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The KINGDOM OF NAPLES (Neapolitan : _Regno 'e Napule_, Italian : _Regno di Napoli_), comprising the southern part of the Italian Peninsula , was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after the secession of the island of Sicily
Sicily
as a result of the Vespers of 1282 . It continued to be officially known as the KINGDOM OF SICILY, although it no longer included the island of Sicily. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Angevin Kingdom of Naples
Naples
* 2 Kingdom of Naples
Naples
in Aragon crown * 3 Spanish Habsburg
Habsburg
and Bourbon Kingdom of Naples
Naples
* 4 Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples
Naples
* 5 Flags of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources

ANGEVIN KINGDOM OF NAPLES

Following the rebellion in 1282, King Charles I of Sicily
Sicily
(Charles of Anjou) was forced to leave the island of Sicily
Sicily
by Peter III of Aragon 's troops. Charles, however, maintained his possessions on the mainland, customarily known as the "Kingdom of Naples
Naples
", after its capital city.

Charles and his Angevin successors maintained a claim to Sicily, warring against the Aragonese until 1373, when Queen Joan I of Naples formally renounced the claim by the Treaty of Villeneuve . Joan's reign was contested by Louis the Great , the Angevin King of Hungary , who captured the kingdom several times (1348–1352).

Queen Joan I also played a part in the ultimate demise of the first Kingdom of Naples. As she was childless, she adopted Louis I, Duke of Anjou , as her heir, in spite of the claims of her cousin, the Prince of Durazzo, effectively setting up a junior Angevin line in competition with the senior line. This led to Joan I's murder at the hands of the Prince of Durazzo in 1382, and his seizing the throne as Charles III of Naples
Naples
.

The two competing Angevin lines contested each other for the possession of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
over the following decades. Charles III's daughter Joan II (r. 1414–1435) adopted Alfonso V of Aragon (whom she later repudiated) and Louis III of Anjou as heirs alternately, finally settling succession on Louis' brother René of Anjou of the junior Angevin line, and he succeeded her in 1435.

René of Anjou temporarily united the claims of junior and senior Angevin lines. In 1442, however, Alfonso V conquered the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
and unified Sicily
Sicily
and Naples
Naples
once again as dependencies of Aragon . At his death in 1458, the kingdom was again separated and Naples
Naples
was inherited by Ferrante , Alfonso's illegitimate son.

KINGDOM OF NAPLES IN ARAGON CROWN

When Ferrante died in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded Italy, using as a pretext the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples, which his father had inherited on the death of King René's nephew in 1481. This began the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
.

Charles VIII expelled Alfonso II of Naples
Naples
from Naples
Naples
in 1495, but was soon forced to withdraw due to the support of Ferdinand II of Aragon for his cousin, Alfonso II's son Ferrantino . Ferrantino was restored to the throne, but died in 1496, and was succeeded by his uncle, Frederick IV . Provinces of the "Kingdom of Naples"

Charles VIII's successor, Louis XII reiterated the French claim. In 1501, he occupied Naples
Naples
and partitioned the kingdom with Ferdinand of Aragon, who abandoned his cousin King Frederick. The deal soon fell through, however, and Aragon and France resumed their war over the kingdom, ultimately resulting in an Aragonese victory leaving Ferdinand in control of the kingdom by 1504.

The Spanish troops occupying Calabria
Calabria
and Apulia , led by Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova did not respect the new agreement, and expelled all Frenchmen from the area. The peace treaties that continued were never definitive, but they established at least that the title of King of Naples
Naples
was reserved for Ferdinand's grandson, the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. Ferdinand nevertheless continued in possession of the kingdom, being considered as the legitimate heir of his uncle Alfonso I of Naples
Naples
and also to the former Kingdom of Sicily (_Regnum Utriusque Siciliae_).

The kingdom continued as a focus of dispute between France and Spain for the next several decades, but French efforts to gain control of it became feebler as the decades went on, and never genuinely endangered Spanish control.

The French finally abandoned their claims to Naples
Naples
by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis in 1559.

In the Treaty of London (1557), five cities on coast of Tuscany
Tuscany
were designated the _Stato dei Presidi_ ( State of the Presidi ), and part of the Kingdom of Naples.

SPANISH HABSBURG AND BOURBON KINGDOM OF NAPLES

After the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
in the early 18th century, possession of the kingdom again changed hands. Under the terms of the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714, Naples
Naples
was given to Charles VI , the Holy Roman Emperor . He also gained control of Sicily
Sicily
in 1720, but Austrian rule did not last long. Both Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
were conquered by a Spanish army during the War of the Polish Succession in 1734, and Charles, Duke of Parma , a younger son of King Philip V of Spain
Philip V of Spain
was installed as King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
from 1735. When Charles inherited the Spanish throne from his older half-brother in 1759, he left Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
to his younger son, Ferdinand IV . Despite the two Kingdoms being in a personal union under the Habsburg
Habsburg
and Bourbon dynasts, they remained constitutionally separate.

Being a member of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
, Ferdinand IV was a natural opponent of the French Revolution and Napoleon
Napoleon
. In 1798, he briefly occupied Rome, but was expelled from it by French Revolutionary forces within the year. Soon afterwards Ferdinand fled to Sicily. In January 1799 the French armies installed a Parthenopaean Republic , but this proved short-lived, and a peasant counter-revolution inspired by the clergy allowed Ferdinand to return to his capital. However, in 1801 Ferdinand was compelled to make important concessions to the French by the Treaty of Florence , which reinforced France's position as the dominant power in mainland Italy.

NAPOLEONIC KINGDOM OF NAPLES

Ferdinand's decision to ally with the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
against Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1805 proved more damaging. In 1806, following decisive victories over the allied armies at Austerlitz and over the Neapolitans at Campo Tenese , Napoleon
Napoleon
installed his brother, Joseph as King of Naples. When Joseph was sent off to Spain
Spain
two years later, he was replaced by Napoleon's sister Caroline and his brother-in-law Marshal Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
, as _King of the Two Sicilies_.

Meanwhile, Ferdinand had fled to Sicily, where he retained his throne, despite successive attempts by Murat to invade the island. The British would defend Sicily
Sicily
for the remainder of the war but despite the Kingdom of Sicily nominally being part of the Fourth , Fifth and Sixth Coalitions against Napoleon, Ferdinand and the British were unable to ever challenge French control of the Italian mainland.

After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, Murat reached an agreement with Austria and was allowed to retain the throne of Naples, despite the lobbying efforts of Ferdinand and his supporters. However, with most of the other powers, particularly Britain, hostile towards him and dependent on the uncertain support of Austria, Murat's position became less and less secure. Therefore, when Napoleon
Napoleon
returned to France for the Hundred Days
Hundred Days
in 1815, Murat once again sided with him. Realising the Austrians would soon attempt to remove him, Murat gave the Rimini Proclamation in a hope to save his kingdom by allying himself with Italian nationalists.

The ensuing Neapolitan War between Murat and the Austrians was short, ending with a decisive victory for the Austrian forces at the Battle of Tolentino . Murat was forced to flee, and Ferdinand IV of Sicily was restored to the throne of Naples. Murat would attempt to regain his throne but was quickly captured and executed by firing squad in Pizzo, Calabria
Calabria
. The next year, 1816, finally saw the formal union of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
with the Kingdom of Sicily into the new Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .

FLAGS OF THE KINGDOM OF NAPLES

*

1282-1442 Angevin flag of Naples
Naples
*

1442-1516 Flag changed after Alfonso I of the House of Trastámara became King. *

The kingdom adopted the flag of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
when the Habsburg Charles V became King of Naples
Naples
in 1516. *

1714-1738 Flag changed after Charles VI became King. *

1738–1806; 1815–1816 Flag changed after Charles VII became King of Naples. Flag was reinstated as the flag of Naples
Naples
after the Napoleonic Wars . *

1806–1808 Flag of Naples
Naples
changed after Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte
became king. *

1808–1811 Flag of Naples
Naples
changed after Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
became king. *

1811–1815 Flag of Naples
Naples
changed

SEE ALSO

* History of Naples
Naples
* List of monarchs of Naples
Naples
* Artistic patronage of the Neapolitan Angevin dynasty

REFERENCES

* ^ Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2007). _Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760–1815: Volume 1_. Greenwood. p. 495. ISBN 978-0-313-33446-7 .

SOURCES

* Colletta, Pietro (13 October 2009), _The History of the Kingdom of Naples: From the Accession of Charles of Bourbon to the Death of Ferdinand I_, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-881-5 , retrieved 20 February 2011 * Musto, Ronald G. (2013). _Medieval Naples: A Documentary History 400–1400_. New York: Italica Press. ISBN 9781599102474 . OCLC 810773043 . * Porter, Jeanne Chenault (2000). _Baroque Naples: A Documentary History 1600–1800_. New York: Italica Press. ISBN 9780934977524 . OCLC
OCLC
43167960 . * Santore, John (2001). _Modern Naples: A Documentary History 1799–1999_. New York: Italica Press. pp. 1–186. ISBN 9780934977531 . OCLC
OCLC
45087196 .

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta

Ancient History and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia (238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento
Duchy of Benevento
* Duchy of Friuli * Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona * Duchy of Aosta * Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro * Commune of Rome * Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale
Marquisate of Finale
* City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence * Duchy of Florence * March of Friuli * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan
* Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont * Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa * Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy
County of Savoy
* Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena
Republic of Siena
* Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany
Tuscany
* Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
* County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751)

* Duchy of Rome (533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa
Exarchate of Africa
(585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr * Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi * Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Naples
* Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari * Emirate of Sicily
Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno * Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
* County of Aversa * County of Sicily
Sicily
* Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea * Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily (1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora * Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta
Malta
under the Order * Gozo * Malta Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona * Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome * Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples
Naples
* Pontecorvo * Tuscany
Tuscany
* Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
(1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

* Italian Empire (1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire

TIMELINE

* Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* Habsburgs * Golden Age * Encomiendas * New Laws in favour of the indigenous * Expulsion of the Moriscos * Eighty Years\' War * Portuguese Restoration War * Bourbons * Napoleonic invasion * Independence of Spanish continental Americas * Liberal constitution * Carlist Wars * Spanish–American War * German–Spanish Treaty (1899) * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* Independence of Morocco ( Western Sahara conflict )

TERRITORIES

* Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia * Milan * Union with Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* Netherlands
Netherlands
* Franche-Comté * Portugal * Philippines * East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) * Northern Taiwan * Tidore * Florida * New Spain (Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) * Spanish Louisiana * Coastal Alaska * Haiti * Belize * Jamaica * Trinidad and Tobago * Venezuela, Northern and Western Guyana * New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) * Peru (Peru, Acre) * Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands ) * Chile * Equatorial Guinea * Spanish North Africa ( Ifni , Cape Juby , Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara )

ADMINISTRATION

* Council of the Indies * Cabildo * Trial of residence * Laws of the Indies * Royal Decree of Graces * Exequatur * Papal bull * School of Salamanca

ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS

VICEROYALTIES

* New Spain * New Granada * Perú * Río de la Plata

AUDIENCIAS

* Bogotá * Buenos Aires * Caracas * Charcas * Concepción * Cusco * Guadalajara * Guatemala * Lima * Manila * Mexico * Panamá * Quito * Santiago * Santo Domingo

CAPTAINCIES GENERAL

* Chile * Cuba * Guatemala * Philippines * Puerto Rico * Santo Domingo * Venezuela * Yucatán * Provincias Internas

GOVERNORATES

* Castilla de Oro * Cuba * New Andalusia (1501–1513) * New Andalusia * New Castile * New Toledo * Paraguay * Río de la Plata

ECONOMY

CURRENCIES

* Dollar * Real * Maravedí * Escudo * Columnario

TRADE

* Manila galleon * Spanish treasure fleet * Casa de Contratación * Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas * Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

MILITARY

ARMIES

* Tercio
Tercio
* Army of Flanders * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Indian auxiliaries * Legión

WARRIORS

* Duke of Alba * Antonio de Leyva * Martín de Goiti * Alfonso d\'Avalos * García de Toledo Osorio * Duke of Savoy * Álvaro de Bazán the Elder * John of Austria
John of Austria
* Charles Bonaventure de Longueval * Pedro de Zubiaur * Ambrosio Spinola * Bernardo de Gálvez

SAILORS

* Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
* Pinzón brothers * Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
* Juan Sebastián Elcano * Juan de la Cosa
Juan de la Cosa
* Juan Ponce de León * Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi
* Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés
* Sebastián de Ocampo * Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca * Alonso de Ojeda * Vasco Núñez de Balboa * Alonso de Salazar * Andrés de Urdaneta * Antonio de Ulloa * Ruy López de Villalobos * Diego Columbus * Alonso de Ercilla * Nicolás de Ovando * Juan de Ayala * Sebastián Vizcaíno * Juan Fernández * Felipe González de Ahedo

CONQUISTADORS

* Hernán Cortés * Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
* Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada * Hernán Pérez de Quesada * Francisco Vázquez de Coronado * Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar * Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
* Pedro de Alvarado * Martín de Ursúa * Diego de Almagro * Pánfilo de Narváez * Diego de Mazariegos * Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera

BATTLES

OLD WORLD

WON

* Bicocca * Landriano * Pavia * Tunis * Mühlberg * St. Quentin * Gravelines * Malta
Malta
* Lepanto * Antwerp * Azores * Siege of Mons * Gembloux * Siege of Ostend * English Armada
English Armada
* Cape Celidonia * White Mountain * Siege of Breda * Nördlingen * Valenciennes * Siege of Ceuta * Bitonto * Bailén * Vitoria * Tetouan * Alhucemas

LOST

* Capo d\'Orso * Preveza * Siege of Castelnuovo * Algiers * Ceresole * Djerba * Tunis * Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
* Leiden * Rocroi * Downs * Passaro * Trafalgar * Somosierra * Annual

NEW WORLD

WON

* Siege of Tenochtitlan * Cajamarca * Cuzco * Bogotá savanna * Reynogüelén * Penco * Guadalupe Island * San Juan * Cartagena de Indias * Cuerno Verde * Pensacola

LOST

* La Noche Triste * Tucapel * Chacabuco * Carabobo * Ayacucho * Guam * Santiago de Cuba * Manila Bay * Asomante

SPANISH COLONIZATIONS

* Canary Islands * Aztec

* Maya

* Chiapas * Yucatán * Guatemala * Petén

* El Salvador * Honduras * Nicaragua * Chibchan Nations * Colombia * Peru * Chile

OTHER CIVIL TOPICS

* Spanish missions in the Americas * Architecture * Mesoamerican codices * Cusco painting tradition * Indochristian painting in New Spain * Quito painting tradition * Colonial universities in Latin America * Colonial universities in the Philippines * General Archive of the Indies * Colonial Spanish Horse * Castas * Old inquisition * Slavery in Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
* British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain
Spain

* v * t * e

The Bourbons of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily

CHARLES VII

SPOUSE(S)

* _HH _ Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony

CHILDREN

* Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress * Prince Felipe, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
* Charles IV of Spain * Princess María Teresa * Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies * Prince Gabriel * Princess Ana María * Prince Antonio Pascual * Prince Francisco Javier

_

FERDINAND IV

SPOUSE(S)

* HRH _ Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria * Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia

CHILDREN

* Maria Teresa, Holy Roman Empress * Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Tuscany
* Carlo, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
* Princess Maria Ana * Francis I of the Two Sicilies
Francis I of the Two Sicilies
* Maria Christina, Queen of Sardinia * Princess Maria Cristina Amelia * Prince Gennaro * Prince Giuseppe * Maria Amalia, Queen of the French * Princess Maria Cristina * Maria Antonia, Princess of Asturias * Princess Maria Clothilde * Princess Maria Enrichetta * Prince Carlo* * Prince Leopold, Prince of Salerno * Prince Alberto * Princess Maria Isabella

See also: _Princes _ and _Princesses of the Two Sicilies _

* v * t * e

Residences of the Royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies

* Palace of Capodimonte * Palace of Caserta * Royal Palace of Naples
Naples
* Palace of Portici