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The Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
(Latin: Regnum Portugalliae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
and the predecessor of modern Portugal. It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1248, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves, and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves. The name is also often applied to the Portuguese Empire, the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal, established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León
Kingdom of León
in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal
Portugal
established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz. During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
was in personal union with Habsburg Spain. After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza
House of Braganza
and thereafter to the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. From this time, the influence of Portugal
Portugal
declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution
5 October 1910 revolution
and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic. Portugal
Portugal
was a decisive absolute monarchy before 1822. It rotated between absolute and constitutional monarchy from 1822 until 1834, and was a decisive constitutional monarchy after 1834.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Medieval history (1139–1415) 3 Renaissance and early modern history (1415–1777) 4 Modern history (1777–1910) 5 Fall of the Monarchy 6 Rulers 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Notes 10 References

Origins[edit] The Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
finds its origins in the County of Portugal (1093–1139). The Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages:

The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese[1] internally. The second was on 5 October 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora. The third, in 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III.

Once Portugal
Portugal
was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal
Portugal
until 1383. Even after the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal
Portugal
were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links.

An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire.

Medieval history (1139–1415)[edit] Main articles: History of Portugal
Portugal
(1139–1279), 1383–85 Crisis, and History of Portugal
Portugal
(1279–1415) Renaissance and early modern history (1415–1777)[edit] Main articles: History of Portugal
Portugal
(1415–1578), Iberian Union, War of the Portuguese Succession, and Portuguese Renaissance Main articles: Portuguese Restoration War, History of Portugal (1640–1777), Second Portuguese Empire, Brazilian Gold Rush, and Inconfidência Mineira Modern history (1777–1910)[edit] Further information: History of Portugal
Portugal
(1777–1834), Third Portuguese Empire, Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil, Independence of Brazil, Liberal Wars, and History of Portugal (1834–1910) Fall of the Monarchy[edit] Main articles: House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Lisbon Regicide, and 5 October 1910 revolution With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon
Lisbon
among progressive politicians and the influential press. However a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. When returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon. With the death of the king and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become king as King Manuel II of Portugal. Manuel's reign, however, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in England
England
and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic. On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North
Monarchy of the North
was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month later and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal
Portugal
has happened since. After the republican revolution in 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic
Portuguese Republic
until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal
Portugal
were handed over (most notably Portuguese Africa which included the overseas provinces of Angola
Angola
and Mozambique
Mozambique
in 1975, and finally Macau in 1999). Rulers[edit] Main article: List of Portuguese monarchs See also[edit]

Kingdom of Algarve United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Portuguese nobility

Notes[edit]

^ After 1248, it was also known as the Kingdom of Portugal
Portugal
and the Algarves (Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbiae, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal
Portugal
e dos Algarves), and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves (Portuguese: Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves). ^ Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
(until 16th century) Modern Portuguese (16th century onward) ^ Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin
Latin
replaced by Renaissance Latin
Latin
by the 15th century. ^ Until 13th century. ^ Until 16th century, mainly in the Algarve. ^ Until 16th century. ^ Until 16th century. ^ Until 16th century.

Notes[edit]

^ Wilner, Hero, Weiner, p. 190

References[edit]

Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, História de Portugal: Do mindelo á regeneração (1832–1851) José Mattoso, António Manuel Hespanha, História de Portugal
Portugal
4: O Antigo Regime (1620–1807), (1998) ISBN 972-33-1311-1 Simão José da Luz Soriano, Historia da Guerra Civil e do estabelecimento do governo parlamentar em Portugal: comprehedendo a historia diplomatica, militar e politica d'este reino desde 1777 até 1834 Volume 9 (1893) Jacinto de São Miguel (Frei), Martinho Augusto Ferreira da Fonseca, Mosteiro de Belém: Relação da insigne e real casa de Santa Maria de Belém (1901) Mark Willner, George Hero, Jerry Weiner, Global History Volume I: The Ancient World to the Age of Revolution (2006) ISBN 978-0-7641-5811-7 Douglas L. Wheeler, Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910–1926 (1998) ISBN 978-0-299-07454-8

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Topics related to the Portuguese monarchy

Major events

Battle of São Mamede Battle of Ourique Treaty of Zamora Manifestis Probatum 1383–85 Crisis Battle of Aljubarrota Battle of Alfarrobeira Battle of Alcácer Quibir Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 War of the Portuguese Succession Iberian Union Forty Conspirators Portuguese Restoration War Transfer of the Portuguese Court Liberal Revolution of 1820 April Revolt Portuguese Civil War Municipal Library Elevator Coup Lisbon
Lisbon
Regicide 5 October 1910 revolution Royalist attack on Chaves Monarchy of the North

Royal houses

Portuguese House of Burgundy House of Aviz House of Habsburg House of Braganza House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(disputed)

Royal residences

Ajuda Palace São Jorge Alcáçova Belém Palace Buçaco Palace Évora Palace Mafra Palace Necessidades Palace Pena Palace Queluz Palace Quinta da Boa Vista Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Palace Ramalhão Palace Ribeira Palace São Cristóvão Palace Santa Cruz Estate Sintra Palace Vila Viçosa
Vila Viçosa
Palace

Miscellaneous

Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of the Algarve Kingdom of Brazil United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves Portuguese Monarchs Line of succession to the former Portuguese throne Miguelism Sebastianism Portuguese Empire Portuguese Cortes Portuguese nobility List of titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown Council of Portugal Pantheon of the House of Braganza Most Faithful Majesty Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
(current pretender) Genealogical tree of the monarchs of Portugal Portuguese Crown Jewels Style of the Portuguese sovereign His Most Faithful Majesty's Council

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong ( Porto
Porto
Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

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Former monarchies

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century

Africa

Ethiopia Libya Tunisia Egypt Madagascar South Africa Burundi Central Africa Zanzibar Ghana Nigeria Sierra Leone Tanganyika Uganda Kenya Rhodesia The Gambia Mauritius Wituland

Asia

China Korea Vietnam Georgia India Manchukuo Iran Iraq Syria Yemen Afghanistan Turkey Pakistan Sri Lanka Tibet Nepal Mongolia

Europe

Germany

Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Austria-Hungary Russia France Portugal Italy Two Sicilies Hungary Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia Serbia Montenegro Greece Albania Lithuania Hanover Iceland Tuscany Polish-Lithuania Malta Papal States Finland

Oceania

Bora Bora Fiji Hawaii Rarotonga Tahiti

Americas

Brazil Mexico Haiti Trinidad and Tobago Guyana Suriname

Coordinates: 38°42′N 9°11′W / 38.700°N 9.183°W / 38

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