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The Hashemite
Hashemite
Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
(Arabic: المملكة العراقية الهاشمية‎ al-Mamlakah al-‘Irāqiyyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the Mesopotamian campaign
Mesopotamian campaign
of World War I. Although a League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate was awarded to Britain in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite
Hashemite
allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
was granted full independence in 1932,[1] following the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
(1930). The independent Iraqi Kingdom under the Hashemite
Hashemite
rulers underwent a period of turbulence through its entire existence. Establishment of Sunni religious domination in Iraq
Iraq
was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed.[citation needed] In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi
Bakr Sidqi
succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941. During World War II, the Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah
'Abd al-Ilah
was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short-lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq
Iraq
was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq
Iraq
was later used as a base for allied attacks on the Vichy-French-held Mandate of Syria and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani
Mustafa Barzani
led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union. In 1945, during the final stages of World War II, Iraq
Iraq
joined the United Nations
United Nations
and became a founding member of the Arab League. In 1948, massive violent protests, known as the Al-Wathbah uprising broke out across Baghdad
Baghdad
as a popular demand against the government treaty with the British, and with communist party support. More protests continued in spring, but were interrupted in May, with the martial law, when Iraq
Iraq
entered the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
along with other members of the Arab League. In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan
Hussein of Jordan
and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian-Syrian union.[citation needed] The resulting Arab Federation, formed on 14 February 1958 was short-lived. It ended in 1958, when the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, led by Abd al-Karim Qasim.

Contents

1 Prior to independence - British administration 2 History

2.1 Independence 2.2 Political instability and army coups, 1933–1941 2.3 Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
and second British occupation 2.4 1941–1958

3 Republic declared 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Prior to independence - British administration[edit] Main article: Mandatory Iraq The territory of Iraq
Iraq
was under Ottoman dominance until the end of World War I, becoming an occupied territory under British military from 1918. In order to transform the region to civil rule, Mandatory Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was proposed as a League of Nations
League of Nations
Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain, when the former territories Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
were divided in August 1920 by the Treaty of Sèvres. However, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite
Hashemite
allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. Faisal ibn Husayn, who had previously been proclaimed King of Syria by a Syrian National Congress
Syrian National Congress
in Damascus
Damascus
in March 1920, was ejected by the French in July of the same year. Faisal was then granted the territory of Iraq, to rule it as a protected kingdom, with the British RAF retaining certain military control, though de facto, the territory remained under British administration until 1932. The civil government of postwar Iraq
Iraq
was headed originally by the High Commissioner, Sir Percy Cox, and his deputy, Colonel
Colonel
Arnold Wilson. British reprisals after the murder of a British officer in Najaf failed to restore order. British administration had yet to be established in the mountains of north Iraq. The most striking problem facing the British was the growing anger of the nationalists. History[edit] Independence[edit] With the signing of the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
and the settling of the Mosul Question, Iraqi politics took on a new dynamic. The emerging class of Sunni and Shia landowning tribal sheikhs vied for positions of power with wealthy and prestigious urban-based Sunni families and with Ottoman-trained army officers and bureaucrats. Because Iraq's newly established political institutions were the creation of a foreign power, and because the concept of democratic government had no precedent in Iraqi history, the politicians in Baghdad
Baghdad
lacked legitimacy and never developed deeply rooted constituencies. Thus, despite a constitution and an elected assembly, Iraqi politics was more a shifting alliance of important personalities and cliques than a democracy in the Western sense. The absence of broadly based political institutions inhibited the early nationalist movement's ability to make deep inroads into Iraq's diverse social structure. The new Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
was signed in June 1930. It provided for a "close alliance," for "full and frank consultations between the two countries in all matters of foreign policy," and for mutual assistance in case of war. Iraq
Iraq
granted the British the use of air bases near Basra
Basra
and at Al Habbaniyah
Al Habbaniyah
and the right to move troops across the country. The treaty, of twenty-five years' duration, was to come into force upon Iraq's admission to the League of Nations. This occurred on October 3, 1932. In 1932, the Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
was granted independence under King Faisal I. However the British retained military bases in the country. Iraq
Iraq
was granted official independence on October 3, 1932 in accordance with an agreement signed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1930, whereby the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
would end its effective mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, and a requirement that Iraq
Iraq
assist the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in wartime.[2] Strong political tensions existed between Iraq
Iraq
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
even upon gaining independence. After gaining independence in 1932, the Iraqi government immediately declared that Kuwait
Kuwait
was rightfully a territory of Iraq, as loosely been under the authority of the Ottoman vilâyet of Basra
Basra
for centuries until the British had formally severed Kuwait
Kuwait
from the Ottoman influence after World War I
World War I
and thus stated that Kuwait
Kuwait
was a British imperialist invention.[3] Political instability and army coups, 1933–1941[edit] After Faisal died in 1933, King Ghazi reigned as a figurehead from 1933 to 1939, when he was killed in a motor accident. Pressure from Arab nationalists and Iraqi nationalists demanded that the British leave Iraq, but their demands were ignored by the United Kingdom. Upon achieving independence in 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British politicians such as Nuri as-Said, who did not oppose a continued British presence and anti-British politicians, such as Rashid Ali
Rashid Ali
al-Gaylani, who demanded that remaining British influence in the country be removed.[4] Various ethnic and religious factions tried to gain political accomplishments during this period, often resulting in violent revolts and a brutal suppression by the Iraqi military, led by Bakr Sidqi. In 1933, thousands of Assyrians were killed in Simele massacre, in 1935–1936 a series of Shi'a uprisings were brutally suppressed in mid- Euphrates
Euphrates
region of Iraq,[5] and in parallel an anti-conscription Kurdish uprising in the north and a Yazidi revolt in Jabal Sinjar were crushed in 1935. Throughout the period political instability led to an exchange of numerous governments. Bakr Sidqi
Bakr Sidqi
himself ascended to power in 1936, following a successful coup d'état. From 1917 to 1946, five coups by the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
occurred, led by the chief officers of the army against the government to pressure the government to concede to army demands.[4] Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
and second British occupation[edit] The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état
1941 Iraqi coup d'état
overthrew Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
and placed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as prime minister of a pro-Nazi government. Ali did not overthrow the monarchy, but installed a more compliant Regent, and attempted to restrict the rights of the British under the treaty from 1930. Rashid Ali's attempted to secure control over Iraq
Iraq
asking assistance of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan. On April 20 the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
established itself on the high ground to the south of the Habbaniya air force base. An Iraqi envoy was sent to demand that no movements, either ground or air, were to take place from the base. The British refused the demand and then themselves demanded that the Iraqi army leave the area at once. After a further ultimatum given in the early hours of May 2 expired, at 0500 hours the British began bombing the Iraqi troops threatening the base, marking the beginning of the Anglo-Iraqi War. Hostilities lasted from May 2 to May 31, 1941 between Iraqis
Iraqis
and the British and their indigenous Assyrian Levies. The British would continue to occupy Iraq
Iraq
for many years afterwards. In the aftermath of the Iraqi defeat, a bloody Farhud
Farhud
massacre broke out in Baghdad
Baghdad
on June 2, initiated by the Futuwwa youth and Rashid Ali's supporters, resulting in deaths of some 180 Jews and heavy damage to the Jewish community. 1941–1958[edit] After the Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
ended, Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
returned as Prime Minister and dominated the politics of Iraq
Iraq
until the overthrow of the monarchy and his assassination in 1958. Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
pursued a largely pro-western policy during this period.[6] Republic declared[edit] The Hashemite
Hashemite
monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown through a coup d'état by the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution. King Faisal II along with members of the royal family were executed. The coup brought Abd al-Karim Qasim
Abd al-Karim Qasim
to power. He withdrew from the Baghdad
Baghdad
Pact and established friendly relations with the Soviet Union. See also[edit]

List of Kings of Iraq Republic of Iraq History of Iraq San Remo Conference, the conference among victorious Allied powers that partitioned the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
led to the Kingdom of Iraq

References[edit]

^ Hunt, C. 2005 ^ Ghareeb, Edmund A.; Dougherty, Beth K. Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Lanham, Maryland and Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, Ltd., 2004. p. lvii. ^ Duiker, William J.; Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History: From 1500. 5th edition. Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. p. 839. ^ a b Ghareeb; Dougherty. p. lvii ^ Gareth Stansfield; Anderson, Liam D. (2004). The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy
Democracy
or Division?. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6354-1.  ^ Ghareeb; Dougherty. p. lviii

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