HOME
The Info List - Kingdom Of Lithuania



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i)

The KINGDOM OF LITHUANIA was a Lithuanian monarchy which existed from 1251 to roughly 1263. King Mindaugas
Mindaugas
was the first and only crowned king of Lithuania. The status of a kingdom was lost after Mindaugas' assassination in 1263. Other monarchs of Lithuania
Lithuania
are referred to as Grand Dukes, even though their status was almost identical to that of a king. Two attempts were made to reestablish the Kingdom – by Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great in 1430 and by the Council of Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1918.

CONTENTS

* 1 King Mindaugas
Mindaugas
* 2 Attempts to reestablish the kingdom * 3 See also * 4 References

KING MINDAUGAS

Main article: History of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1219–1295) The papal bull regarding Lithuania's placement under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome

In the early 13th century, Lithuania
Lithuania
was inhabited by various pagan Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
, which began to organize themselves into a state – the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Lithuania
. By the 1230s, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
emerged as the leader of the Grand Duchy. In 1249, an internal war erupted between Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and his nephews Tautvilas and Edivydas . As each side searched for foreign allies, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
succeeded in convincing the Livonian Order not only to provide military assistance, but also to secure for him the royal crown of Lithuania
Lithuania
in exchange for his conversion to Catholicism
Catholicism
and some lands in western Lithuania. The status of a kingdom was granted on July 17, 1251, when the Bishop of Chełmno was ordered to crown Mindaugas
Mindaugas
by Pope Innocent IV . Two years later, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and his wife Morta were crowned as the King and Queen of Lithuania. In 1255, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
received permission from Pope Alexander IV to crown his son as King of Lithuania.

The coronation and the alliance with the Livonian Order allowed a period of peace between Lithuania
Lithuania
and Livonia. During that time the Lithuanians expanded east, while Livonia attempted to conquer Samogitia
Samogitia
. Enticed by his nephew Treniota
Treniota
, Mindaugas
Mindaugas
broke the peace after the Order was defeated in the Battle of Skuodas in 1259 and Battle of Durbe in 1260. Treniota's influence grew as he waged a war against the Order and his priorities began to diverge from those of Mindaugas. The conflict resulted in assassination of Mindaugas
Mindaugas
and two of his sons in 1263. The country reverted to paganism and its status as a kingdom was lost. The state survived as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the subsequent monarchs are known as Grand Dukes as they could not be crowned as kings until they converted to Christianity (the Christianization of Lithuania
Lithuania
occurred only in 1387).

ATTEMPTS TO REESTABLISH THE KINGDOM

200 litas commemorative coin dedicated to the 750th anniversary of Mindaugas
Mindaugas
' coronation

There was an attempt by Grand Duke Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great (ruled 1392–1430) to receive the royal crown. As discussed at the Congress of Lutsk , he was proclaimed king, and Lithuania
Lithuania
a kingdom, by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
, in 1430, but the royal crown, which was sent by Sigismund to Vytautas, was intercepted by Polish noblemen . Soon afterwards Vytautas
Vytautas
died, without being crowned as king.

After Lithuania
Lithuania
declared independence in February 1918, the monarchy was reestablished and the 2nd Duke of Urach was invited to become King Mindaugas
Mindaugas
II . However, the monarchy was short-lived and Mindaugas
Mindaugas
II never visited Lithuania. The Kingdom of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a client-state of the German Empire
German Empire
and following Germany\'s defeat in World War I in fall 1918, the idea of a monarchy was abandoned in favor of a democratic republic.

SEE ALSO

* Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Lithuania
* Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Duchy of Lithuania
* Kingdom of Lithuania (1918) * Lithuania
Lithuania
proper

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Gudavičius, Edvardas (1998). Mindaugas
Mindaugas
(in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Žara. ISBN 9986-34-020-9 . * ^ Kiaupa, Zigmantas (2002). "Mindaugo karalystės raida". Gimtoji istorija. Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Elektroninės leidybos namai. ISBN 9986-9216-9-4 . * ^ Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish–Lithuanian State, 1386–1795. A History of East Central Europe. University of Washington Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-295-98093-1 . * ^ Page, Stanley W. (1959). The Formation of the Baltic States. Harvard University Press. p. 94. OCLC 100463 .

* v * t * e

Lithuania
Lithuania
articles

HISTORY

EARLY

* Balts * Lithuania
Lithuania
proper

* Grand Duchy

* 1219–95 * Duchy * Kingdom * Christianization * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Revival and independence

* Press ban

* National Revival

* Great Seimas of Vilnius

* Act of Independence

* Wars of Independence

* Lithuanian–Soviet War * Polish–Lithuanian War

* 1919 Polish coup d\'état attempt * First Soviet republic * 1926 coup d\'état

WWII and occupations

* Occupation of the Baltic states

* by the Soviet Union (1940) * by Nazi Germany * by the Soviet Union (1944)

* Holocaust * Resistance * Second Soviet republic * Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–91) * Government-in-exile

RESTORATION

* Reform Movement (Sąjūdis) * Singing Revolution * Baltic Way * Act of Re-Establishment * January Events * August Putsch

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities

* capital

* Climate * Extreme points * Flora * Forests * Lakes * Regional parks * Rivers * Towns

POLITICS

* Administrative divisions

* counties * municipalities * elderships

* Constitution

* Constitutional Court

* Elections * Foreign relations

* Government

* Prime Minister

* Law

* Law enforcement

* Seimas
Seimas
parliament

* Speaker * Political parties

* President

MILITARY

* Land Force * Naval Force * Air Force * Special
Special
Operations Force

ECONOMY

* Agriculture

* Banks

* Central bank

* Energy * Euro * Litas (former currency) * Telecommunications

* Transport

* airports * rail * roads * seaport

* Tourism

SOCIETY

* Demographics

* Education

* universities

* Ethnic minorities * Ethnographic regions * Language * Lithuanians * Religion

CULTURE

* Calendar * Cinema * Cuisine * Cultural history * Ethnographic Lithuania
Lithuania
* Literature * Music * Mythology * Name * Public holidays * Sport

* Symbols

* anthem * coat of arms * flag

* Outline * Ind