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The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(Italian: Regno Lombardo-Veneto, German: Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Latin: Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire. It was created in 1815 by resolution of the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in recognition of the Austrian House of Habsburg-Lorraine's rights to Lombardy
Lombardy
and the former Republic of Venice
Venice
after the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed in 1805, had collapsed.[3] It was finally dissolved in 1866 when its remaining territory was incorporated into the recently proclaimed Kingdom of Italy.

Contents

1 History

1.1 End of the Kingdom

2 Administration 3 Rulers

3.1 Kings 3.2 Viceroys 3.3 Governors of Lombardy 3.4 Governors of Venetia

4 Sources 5 External links

History[edit]

An Austrian herald's tabard (Wappenrock) with the coat of arms of Lombardy-Venetia (1834) – Weltliche Schatzkammer in Vienna

In 1814, Treaty of Paris the Austrians had confirmed their claims to the territories of the former Lombard Duchy of Milan, which had been ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
since 1718 and together with the adjacent Duchy of Mantua
Duchy of Mantua
by the Austrian tree branch of the dynasty from 1713 to 1796, and of the former Republic of Venice, which had been under Austrian rule intermittently upon the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
combined these lands into a single kingdom, ruled in personal union by the Habsburg Emperor of Austria; as distinct of the neighbouring Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio as well as the Duchy of Parma, which remained independent entities under Habsburg rule. The Austrian emperor was represented day-to-day by viceroys appointed by the Imperial Court in Vienna
Vienna
and resident in Milan
Milan
and Venice.[2][4][5][6] The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
was first ruled by Emperor Francis I from 1815 to his death in 1835. His son Ferdinand I ruled from 1835 to 1848. In Milan
Milan
on 6 September 1838 he became the last king to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. The crown was subsequently brought to Vienna
Vienna
after the loss of Lombardy
Lombardy
in 1859, but was restored to Italy
Italy
after the loss of Venetia in 1866. Though the local administration was Italian in language and staff, the Austrian authorities had to cope with the Italian unification (Risorgimento) movement. After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848, known as the "Five Days of Milan", the Austrians fled from Milan, which became the capital city of a Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia ( Lombardy
Lombardy
Provisional Government). The next day, Venice
Venice
also rose against the Austrian rule, forming the Governo Provvisorio di Venezia ( Venice
Venice
Provisional Government). The Austrian forces under Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza (24–25 July 1848), entered Milan
Milan
(6 August) and Venice
Venice
(24 August 1849), and once again restored Austrian rule. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence. The office of Viceroy
Viceroy
was abolished and replaced by a Governor-General. The office was initially assumed by Field Marshal Radetzky, upon his retirement in 1857 it passed it to Franz Joseph's younger brother Maximilian (who later became Emperor of Mexico), who served as Governor-General
Governor-General
in Milan
Milan
from 1857 to 1859.

Lombardy–Venetia (1853) and its major cities

Political map of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
in the year 1843

End of the Kingdom[edit] After the Second Italian War of Independence
Second Italian War of Independence
and the defeat in the Battle of Solferino
Battle of Solferino
in 1859, Austria by the Treaty of Zurich had to cede Lombardy
Lombardy
up to the Mincio
Mincio
River, except for the fortresses of Mantua
Mantua
and Peschiera, to the French Emperor Napoleon III, who immediately passed it to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
and the embryonic Italian state. Maximilian retired to Miramare Castle
Miramare Castle
near Trieste, while the capital was relocated to Venice, however, remaining Venetia and Mantua
Mantua
likewise fell to the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, by the 1866 Peace of Prague.[7] The territory of Venetia and Mantua
Mantua
was formally transferred from Austria to France, and then handed over to Italy
Italy
on 19 October 1866, for diplomatic reasons; a plebiscite marked the Italian annexation on 21–22 October 1866.[8] Administration[edit] Administratively the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
comprised two independent governments (Gubernien) in its two parts, which officially were declared separate crown lands in 1851. Each part was further subdivided in several provinces, roughly corresponding with the départements of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. Lombardy
Lombardy
included the provinces of Milan, Como, Bergamo, Brescia, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova, Lodi-Crema, and Sondrio. Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Verona, Padova, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno, and Udine.[7] According to the Ethnographic map of Karl von Czoernig-Czernhausen, issued by the k.u.k. Administration of Statistics in 1855, the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia had a population of 5,024,117 people, consisting of the following ethnic groups: 4,625,746 Italians; 351,805 Friulians; 12,084 Germans (Cimbrians in Venetia); 26,676 Slovenians and 7,806 Jews.

Provinces of Lombardy–Venetia

Etnographic map of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(1855) by Karl Freiherrn von Czoernig

Rulers[edit] Kings[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Francis I (1768-02-12)12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835(1835-03-02) (aged 67) 9 June 1815 2 March 1835

Habsburg-Lorraine

Ferdinand I

the Benign

(1793-04-19)19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875(1875-06-29) (aged 82) 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 (abdicated) Son of Francis I Habsburg-Lorraine

Francis Joseph I (1830-08-18)18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916(1916-11-21) (aged 86) 2 December 1848 12 October 1866 (deposed) Nephew of Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine

Viceroys[edit]

Heinrich XV, Prince of Reuss-Plauen
Heinrich XV, Prince of Reuss-Plauen
1814–1815 Count Friedrich Heinrich von Bellegarde
Count Friedrich Heinrich von Bellegarde
1815–1816 Archduke Anton Victor of Austria
Archduke Anton Victor of Austria
1816–1818 Archduke Rainer of Austria 1818–1848 Count Joseph Radetzky von Radetz
Joseph Radetzky von Radetz
1848–1857 Archduke Maximilian of Austria 1857–1859 Ferencz Gyulai
Ferencz Gyulai
1859

Governors of Lombardy[edit]

Heinrich Johann Bellegarde
Heinrich Johann Bellegarde
1814–1816 Francesco Saurau 1816–1818 Giulio Strassoldo di Sotto 1818–1830 Franz Hartig 1830–1840 Robert von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz 1840–1841 Johann Baptist Spaur 1841–1848 Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell
Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell
1848 (acting) Felix von Schwarzenberg 1848 Franz Wimpffen 1848 (acting) Alberto Montecuccoli-Laderchi 1848–1849 (acting) Karl Borromäus Philipp zu Schwarzenberg 1849–1850 (acting) Michele Strassoldo-Grafenberg 1851–1857 (with the title of Lieutenant of Lombardy) Friedrich von Burger 1857–1859

Governors of Venetia[edit]

Peter Goëss 1815–1819 Ferdinand Ernst Maria von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1819–1820 Carlo d'Inzaghi 1820–1826 Johann Baptist Spaur 1826–1840 Aloys Pállfy de Erdöd 1840–1848 Ferdinand Zichy zu Zich von Vasonykeöy 1848 (acting) Laval Nugent von Westmeath
Laval Nugent von Westmeath
1848–1849 (military governor) Karl von Gorzowsky 1849 Stanislaus Anton Puchner 1849–1850 Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1850–1855 Kajetan von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1855–1860 Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1860–1866 (second time)

Sources[edit]

^ Pütz, Wilhelm (1855). Leitfaden bei dem Unterricht in der vergleichenden Erdbeschreibung. Freiburg.  ^ a b c Fisher, Richard S. (1852). The Book of the World: Volume 2. New York.  ^ Rindler Schjerve, Rosita (2003). Diglossia and Power. Berlin.  ^ Francis Young & W.B.B. Stevens (1864). Garibaldi: His Life and Times. London.  ^ Pollock, Arthur William Alsager (1854). The United Service magazine: Vol.75. London.  ^ Förster, Ernst (1866). Handbuch für Reisende in Italien: Vol.1. Munich.  ^ a b Rosita Rindler Schjerve (2003) "Diglossia and Power: Language Policies and Practice in the 19th Century Habsburg Empire", ISBN 3-11-017653-X, pp. 199-200 ^ "21st-22nd October 1866: annexation of Veneto to Italy" (in Italian)

External links[edit]

Media related to Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia at Wikimedia Commons Flags of Lombardy–Venetia

v t e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta

Etruscan civilization

Lega dei popoli

Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome

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Exarchate of Ravenna
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Duchy of Rome
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Duchy of Perugia
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(585–698)

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Duchy of Amalfi Duchy of Gaeta Catepanate of Italy Longobardia Theme of Lucania Duchy of Naples Theme of Sicily and Byzantine Sicily Duchy of Sorrento

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Emirate of Bari Emirate of Sicily

Lombard

Principality of Benevento Principality of Salerno Principality of Capua

Norman

County of Apulia and Calabria County of Aversa County of Sicily Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

Giudicati

Agugliastra Arborea Cagliari Gallura Logudoro

Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
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Republics

Alba Ancona Bergamo Bologna Brescia Cisalpinia Cispadania Crema Italy Liguria Lucca Parthenopea Piedmont Rome Subalpinia Tiberinia Transpadania

Monarchies

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Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) Duchy of Lucca
Duchy of Lucca
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Duchy of Massa and Carrara
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Duchy of Modena and Reggio
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Duchy of Parma
(1814–1859) Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
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Italian United Provinces
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Milan
(1848) Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco
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Roman Republic
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Italy
(1859–1860) Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
(1814–1860) Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
(1816–1861) Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(1815–1866) Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

Post-unification

Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(1861–1946)

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(1869–1946)

Free State of Fiume
Free State of Fiume
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Trieste
(1947-1954)

v t e

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Austrian Empire

Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom of Slavonia Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Styria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Grand Principality of Transylvania Margravate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Tyrol County of Gorizia
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157135068 GND: 421579

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