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The KINGDOM OF IRELAND (Classical Irish : Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish : Ríocht Éireann) was a client state of the Kingdom of England that existed on Ireland
Ireland
from 1542 until 1800. It came into being when the Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland
passed the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 and proclaimed King Henry VIII of England as King of Ireland. The territory of the Kingdom had previously had the status of a lordship of the Crown.

The Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland
passed the Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was also passed by the Parliament of Great Britain
Parliament of Great Britain
. The act also had the effect of establishing the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland
Ireland
and of Great Britain . In its early years, the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
had limited recognition . While some Protestant powers in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland
Ireland
, no Catholic power did so. Henry's daughter, Queen Mary I of England
Mary I of England
, was recognised as Queen of Ireland
Ireland
by Pope Paul IV in 1555.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Tudor Ireland
Ireland
* 1.3 Stuart Ireland
Ireland
* 1.4 Grattan\'s Patriots * 1.5 United Irishmen

* 2 Viceroy * 3 Parliament * 4 Church of Ireland * 5 Ethnic conflict * 6 Coat of arms * 7 Notes

* 8 References

* 8.1 Bibliography

HISTORY

BACKGROUND

See also: Norman invasion of Ireland
Ireland
and Lordship of Ireland

The papal bull Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155. It granted the Angevin King Henry II of England
Henry II of England
the title Dominus Hibernae (Latin for "Lord of Ireland"). Laudabiliter
Laudabiliter
authorised the king to invade Ireland
Ireland
, to bring the country into the European sphere. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope. This was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.

When Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII , in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry had broken away from the Holy See and declared himself the head of the Church in England. He had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, and was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III . The Treason Act (Ireland) 1537 was passed to counteract this.

TUDOR IRELAND

See also: Tudor conquest of Ireland
Ireland

Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas
Silken Thomas
in 1534–35, Grey , the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, and took their submissions . By 1540 most of Ireland seemed at peace and under the control of the king's Dublin administration; a situation that was not to last for long.

Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland
Ireland
by the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1542 , an Act of the Irish Parliament . The new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI , Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland. The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
to the Crown of England
England
became enshrined in Catholic canon law . In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
was ruled by the reigning King of England . This placed the new Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
in personal union with the Kingdom of England .

In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King\'s Inns for barristers in 1541, and the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin
Dublin
were delayed until 1592.

In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O\'Neill , earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords against the crown, in what later became known as the Nine Years\' War . A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland
Ireland
to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland.

STUART IRELAND

In 1603 James VI King of Scots
King of Scots
became James I of England , uniting the Kingdoms of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
in a personal union . The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
were ruled as a republic until 1660. This period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II . Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649.

GRATTAN\'S PATRIOTS

Main article: Irish Patriot Party

Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782
Constitution of 1782
, granting Ireland
Ireland
legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan\'s Parliament , after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan . Although Ireland
Ireland
had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788–89 a Regency crisis arose when King George III became ill. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales, later George IV , as Regent of Ireland. The king recovered before this could be enacted.

UNITED IRISHMEN

Charlotte Schreiber
Charlotte Schreiber
's The Croppy Boy (1879), relating to the United Irishmen's Wexford Rebellion . A man, possible a rebel from his green cravat, kneels before a Catholic priest who is covertly in military uniform. The church hierarchy opposed the rebellion.

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 , and the rebels' alliance with Great Britain's longtime enemy the French, led to a push to bring Ireland formally into the British Union. By the Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
, voted for by both Irish and British Parliaments, the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
merged on 1 January 1801 with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
. The Irish Parliament ceased to exist, though the executive, presided over by the Lord Lieutenant, remained in place until 1922. The union was later the subject of much controversy.

In 1937, the link to the British Crown was repealed, but the monarch was the de jure king in the new State until 1949. In the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
the 1542 Act was repealed in 1962. Political union between England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
was established in 1707 with the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain .

VICEROY

The Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
was governed by an executive under the control of a Lord Deputy or viceroy . The post was held by senior nobles such as Thomas Radcliffe . From 1688 the title was usually Lord Lieutenant . In the absence of a Lord Deputy, lords justices ruled. While some Irishmen held the post, most of the lords deputy were English noblemen. While the viceroy controlled the Irish administration as the monarch's representative, in the eighteenth century the political post of Chief Secretary for Ireland
Ireland
became increasingly powerful.

The Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
was legislated by the bicameral Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
, made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons . The powers of the Irish parliament were circumscribed by a series of restrictive laws, mainly Poynings\' Law of 1494.

PARLIAMENT

Main article: Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland

Roman Catholics and dissenters, mostly Presbyterians , Baptists, and Methodists, were excluded from membership of the Irish parliament from 1693 and their rights were restricted by a series of laws called the Penal Laws . They were denied voting rights from 1728 until 1793. The Grattan Parliament succeeded in achieving the repeal of Poynings\' Law in 1782. This allowed progressive legislation and gradual liberalisation was effected. Catholics and Dissenters were given the right to vote in 1793, but Catholics were still excluded from the Irish Parliament and senior public offices in the kingdom. As in Great Britain and the rest of Europe, voting and membership of parliament was restricted to property owners. In the 1720s the new Irish Houses of Parliament were built in College Green
College Green
, Dublin.

CHURCH OF IRELAND

Trinity College, Dublin
Dublin
was founded by the Elizabethans to serve as the organ of the Anglican intelligentsia. Main article: Reformation in Ireland
Ireland

When Henry VIII was excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in 1538, all but two of the bishops of the Church in Ireland
Ireland
followed the doctrine of the Church of England , although almost no clergy or laity did so. Having paid their Annates to the Papacy , the bishops had no reason to step down, and in the 1530s nobody knew how long the reformation would last. Unlike Henry VIII, this hierarchy was not excommunicated by the Papacy, and still controlled what became the State Church
State Church
of the new Kingdom in 1542, and retained possession of most Church property (including a great repository of religious architecture and other items, though some were later destroyed). In 1553 Irish Catholics were heartened by the coronation of Queen Mary I , who persuaded the Papacy to recognise the Kingdom in 1555, via the papal bull "Ilius".

Then in 1558 the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne, survived the 1570 bull Regnans in Excelsis , and all but one of the following monarchs were Anglican. Contrary to the official plan, the substantial majority of the population remained strongly Roman Catholic, despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the state church. Despite its numerical minority, however, the Church of Ireland remained the official state church until it was disestablished on 1 January 1871 by the Liberal government under William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
.

ETHNIC CONFLICT

The legacy of the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
remains a bone of contention in Irish-British relations to this day because of the constant ethnic conflict between the native Irish inhabitants and primarily the New English ruling caste (as well as a parallel conflict with settled Ulster-Scots ). The regime privileged English culture (law, language, dress, religion, economic relations and definitions of land ownership) in Ireland, while the Gaelic culture and Irish language , though maintained to a significant extent by the majority of the native population was presented as "barbaric", "savage" or otherwise the mark of undesirability. While the Lordship of Ireland had existed since the 12th century and nominally owed allegiance to the English monarchy, many kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland continued to exist; this came to an end with the Kingdom of Ireland, where the whole island was brought under the centralised control of an Anglocentric regime based at Dublin
Dublin
. This phase of Irish history marked the beginning of an officially organised policy of settler colonialism , orchestrated from London
London
and the incorporation of Ireland
Ireland
into the British Empire (indeed Ireland
Ireland
is called "England's first colony"). The theme is prominently addressed in Irish postcolonial literature.

The nominal religion of the native majority and its clergy; the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Ireland
Ireland
; was actively persecuted by the state and a set of Penal Laws in favour of the Anglican Church in Ireland
Ireland
, highly damaging to the native Irish Catholics, were erected. There is some controversy that during Tudor times, elements within the government at times engaged in and advanced a genocidal policy against the Irish Gaels , while during the Plantations of Ireland (particularly "successful" in Ulster) the local population were displaced in a project of ethnic cleansing where regions of Ireland became de-Gaelicised, which led in turn to bloody retaliations, which drags on to modern times. Some of the native inhabitants, including their leadership were permitted to flee into exile from the country following ending up on the losing side in conflicts (i.e. the Flight of the Earls and the Flight of the Wild Geese
Flight of the Wild Geese
) or in the case of the Cromwellian regime were forced into indentured servitude in the Caribbean
Caribbean
, following mass land confiscation for the benefit of New English settlers.

On the other hand, the fact that the kingdom had been a unitary state gave Irish nationalists in 1912–22 a reason to expect that the island of Ireland
Ireland
would be treated as a single political unit.

COAT OF ARMS

Coat of arms with the crest

The arms of the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
were blazoned : Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent. A crown was not part of the arms but use of a crowned harp was apparently common as a badge or as a device. A crowned harp also appeared as a crest although the delineated crest was: a wreath Or and Azure, a tower (sometime triple-towered) Or, from the port, a hart springing Argent.

King James not only used the harp crowned as the device of Ireland, but quartered the harp in this royal achievement for the arms of that kingdom, in the third quarter of the royal achievement upon his Great Seal, as it has continued ever since. The blazon was azure, a harp or string argent, as appears by the great embroidered banner, and at the funeral of Queen Anne, King James' queen, AD 1618, and likewise by the great banner and banner of Ireland
Ireland
at the funeral of King James. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ARMS AND DEVICE OF IRELAND APPEARS TO BE ON THE CROWN ONLY, WHICH IS ADDED TO THE HARP WHEN USED AS A DEVICE. At the funeral of King James was likewise carried the standard of the crest of Ireland, a buck proper (argent in the draught) issuing from a tower triple towered or, which is the only instance of this crest that I have met, and therefore was probably devised and assigned for the crest of Ireland
Ireland
upon occasion of this funeral, but with what propriety I do not understand. — Questions and Answers, Notes and Queries, 1855, p. 350

The insignia of Ireland
Ireland
have variously been given by early writers. In the reign of Edward IV, a commission appointed to enquire what were the arms of Ireland
Ireland
found them to be three crowns in pale. It has been supposed that these crowns were abandoned at the Reformation, from an idea that they might denote the feudal sovereignty of the pope, whose vassal the king of England
England
was, as lord of Ireland. However, in a manuscript in the Heralds' College of the time of Henry VII, THE ARMS OF IRELAND ARE BLAZONED AZURE, A HARP OR, STRINGED ARGENT; and when they were for the first time placed on the royal shield on the accession of James I. they were thus delineated: THE CREST IS ON A WREATH OR AND AZURE, A TOWER (SOMETIME TRIPLE-TOWERED) OR, FROM THE PORT, A HART SPRINGING ARGENT. ANOTHER CREST IS A HARP OR. The national flag of Ireland
Ireland
exhibits the harp in a field vert. THE ROYAL BADGE OF IRELAND, AS SETTLED BY SIGN-MANUAL IN 1801 IS A HARP, OR, STRINGED ARGENT, AND A TREFOIL VERT, BOTH ENSIGNED WITH THE IMPERIAL CROWN. — Chambers' Encyclopædia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, 1868, p. 627

NOTES

* ^ W. G. Perrin and Herbert S. Vaughan, 1922, "British Flags. Their Early History and their Development at Sea; with an Account of the Origin of the Flag as a National Device", Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp. 51–52:

The red saltire on white ground which represents Ireland
Ireland
in the Union flag had only an ephemeral existence as a separate flag. Originating as the arms of the powerful Geraldines, who from the time of Henry II held the predominant position among those whose presence in Ireland was due to the efforts of the English sovereigns to subjugate that country, it is not to be expected that the native Irish should ever have taken kindly to a badge that could only remind them of their servitude to a race with whom they had little in common, and the attempt to father this emblem upon St Patrick (who, it may be remarked, is not entitled to a cross – since he was not a martyr) has evoked no response from the Irish themselves.

The earliest evidence of the existence of the red flag known to the author occurs in a map of "Hirlandia" by John Goghe dated 1576 and now exhibited in the Public Record Office. The arms at the head of this map are the St George's cross impaled on the crowned harp, but the red saltire is prominent in the arms of the Earl of Kildare and the other Geraldine families placed over their respective spheres of influence. The red saltire flag is flown at the masthead of a ship, possibly an Irish pirate, which is engaged in action in the St George's Channel with another ship flying the St George's cross. The St George's flag flies upon Cornwall, Wales
Wales
and Man, but the red saltire flag does not appear upon Ireland
Ireland
itself, though it is placed upon the adjacent Mulls of Galloway and Kintyre in Scotland. It is, however, to be found in the arms of Trinity College, Dublin
Dublin
(1591), in which the banners of St George and of this saltire surmount the turrets that flank the castle gateway.

The Graydon MS. Flag Book of 1686 which belonged to Pepys does not contain this flag, but give as the flag of Ireland
Ireland
(which, it may be noted, appears as an afterthought right at the end of the book) the green flag with St George's cross and the harp, illustrated in Plate X, fig. 3. The saltire flag is nevertheless given as "Pavillon d'Ierne" in the flags plates at the commencement of the Neptune François of 1693, whence it was copied into later flag collections.

Under the Commonwealth and Protectorate, when England
England
and Scotland were represented in the Great and other Seals by their crosses, Ireland
Ireland
was invariably represented by the harp that was added to the English and Scottish crosses to form a flag of the three kingdoms. At the funeral of Cromwell the Great Standards of England
England
and Scotland had the St George's and St Andrew's crosses in chief respectively, but the Great Standard of Ireland
Ireland
had in chief a red cross (not saltire) on a yellow field.

When the Order of St Patrick was instituted in 1783 the red saltire was taken for the badge of the Order, and since this emblem was of convenient form for introduction into the Union flag of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
it was chosen in forming the combined flag of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
in 1801.

REFERENCES

* ^ Morley, Vincent (2002), Irish opinion and the American Revolution, 1760–1783, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 4, retrieved 20 January 2012, Féach ár bpian le sé chéad bliain aige Gaill in éigean, gan rí dár rialadh de Ghaeil, mo chian, i ríoghacht Éireann. … (the above Gaelic sentence is translated a few lines later as:) Consider our torment for six hundred years by violent foreigners, with no king of the Gaels ruling us, my grief, in the kingdom of Ireland. … Here can be seen, in close association, expressions of religious loyalty to the pre-Reformation faith represented by Creggan churchyard; dynastic loyalty to the house of Stuart; and national loyalty to 'ríocht Éireann' , 'the kingdom of Ireland'. * ^ McCaffrey chapter (1914) * ^ Text of 1555 Bull * ^ de Beaumont, G pp114-115 * ^ The Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962 , section 1 and Schedule Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Richard Mant (1840), History of the Church of Ireland, from the Reformation to the Revolution, London: Parker, p. 275, The enactments concerns the Church in Queen Elizabeth's first Parliament had no unpleasant effects upon its governors; save that by the Act of Supremacy, or rather their own obnoxious conduct in defiance of it, two bishops were deprived of their sees: Leverious, bishop of Kildare, who refused to take the Oat of Supremacy; and Walsh, bishop of Meath, who not only refused to take the oath, but preached also against the queen's supremacy, and against the Book of Common Prayer.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Blythe, Robert J (2006). The British Empire and its Contested Pasts. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0716530169 . * Bradshaw, Brendan (1993). Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534-1660. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521416345 . * Bradshaw, Brendan (2015). 'And so began the Irish Nation': Nationality, National Consciousness and Nationalism in Pre-modern Ireland. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 1472442563 . * Canny, Nicholas (2001). Making Ireland
Ireland
British, 1580-1650. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199259052 . * Connolly, S. J. (2009). Contested Island: Ireland
Ireland
1460-1630. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199563713 . * Connolly, S. J. (2010). Divided Kingdom: Ireland
Ireland
1630-1800. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199583870 . * Crowley, Tony (2008). Wars of Words: The Politics of Language in Ireland
Ireland
1537-2004. OUP Oxford. ISBN 0199532761 . * de Beaumont, Gustave and William Cooke Taylor, Ireland
Ireland
Social, Political, and Religious :Translated by William Cooke Taylor : Contributor Tom Garvin, Andreas Hess: Harvard University Press : 2006 : ISBN 978-0-674-02165-5 (reprint of 1839 original) * Garnham, Neal (2012). The Militia in Eighteenth-Century Ireland: In Defence of the Protestant Interest. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843837244 . * Harris, R G (2001). The Irish Regiments: 1683-1999. Da Capo Press Inc. ISBN 1885119623 . * Kane, Brendan (2010). The Politics and Culture of Honour in Britain and Ireland, 1541-1641. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521898641 . * Keating, Geoffrey : The History of Ireland, from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion (Foras Feasa Ar Éirinn ) Translated by John O'Mahony 1866 Full text at Google Books * Lenihan, Padraig (2007). Consolidating Conquest: Ireland 1603-1727. Routledge. ISBN 0582772176 . * Mac Giolla Chríost, Diarmait (2005). The Irish Language in Ireland: From Goídel to Globalisation. Routledge. ISBN 0415320461 . * McCabe, Richard Anthony (2002). Spenser's Monstrous Regiment: Elizabethan Ireland
Ireland
and the Poetics of Difference. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198187349 . * Nelson, Ivan F. (2007). The Irish Militia, 1793–1802, Ireland's Forgotten Army. Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1-84682-037-3 . * O'Callaghan, Sean (2001). To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland. Brandon. ISBN 0863222870 . * O'Neill, James (2017). The Nine Years War, 1593-1603: O'Neill, Mountjoy and the military revolution. Four Courts Press. ISBN 9781846826368 . * Pakenham, Thomas (2000). The Year Of Liberty: The Great Irish Rebellion of 1789: History of the Great Irish Rebellion of 1798. Abacus. ISBN 978-0349112527 . * Palmer, Patricia (2013). The Severed Head and the Grafted Tongue: Literature, Translation and Violence in Early Modern Ireland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1107041844 . * Pawlisch, Hans S., : Sir John Davies and the Conquest of Ireland: A Study in Legal Imperialism :Cambridge University Press, 2002 : ISBN 978-0-521-52657-9 * Reid, Stuart (2011). Armies of the Irish Rebellion 1798. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1849085076 . * Snape, Michael (2013). The Redcoat and Religion: The Forgotten History of the British Soldier from the Age of Marlborough to the Eve of the First World War. Routledge. ISBN 1136007423 .

* v * t * e

Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland

HISTORY

* Timeline of Irish history * History of Ireland
Ireland
(1536–1691) * History of Ireland
Ireland
(1691–1801)

General and events

* Lordship of Ireland * British Empire * Poynings\' Law * Crown of Ireland Act 1542 * Tudor conquest of Ireland
Ireland
* New English * Surrender and regrant * Protestantism * Desmond Rebellions * Plantations of Ireland
Ireland
(Ulster ) * Nine Years\' War ( Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
) * Penal Laws * Irish Rebellion of 1641
Irish Rebellion of 1641
* Irish Confederate Wars * Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
* Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
(Settlement and Barbadosed ) * Williamite–Jacobite War (Wild Geese ) * Popery Act * Constitution of 1782
Constitution of 1782
* Irish Rebellion of 1798 * Acts of Union 1800
Acts of Union 1800
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

Gaelic conquests

* Tuadhmhumhain (1543) * Uí Echach (1543) * Loígis (1543) * Uí Failghe (1550) * Uí Díarmata (1574) * Clann Aodha Buidhe (1574) * Magh Luirg (1585) * Airgíalla (1585) * Iar Connacht (1589) * Umhaill (1593) * Deasmhumhain (1596) * Laigin (1603) * Bréifne Uí Ruairc (1605) * Cairbrigh (1606) * Tír Chonaill (1607) * Tír Eoghain (1607) * Fear Manach (1607) * Uí Catháin (1607) * Bréifne Uí Raghallaigh (1607) * Uí Maine (1611)

Politics and society

* Dublin
Dublin
Castle administration * Parliament of Ireland
Parliament of Ireland
( Irish House of Lords and Irish House of Commons ) * Privy Council of Ireland
Ireland
* Four Courts (King\'s Bench , Exchequer , Chancery and Common Pleas ) * Court of Castle Chamber
Court of Castle Chamber
* Peerage of Ireland
Ireland
* Church of Ireland * Grand Lodge of Ireland
Ireland
* Trinity College, Dublin
Dublin
* Order of St Patrick * Jacobites * Whigs * Tories * Irish Patriots * Defenders * Orangism * United Irishmen

Monarchs and rulers

* Henry VIII (1542–47) * Edward VI (1547–53) * Lady Jane Grey (1553; disputed) * Mary I (1553–58) & Philip jure uxoris (1554–58) * Elizabeth I (1558–1603) * James I (1603–25) * Charles I (1625–49) * Commonwealth (1649–53) * Oliver Cromwell (1653–58) * Richard Cromwell (1658–59) * Commonwealth (1659–60) * Charles II (1660–85) * James II (1685–91) * William III (1689–1702) ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
Historical flags of the British Empire

EUROPE

* 1542–1800 Ireland
Ireland
(integrated into UK) * 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca * Since 1713 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
* 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) * 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) * 1807–1890 Heligoland
Heligoland
* 1809–1864 Ionian Islands * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus
* 1921–1937 Irish Free State

NORTH AMERICA

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

* 1579 New Albion * 1583–1907 Newfoundland * 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia * 1607–1776 Virginia * Since 1619 Bermuda
Bermuda
* 1620–1691 Plymouth * 1623–1883 Saint Kitts * 1624–1966 *Barbados * 1625–1650 Saint Croix * 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * 1628–1883 Nevis * 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay * 1632–1776 Maryland * since 1632 Montserrat
Montserrat
* 1632–1860 Antigua
Antigua
* 1636–1776 Connecticut * 1636–1776 Rhode Island * 1637–1662 New Haven

* 1643–1860 Bay Islands * Since 1650 Anguilla * 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast * 1655–1962 *Jamaica * 1663–1712 Carolina * 1664–1776 New York * 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey
Jersey
* Since 1666 Virgin Islands * Since 1670 Cayman Islands * 1670–1973 *Bahamas * 1670–1870 Rupert\'s Land * 1671–1816 Leeward Islands * 1674–1702 East Jersey * 1674–1702 West Jersey * 1680–1776 New Hampshire * 1681–1776 Pennsylvania * 1686–1689 New England
England
* 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

* 1701–1776 Delaware * 1712–1776 North Carolina * 1712–1776 South Carolina * 1713–1867 Nova Scotia * 1733–1776 Georgia * 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
* 1762–1974 *Grenada * 1763–1978 Dominica * 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island * 1763–1791 Quebec * 1763–1783 East Florida
East Florida
* 1763–1783 West Florida * 1784–1867 New Brunswick * 1791–1841 Lower Canada
Lower Canada
* 1791–1841 Upper Canada * Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

* 1818–1846 Columbia District / Oregon Country
Oregon Country
1 * 1833–1960 Windward Islands * 1833–1960 Leeward Islands * 1841–1867 Canada * 1849–1866 Vancouver Island * 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands * 1858–1866 British Columbia * 1859–1870 North-Western Territory * 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda * 1862–1863 Stickeen * 1866–1871 British Columbia * 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada 2 * 1871–1964 Honduras * 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts and Nevis * 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago * 1907–1949 Newfoundland 3 * 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

* 1. Occupied jointly with the United States. * 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster . See Name of Canada . * 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

SOUTH AMERICA

* 1631–1641 Providence Island * 1651–1667 Willoughbyland * 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands 4 * 1831–1966 Guiana * Since 1833 Falkland Islands 5 * Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
5

* 4. Now a department of Colombia . * 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War of April–June 1982.

AFRICA

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * 1792–1961 Sierra Leone * 1795–1803 Cape Colony

* Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope * 1807–1808 Madeira * 1810–1968 Mauritius
Mauritius
* 1816–1965 The Gambia * 1856–1910 Natal * 1862–1906 Lagos * 1868–1966 Basutoland * 1874–1957 Gold Coast * 1882–1922 Egypt

* 1884–1900 Niger Coast * 1884–1966 Bechuanaland * 1884–1960 Somaliland * 1887–1897 Zululand * 1890–1962 Uganda * 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
* 1891–1964 Nyasaland
Nyasaland
* 1891–1907 Central Africa * 1893–1968 Swaziland * 1895–1920 East Africa * 1899–1956 Sudan

* 1900–1914 Northern Nigeria * 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria * 1900–1910 Orange River * 1900–1910 Transvaal * 1903–1976 Seychelles * 1910–1931 South Africa * 1914–1960 Nigeria * 1915–1931 South-West Africa * 1919–1961 Cameroons 6 * 1920–1963 Kenya * 1922–1961 Tanganyika 6 * 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia 7 * 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

* 6. League of Nations mandate . * 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia
Rhodesia
) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement . After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

ASIA

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

* 1685–1824 Bencoolen * 1702–1705 Pulo Condore * 1757–1947 Bengal * 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite * 1781-1784 and 1795-1819 Padang * 1786–1946 Penang * 1795–1948 Ceylon * 1796–1965 Maldives

* 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton * 1819–1826 Malaya * 1826–1946 Straits Settlements
Straits Settlements
* 1839–1967 Aden * 1839–1842 Afghanistan * 1841–1997 Hong Kong * 1841–1946 Sarawak * 1848–1946 Labuan * 1858–1947 India * 1874–1963 Borneo

* 1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) * 1882–1963 North Borneo
North Borneo
* 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States * 1888–1984 Brunei * 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
Muscat and Oman
* 1892–1971 Trucial States * 1895–1946 Federated Malay States * 1898–1930 Weihai * 1878–1960 Cyprus
Cyprus

* 1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) * 1918–1961 Kuwait * 1920–1932 Mesopotamia 8 * 1921–1946 Transjordan 8 * 1923–1948 Palestine 8 * 1945–1946 South Vietnam * 1946–1963 North Borneo
North Borneo
* 1946–1963 Sarawak * 1946–1963 Singapore * 1946–1948 Malayan Union
Malayan Union
* 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya * Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia (before as part of Cyprus
Cyprus
) * Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius
Mauritius
and the Seychelles )

8 League of Nations mandate . Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

OCEANIA

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

* 1788–1901 New South Wales
Wales
* 1803–1901 Van Diemen\'s Land /Tasmania * 1807–1863 Auckland Islands 9 * 1824–1980 New Hebrides * 1824–1901 Queensland * 1829–1901 Swan River /Western Australia * 1836–1901 South Australia * since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

* 1841–1907 New Zealand * 1851–1901 Victoria * 1874–1970 Fiji 10 * 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories * 1884–1949 Papua * 1888–1901 Rarotonga /Cook Islands 9 * 1889–1948 Union Islands 9 * 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands 11 * 1893–1978 Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
12

* 1900–1970 Tonga * 1900–1974 Niue 9 * 1901–1942 *Australia * 1907–1953 *New Zealand * 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru * 1919–1949 New Guinea * 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea 13

* 9. Now part of the * Realm of New Zealand
Realm of New Zealand
. * 10. Suspended member. * 11. Now Kiribati and * Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. * 12. Now the * Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
. * 13. Now * Papua New Guinea .

ANTARCTICA AND SOUTH ATLANTIC

* Since 1658 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
14 * Since 1815 Ascension Island 14 * Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha 14 * Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory 15 * 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory (transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia ) * 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand )

* 14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ; Ascension Island (1922–) and Tristan da Cunha (1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. * 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

* v * t * e

Irish states since 1171

* Ireland
Ireland
(1937 onward) * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ireland
(1922† onward)

MEDIEVAL PERIOD

* Gaelic Ireland (until 1607) * Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541)

MODERN PERIOD

* Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
(1541–1801) * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
(1801–1922†)

TWENTIETH CENTURY

* Irish Free State (1922–37)

NOTABLE DECLARED STATES

* Republic of Connacht (1798) * Irish Republic
Irish Republic
(1919–22)

SEE ALSO

* Confederate Ireland
Ireland
(1642–53) * Commonwealth of England, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
(1649–60) * Patriot Parliament (1689)

* † This date marks the secession of the majority of Ireland
Ireland
from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
rather than the creation of a new state. Official name was changed in 1927.

* v * t * e

Ireland
Ireland
topics

* Republic of Ireland topics * Northern Ireland
Ireland
topics

HISTORY

TIMELINE

* Prehistory * Protohistory * Early history

* Gaelic Ireland / Lordship of Ireland

* 800–1169 * 1169–1536

* Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland

* 1536–1691 * 1691–1801

* United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland

* 1801–1923

* United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ireland

* since 1922

* Irish Free State (1922–1937) * Ireland
Ireland
(since 1922)

EVENTS

* Battles of Tara / Glenmama / Clontarf * Norman invasion * Bruce campaign * Black Death
Black Death
* Tudor conquest * Desmond Rebellions * Spanish Armada * Tyrone\'s Rebellion * Flight of the Earls
Flight of the Earls
* Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster
* 1641 Rebellion / Confederate War * Cromwellian conquest / Settlement of 1652 * Williamite War * Penal Laws * First Great Famine * 1798 Rebellion * Act of Union (1800) * 1803 Rebellion * Tithe War * Second Great Famine * Land War
Land War
* Fenian Rising * Dublin
Dublin
Lock-out * Home Rule crisis * Easter Rising * War of Independence * Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
* Civil War * The Emergency * IRA Northern Campaign * IRA Border Campaign * The Troubles * Peace process * Economy of the Republic of Ireland * Celtic Tiger * Post-2008 Irish economic downturn * Post-2008 Irish banking crisis

OTHER TOPICS

* List of conflicts in Ireland
Ireland
* List of Irish tribes * List of High Kings * Gaelic clothing and fashion * List of World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Ireland

GEOGRAPHY

NATURAL

* Climate * Coastline * Extreme points * Fauna * Islands * Loughs * Mountains

* Rivers

* list

* List of national parks of the Republic of Ireland / in Northern Ireland
Ireland

HUMAN

* Architecture

* Notable buildings * Tallest buildings and structures

* Cities * Counties * Demographics of the Republic of Ireland / of Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Ports * Provinces * ROI–UK border * Towns * Tourist attractions * Transport

POLITICS

IDEOLOGIES

* Nationalism * Republicanism * Ulster loyalism
Ulster loyalism
* Unionism

REPUBLIC OF IRELAND

* Constitution * Economy * Education * Foreign relations

* Government

* local

* Oireachtas parliament

* Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
(lower house) * Seanad Éireann
Seanad Éireann
(upper house) * President

NORTHERN IRELAND

* Assembly

* D\'Hondt method

* Economy * Education

* Government

* local

* Peace process

CULTURE

CUISINE

FOOD

* List of dishes * Barmbrack
Barmbrack
* Boxty
Boxty
* Champ * Coddle
Coddle
* Colcannon
Colcannon
* Drisheen * Goody * Skirts and kidneys * Soda bread
Soda bread
* Stew * Ulster fry

DRINKS

* Coffee * Cream * Guinness
Guinness
* Mist * Poitín
Poitín
* Whiskey

DANCE

* Jig * Sean-nós * Set dancing * Stepdance

FESTIVALS

* Imbolc * Saint Patrick\'s Day * Bealtaine * The Twelfth * Lúnasa * Rose of Tralee * Samhain
Samhain
/ Halloween * Wren Day

LANGUAGES

* Hiberno-English * Irish * Shelta * Ulster Scots

LITERATURE

* Annals * Fiction * Gaeilge * Poetry * Theatre * Triads

MUSIC

* Ballads * Céilí

* Folk music

* session

* Instruments * Rock music * Traditional singing

MYTHOLOGY

* Cycles

* Fenian * Mythological * Ulster

* Aos Sí * Echtrai * Immrama * Tuatha Dé Danann
Tuatha Dé Danann
* Legendary creatures

PEOPLE

* Anglo-Irish

* Gaels

* Gaelic Ireland

* Hiberno-Normans * Irish diaspora * List of Irish people * Travellers * Ulster Scots

SPORT

* Association football * Camogie
Camogie
* Gaelic football
Gaelic football
* Gaelic handball
Gaelic handball
* Hurling
Hurling
* Martial arts * Road bowling * Rounders * Rugby union

SYMBOLS

* Brighid\'s Cross * Cláirseach * County coats of arms

* Flags

* N. Ireland
Ireland
flags issue

* Irish Wolfhound * National coat of arms * Red Hand * Shamrock
Shamrock

OTHER

* Calendar * Homelessness * Names * Place names in Ireland
Ireland
/ outside Ireland
Ireland
* Prostitution (Republic) / in Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland / in Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Public houses

IRELAND PORTAL

* v * t * e

British Isles
British Isles

* Terminology

* Alba
Alba
* Albion
Albion
* Prydain * Britain * Éire * Hibernia

* Naming dispute

POLITICS

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Ireland
Ireland
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
( England
England
* Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Scotland
Scotland
* Wales
Wales
)

CROWN DEPENDENCIES

* Guernsey
Guernsey
* Jersey
Jersey
* Isle of Man * Sark
Sark

POLITICAL COOPERATION

* Ireland– United Kingdom
United Kingdom
relations * British–Irish Council * British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference * British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly * Common Travel Area

GEOGRAPHY

ISLAND GROUPS

* Channel Islands * Islands of the Clyde
Islands of the Clyde
* Great Britain
Great Britain

* Hebrides

* Inner * Outer

* Ireland
Ireland
* Isle of Man

* Northern Isles

* Orkney * Shetland

* Isles of Scilly

LISTS OF ISLANDS OF

* Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
* Ireland
Ireland
* Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
* Isle of Man

* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* England
England
* Scotland
Scotland
* Wales
Wales

HISTORY

ISLAND GROUPS

* Ireland
Ireland

CURRENT STATES

* Ireland
Ireland

* United Kingdom
United Kingdom

* England
England
* Northern Ireland
Ireland
* Scotland
Scotland
* Wales
Wales

* Guernsey
Guernsey
* Jersey
Jersey
* Isle of Man

FORMER STATES

* Irish Free State

* Kingdom of England

* Principality of Wales
Wales

*