea) in his lifetime. * 1461 — Diogo Gomes and António Noli discovered more of the Cape Verde Islands . * 1461 — Diogo Afonso discovered the western islands of the Cape Verde group. * 1471 — João de Santarém and Pedro Escobar
Pedro Escobar
crossed the Equator. The southern hemisphere was discovered and the sailors began to be guided by a new constellation, the Southern Cross
Southern Cross
. The discovery of the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
is also attributed to these same sailors. * 1472 — João Vaz Corte-Real and Álvaro Martins Homem reached the Land of Cod, now called Newfoundland
Newfoundland
. * 1479 — Treaty of Alcáçovas
Treaty of Alcáçovas
establishes Portuguese control of the Azores, Guinea, ElMina, Madeira
Madeira
and Cape Verde
Cape Verde
Islands and Castilian control of the Canary Islands. * 1482 — Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
reached the estuary of the Zaire
Zaire
(Congo) and placed a landmark there. Explored 150 km upriver to the Yellala Falls . * 1484 — Diogo Cão
Diogo Cão
reached Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
, south of Namibia
Namibia
. * 1487 — Afonso de Paiva and Pero da Covilhã traveled overland from Lisbon
Lisbon
in search of the Kingdom of Prester John
Prester John
. ( Ethiopia
Ethiopia
) * 1488 — Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
, crowning 50 years of effort and methodical expeditions, rounded the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope
and entered the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. They had found the "Flat Mountain" of Ptolemy's Geography. * 1489/92 — South Atlantic Voyages to map the winds * 1490 — Columbus leaves for Spain
Spain
after his father-in-law's death. * 1492 — First exploration of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. * 1494 — The Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty of Tordesillas
between Portugal
Portugal
and Spain divided the world into two parts, Spain
Spain
claiming all non-Christian lands west of a north-south line 370 leagues west of the Azores, Portugal
Portugal
claiming all non-Christian lands east of that line. * 1495 — Voyage of João Fernandes, the Farmer , and Pedro Barcelos to Greenland
Greenland
. During their voyage they discovered the land to which they gave the name of Labrador
Labrador
(lavrador, farmer) * 1494 — First boats fitted with cannon doors and topsails. * 1498 — Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
led the first fleet around Africa
Africa
to India, arriving in Calicut. * 1498 — Duarte Pacheco Pereira
Duarte Pacheco Pereira
explores the South Atlantic and the South American Coast North of the Amazon River
Amazon River
. * 1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
discovered Brazil
Brazil
on his way to India. * 1500 — Gaspar Corte-Real
Gaspar Corte-Real
made his first voyage to Newfoundland, formerly known as Terras Corte-Real. * 1500 — Diogo Dias discovered an island they named after St Lawrence after the saint on whose feast day they had first sighted the island later known as Madagascar
Madagascar
* 1502 — Returning from India, Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
discovers the Amirante Islands (Seychelles). * 1502 — Miguel Corte-Real set out for New England
England
in search of his brother, Gaspar. João da Nova discovered Ascension Island
Ascension Island
. Fernão de Noronha discovered the island which still bears his name. * 1503 — On his return from the East, Estêvão da Gama discovered Saint Helena
Saint Helena
Island . * 1505 — Gonçalo Álvares in the fleet of the first viceroy sailed south in the Atlantic to were "water and even wine froze" discovering an island named after him, modern Gough Island
Gough Island
* 1505 — Lourenço de Almeida made the first Portuguese voyage to Ceylon ( Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
) and established a settlement there. * 1506 — Tristão da Cunha discovered the island that bears his name. Portuguese sailors become the first Europeans to reach Madagascar. * 1509 — The Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
crossed by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira
. On the crossing he also reached Malacca . * 1511 — Duarte Fernandes is the first European to visit the Kingdom of Siam (Thailand), sent by Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
after the conquest of Malaca. * 1512 — António de Abreu
António de Abreu
discovered Timor
Timor
island and reached Banda Islands
Banda Islands
, Ambon Island
Ambon Island
and Seram
Seram
. Francisco Serrão reached the Moluccas
Moluccas
. * 1512 — Pedro Mascarenhas
Pedro Mascarenhas
discovered the island of Diego Garcia
Diego Garcia
, he also encountered the Mauritius
Mauritius
, although he may not have been the first to do so; expeditions by Diogo Dias and Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
in 1507 may have encountered the islands. In 1528 Diogo Rodrigues
Diogo Rodrigues
named the islands of Réunion, Mauritius, and Rodrigues the Mascarene Islands , after Mascarenhas. * 1512 — João de Lisboa and Estevão Frois reached the La Plata estuary or even perhaps the Gulf of San Matias in 42°S in modern Argentina
Argentina
between 1511 and 1514 (1512) according to the manuscript Newen Zeytung auss Pressilandt in the Fugger archives of the time. Christopher de Haro , the financier of the expedition, bears witness to the trip to La Plata (Rio da Prata) and the news of the "White King" to the interior and west, the Inca emperor – and the axe of silver obtained from the natives and offered to the king Manuel I . * 1513 — The first trading ship to touch the coasts of China
China
, under Jorge Álvares
Jorge Álvares
and Rafael Perestrello
Rafael Perestrello
later in the same year. * 1517 — Fernão Pires de Andrade
Fernão Pires de Andrade
and Tomé Pires were chosen by Manuel I of Portugal
Portugal
to sail to China
China
to formally open relations between the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor
Zhengde Emperor
. * 1525 — Aleixo Garcia explored the Rio de la Plata in service to Spain, as a member of the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís , and later – from Santa Catarina, Brazil
Brazil
– leading an expedition of some Europeans and 2,000 Guaraní Indians , explored Paraguay
Paraguay
and Bolivia
Bolivia
. Aleixo Garcia was the first European to cross the Chaco and even managed to penetrate the outer defenses of the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
on the hills of the Andes
Andes
(near Sucre
Sucre
), in present-day Bolivia. He was the first European to do so, accomplishing this eight years before Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
. * 1526 — Discovery of New Guinea
Guinea
by Jorge de Meneses * 1528 — Diogo Rodrigues
Diogo Rodrigues
explores the Mascarene
Mascarene
islands, that he names after his countryman Pedro Mascarenhas
Pedro Mascarenhas
, he explored and named the islands of Réunion
Réunion
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, and Rodrigues * 1529 — Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain
Spain
and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas. * 1542 — The coast of California
California
explored by João Rodrigues Cabrilho . * 1543 — António Mota , Francisco Zeimoto, and possibly Fernão Mendes Pinto became the first Europeans to reach Japan. * 1557 — Macau given to Portugal
Portugal
by the Emperor of China
China
as a reward for services rendered against the pirates who infested the China
China
Sea .

(missing data on Ormuz – from Socotra
Socotra
to Basra, including Muscat, Bahrain, islands in Strait of Hormuz, etc.)

SEE ALSO

* Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
* Naval history
Naval history
* List of Portuguese people * Lusitania
Lusitania
* Portugal
Portugal
* Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
* Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
(1415–2002) * Portuguese people
Portuguese people

NOTES

* ^ Collins, Robert O.; Burns, James M. (2007). "Part II, Chapter 12: The arrival of Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa". A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-521-86746-0 . in 1475 when his contract expired Rui de Sequeira had reached Cabo Santa Caterina (Cape Saint Catherine) south of the equator and the Gabon River. * ^ Arthur Percival, Newton (1970) . " Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
and The Indies". The Great Age of Discovery. Ayer Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 0-8337-2523-8 . and about the same time Lopo Gonçalves crossed the Equator, while Ruy de Sequeira went on to Cape St. Catherine, two degrees south of the line. * ^ Koch, Peter O. (2003). "Following the Dream of Prince Henry". To the Ends of the Earth: The Age of the European Explorers. McFarland & Company. p. 62. ISBN 0-7864-1565-7 . Gomes was obligated to pledge a small percentage of his profits to the royal treasury. Starting from Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
in 1469, this monetarily motivated entrepreneurial explorer spent the next five years extending Portugal's claims even further than he had been required, reaching as far south as Cape St. Catherine before his contract came up for renewal. * ^ "Corpo Cronológico (Collection of Manuscripts on the Portuguese Discoveries)". UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Programme. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-12-14. * ^ DEBATE SOBRE LA IDENTIDAD DE ESPAÑA. El Mundo * ^ Roger Smith , "Vanguard of the Empire", Oxford University Press, 1993, p.30 * ^ B. W. Diffie, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415 -1580, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, p. 28. * ^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Wood, James , ed. (1907). "Almeida". The Nuttall Encyclopædia . London and New York: Frederick Warne. * ^ Donald Frederick Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley, Asia
Asia
in the Making of Europe, p.520-521, University of Chicago Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-226-46731-3 * ^ José Nicolau da Fonseca, Historical and Archaeological Sketch of the City of Goa, Bombay : Thacker, 1878, pp. 47–48. Reprinted 1986, Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0207-2 .

REFERENCES

* Braudel, Fernand , The Perspective of the World 1985

* v * t * e

Portugal
Portugal
articles

HISTORY

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Treaty of Tordesillas
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* v * t * e

Portuguese overseas empire

NORTH AFRICA

15TH CENTURY

1415–1640 Ceuta
Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier
Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane
Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16TH CENTURY

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

15TH CENTURY

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde
Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé 1

1471–1975 Príncipe
Príncipe
1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold
Gold
Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar
Madagascar
3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands

16TH CENTURY

1500–1630 Malindi
Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique
Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena
Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar
Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra
Socotra

1557–1578 Accra
Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu
Cacheu
4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17TH CENTURY

1645–1888 Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá
São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau
Bissau
4

18TH CENTURY

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe
Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19TH CENTURY

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea
Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo
Portuguese Congo
5

* 1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. * 2 Or 1600. * 3 A factory ( Anosy Region
Anosy Region
) and small temporary coastal bases. * 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Guinea
from 1879. * 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

MIDDLE EAST

16TH CENTURY

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar
Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat
Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat
Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
( Muharraq
Muharraq
Manama
Manama
)

1521–1529? Qatif
Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif
Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17TH CENTURY

1620–? Khor Fakkan
Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm
Qeshm

1623–? Khasab
Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba
Kalba

1624–? Madha
Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn
Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

15TH CENTURY

1498–1545 Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16TH CENTURY Portuguese India
Portuguese India

• 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

• 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

• 1502–1658 1659–1661 Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

• 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

• 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

• 1510–1961 Goa
Goa

• 1512–1525 1750 Calicut (Kozhikode)

• 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

• 1521–1740 Chaul
Chaul

(Portuguese India)

• 1523–1662 Mylapore
Mylapore

• 1528–1666 Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

• 1531–1571 Chaul
Chaul

• 1531–1571 Chalé

• 1534–1601 Salsette Island
Salsette Island

• 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

• 1535 Ponnani
Ponnani

• 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

• 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

• 1540–1612 Surat
Surat

• 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

• 1559–1961 Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu

• 1568–1659 Mangalore
Mangalore

(Portuguese India)

• 1579–1632 Hugli

• 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives
Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives
Maldives

17TH CENTURY Portuguese India
Portuguese India

• 1687–1749 Mylapore
Mylapore

18TH CENTURY Portuguese India
Portuguese India

• 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli

EAST ASIA AND OCEANIA

16TH CENTURY

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku

• 1522–1575 Ternate
Ternate

• 1576–1605 Ambon

• 1578–1650 Tidore
Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar
Makassar

1557–1999 Macau

1580–1586 Nagasaki

17TH CENTURY

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Timor
(East Timor
Timor
)1

19TH CENTURY Portuguese Macau
Portuguese Macau

• 1864–1999 Coloane
Coloane

• 1851–1999 Taipa
Taipa

• 1890–1999 Ilha Verde
Ilha Verde

20TH CENTURY Portuguese Macau
Portuguese Macau

• 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

* 1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

NORTH AMERICA padding:0px;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-left:1.0em;text-align:left;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">

15TH CENTURY

1420 MADEIRA

1432 AZORES

16TH CENTURY

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador
Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia

SOUTH AMERICA padding:0px;border-top:1px solid #aaa;padding-left:1.0em;text-align:left;border-bottom:1px solid #aaa;">

16TH CENTURY

1500–1822 Brazil
Brazil

• 1534–1549 Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Brazil

• 1549–1572 Brazil
Brazil

• 1572–1578 Bahia

• 1572–1578 Rio de Janeiro

• 1578–1607 Brazil
Brazil

• 1621–1815 Brazil
Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17TH CENTURY

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18TH CENTURY

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19TH CENTURY

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

* Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies
* Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
* Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonial architecture
* Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia
Indonesia
* Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
* Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

* v * t * e

Exploration
Exploration
and explorers by nation or region

EXPLORERS BY COUNTRY

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EXPLORATION TIMELINES

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