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The KINGDOM OF HUNGARY was a monarchy in Central Europe
Central Europe
that existed from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom
Esztergom
in about the year 1000; his family (the Árpád dynasty ) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world .

Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary
Hungary
in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary
Hungary
, Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
. The House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.

From 1867 territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint
Saint
Stephen . The monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary
Hungary
became a republic. The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency " of 1920–46, ending with the Soviet occupation in 1946.

The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary
Hungary
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Transylvania
Transylvania
and other parts of what is now Romania
Romania
, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine
Ukraine
), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia
Serbia
), Burgenland (now part of Austria
Austria
), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it also included Croatia
Croatia
, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary
Hungary
.

Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I (20 August) is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state (_Foundation Day_).

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Origins * 3 Capital cities

* 4 Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 4.1 High Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 4.1.1 Mongol invasion

* 4.2 Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 4.2.1 The Anjou Age * 4.2.2 The Age of Sigismund * 4.2.3 Hunyadi family

* 5 Early modern history

* 5.1 The divided kingdom * 5.2 The Kuruc
Kuruc
age * 5.3 Age of Enlightenment * 5.4 Hungarian Revolution of 1848

* 6 Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)

* 7 Transitions (1918 to 1920)

* 7.1 Two short-lived republics * 7.2 Treaty of Trianon (1920)

* 8 Between 1920 and 1946

* 8.1 Interwar period * 8.2 During World War II
World War II
1941–1945 * 8.3 Transitioning into a republic

* 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

NAMES

Main article: Name of Hungary
Hungary

The Latin
Latin
forms _Regnum Hungariae_ or _Ungarie_ (_Regnum_ meaning kingdom); _ Regnum Marianum _ (Kingdom of Mary ); or simply _Hungaria_, were the names used in official documents in Latin
Latin
from the beginning of the kingdom to the 1840s.

The German name _Königreich Ungarn_ was used officially from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s.

The Hungarian name (_Magyar Királyság_) was used in the 1840s, and then again from the 1860s to 1946. The non-official Hungarian name of the kingdom was _Magyarország_, which is still the colloquial, and also the official name of Hungary.

The names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish : _Królestwo Węgier_, Romanian : _Regatul Ungariei_, Serbian : Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian : _Kraljevina Ugarska_, Slovene : _Kraljevina Ogrska_, Slovak : _Uhorské kráľovstvo_, and Italian (for the city of Fiume
Fiume
), _Regno d'Ungheria_.

In Austria-Hungary (1867–1918), the unofficial name _Transleithania _ was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. Officially, the term _ Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen _ was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary , although this term was also in use prior to that time.

ORIGINS

Main articles: Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin and Principality of Hungary

The Hungarians
Hungarians
led by Árpád
Árpád
settled the Carpathian Basin in 895, established Principality of Hungary (896–1000). The Hungarians
Hungarians
led several successful incursions to Western Europe, until they were stopped by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
in Battle of Lechfeld .

CAPITAL CITIES

Main article: List of historical capitals of Hungary

NAME TIME PERIOD

Székesfehérvár 1000–1543

Esztergom
Esztergom
1000–1256

Buda
Buda
1256–1315

Temesvár 1315–1323

Visegrád 1323–1408

Buda 1408–1485

Vienna
Vienna
1485–1490

Buda 1490–1536 (1541)

Lippa ( Eastern Hungarian Kingdom ) 1541–1542

Gyulafehérvár (Eastern Hungarian Kingdom) 1542–1570

Pressburg 1536–1784

Buda 1784–1849

Debrecen 1849

Buda 1849–1873

Budapest
Budapest
1873–1944

Debrecen 1944

Budapest
Budapest
1944–1946

MIDDLE AGES

HIGH MIDDLE AGES

King Stephen I of Hungary

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1000–1301)

The principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I (son of principal Géza. Originally called Vajk until baptized) at Esztergom
Esztergom
on Christmas Day 1000. The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty . He fought against Koppány and in 998, with Bavarian help, defeated him near Veszprém . The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians
Hungarians
and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe. Stephen I of Hungary
Hungary
was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1083 and an Orthodox saint in 2000.

After his death, a period of revolts and conflict for supremacy ensued between the royalty and the nobles. In 1051 armies of the Holy Roman Empire tried to conquer Hungary, but they were defeated at Vértes Mountain . The armies of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
continued to suffer defeats; the second greatest battle was at the town now called Bratislava
Bratislava
, in 1052. Before 1052 Peter Orseolo, a supporter of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, was overthrown by king Samuel Aba of Hungary
Hungary
. The Holy Crown of Hungary
Hungary
along with other regalia Hungary (including Croatia
Croatia
) in 1190, during the rule of Béla III

This period of revolts ended during the reign of Béla I . Hungarian chroniclers praised Béla I for introducing new currency, such as the silver denarius, and for his benevolence to the former followers of his nephew, Solomon. The second greatest Hungarian king, also from the Árpád
Árpád
dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary
Hungary
, who stabilized and strengthened the kingdom. He was also canonized as a saint. Under his rule Hungarians
Hungarians
successfully fought against the Cumans and conquered Croatia
Croatia
in 1091, due to a dynastic crisis in Croatia, he managed to swiftly seize power in the kingdom, he also was a claimant to the throne due to the fact that his sister was married to the late Croatian king Zvonimir who died childless.

However, kingship over all of Croatia
Croatia
would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman . With the coronation of King Coloman as "King of Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatia " in Biograd in 1102, the two kingdoms of Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary
Hungary
were united under one crown. Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a kind of personal union between the two kingdoms . The nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia
Croatia
retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies mostly view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(1102–1526) and Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
from 1102 as a form of a personal union , i.e. that they were connected by a common king. Also, one of the greatest Hungarian jurists and statesmen of the 16th century, István Werbőczy in his work _Tripartitum_ treats Croatia
Croatia
as a kingdom separate to Hungary.

In 1222 Andrew II of Hungary
Hungary
issued the Golden Bull which laid down the principles of law.

Mongol Invasion

Main article: Mongol invasion of Europe
Europe
_ The Meeting of Ladislaus IV and Rudolf I_ during the Battle on the Marchfeld , painting by Mór Than (1873)

In 1241, Hungary
Hungary
was invaded by the Mongols
Mongols
and while the first minor battles with Subutai's vanguard probes ended in seeming Hungarian victories, the Mongols
Mongols
finally destroyed the combined Hungarian and Cuman armies at the Battle of Muhi . In 1242, after the end of the Mongol invasion, numerous fortresses to defend against future invasion were erected by Béla IV of Hungary
Hungary
. In gratitude, the Hungarians acclaimed him as the "Second Founder of the Homeland", and the Hungarian Kingdom again became a considerable force in Europe. In 1260 Béla IV lost the War of Babenberg Succession, his army was defeated at the Battle of Kressenbrunn by the united Bohemian forces. However, in 1278 Ladislaus IV of Hungary
Hungary
and Austrian troops fully destroyed the Bohemian army at the Battle on the Marchfeld .

LATE MIDDLE AGES

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1301–1526)

The Árpád dynasty died out in 1301 with the death of Andrew III . Subsequently, Hungary
Hungary
was ruled by the Angevins until the end of the 14th century, and then by several non-dynastic rulers - notably Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
- until the early 16th century. King Charles I of Hungary
Hungary
The administrative divisions of medieval Hungary
Hungary

The Anjou Age

When Andrew III's predecessor, Ladislaus IV , was assassinated in 1290, another nobleman was set up as titular King of Hungary: Charles Martel of Anjou . Charles Martel was the son of King Charles II of Naples and Mary of Hungary
Hungary
, the sister of Ladislaus IV. However, Andrew III took the crown for himself, and ruled without inconvenience after Charles Martel's death in 1295.

Upon Andrew's death in 1301, the throne was claimed by Charles Martel's son, Charles Robert. After a period of instability, he was finally crowned King Charles I in 1310. He implemented considerable economic reforms, and defeated the remaining nobility who were in opposition to royal rule, led by Máté Csák III . The kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
reached an age of prosperity and stability under Charles I. The gold mines of the Kingdom were extensively worked and soon Hungary reached a prominent standing in European gold production. The forint was introduced as a currency, replacing the _denars_, and soon after Charles's reforms were implemented, the economy of the Kingdom started to prosper again, having fallen into a parlous state following the Mongol invasion.

Charles exalted the cult to Saint
Saint
Ladislaus I, using him as a symbol of bravery, justice and purity. He also venerated his uncle, Saint Louis of Toulouse . On the other hand, he gave importance to the cults of the princesses Saint
Saint
Elizabeth and Saint
Saint
Margaret , which added relevance to the lineage inheritance through the feminine branches.

Charles restored the royal power which had fallen into feudal lords' hands, and then made the lords swear loyalty to him. For this, he founded in 1326 the Order of Saint
Saint
George , which was the first secular chivalric order in the world, and included the most important noblemen of the Kingdom. Louis I of Hungary
Hungary
on Heroes Square , Budapest
Budapest

Charles married four times. His fourth wife was Elizabeth , the daughter of Władysław I of Poland
Poland
. When Charles died in 1342, his eldest son by Elizabeth succeeded him as Louis I . In the first years of his reign, Louis was advised closely by his mother, making her one of the most influential personalities in the Kingdom.

Charles had arranged the marriage of his second son, Andrew , with his cousin Joanna , the granddaughter of King Robert of Naples , in 1332. Robert died in 1343, bequeathing his kingdom to Joanna but excluding the claim of Andrew. In 1345, a group of noble Neapolitan conspirators murdered Andrew at Aversa . Almost immediately, Louis declared war on Naples , conducting a first campaign in 1347–1348 and a second in 1350. He eventually signed a peace with Joanna in 1352. Louis also waged wars against the Serbian Empire and the Golden Horde , restoring the Hungarian monarchs' authority over territories along the frontiers which had been lost during the previous decades.

In 1370 Louis's uncle, Casimir III of Poland
Poland
, died without male issue. Louis succeeded him, thus establishing the first union of Hungary
Hungary
and Poland
Poland
. This lasted until 1382, when Louis himself died without male issue; his two daughters, Mary and Jadwiga , then ascended the thrones of Hungary
Hungary
and Poland
Poland
respectively.

The Age Of Sigismund

King Sigismund of Hungary
Hungary

Louis I of Hungary
Hungary
always kept good and close relationships with the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV of Luxembourg and finally proclaimed Charles's son Sigismund of Luxembourg to succeed him as King of Hungary. Sigismund became a renowned king who created many improvements in the Hungarian law system and who rebuilt the palaces of Buda
Buda
and Visegrád. He brought materials from Austria
Austria
and Bohemia and ordered the creation of the most luxurious building in all central Europe. In his laws can be seen the traces of the early mercantilism . He worked hard to keep the nobility under his control. A great part of his reign was dedicated to the fight with the Ottoman Empire, which started to extend its frontiers and influence to Europe. In 1396 was fought the Battle of Nicopolis
Battle of Nicopolis
against the Ottomans, which resulted in a defeat for the Hungarian-French forces led by Sigismund and Philip of Artois, Count of Eu . However, Sigismund continued to successfully contain the Ottoman forces outside of the Kingdom for the rest of his life.

Losing popularity among the Hungarian nobility, Sigismund soon became victim of an attempt against his rule, and Ladislaus of Anjou-Durazzo (the son of the murdered King of Naples Charles II of Hungary) was called in and crowned. Since the ceremony was not performed with the Hungarian Holy Crown, and in the city of Székesfehérvár , it was considered illegitimate. Ladislaus stayed only few days in Hungarian territory and soon left it, no longer an inconvenience for Sigismund. In 1408 he founded the Order of the Dragon , which included the most of the relevant monarchs and noblemen of that region of Europe
Europe
in that time. This was just a first step for what was coming. In 1410 he was elected King of the Romans , making him the supreme monarch over the German territories. He had to deal with the Hussite
Hussite
movement, a religious reformist group that was born in Bohemia, and he presided at the Council of Constance , where the theologist founder Jan Hus
Jan Hus
, was judged. In 1419 Sigismund inherited the Crown of Bohemia after the death of his brother Wenceslaus of Luxembourg , obtaining the formal control of three medieval states, but he struggled for control of Bohemia until the peace agreement with the Hussites and his coronation in 1436. In 1433 was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
by the Pope and ruled until his death in 1437, leaving as his only heir his daughter Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Elizabeth of Luxembourg
and her husband. The marriage of Elizabeth was arranged with the Duke Albert V of Austria
Austria
, who was later crowned as King Albert of Hungary
Hungary
in 1437. Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
as depicted in Johannes de Thurocz 's Chronica Hungarorum

Hunyadi Family

The Hungarian kingdom's golden age was during the reign of Matthias Corvinus (1458–90), the son of John Hunyadi . His nickname was "Matthias the Just". He further improved the Hungarian economy and practised astute diplomacy in place of military action whenever possible. Matthias did undertake campaigning when necessary. From 1485 until his death, he occupied Vienna, aiming to limit the influence and meddling of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in Hungary's affairs.

Matthias died without legitimate heir, and was thus succeeded by Vladislaus II Jagiellon (1490–1516), the son of Casimir IV of Poland . In turn, Vladislaus was succeeded by his son Louis II (1516–26).

At the time of the initial Ottoman encroachment, the Hungarians successfully resisted conquest. John Hunyadi was leader of the Crusade of Varna , in which the Hungarians
Hungarians
tried to expel the Turks from the Balkans. Initially, it was successful, but later at the Battle of Varna Ottomans won a decisive and Pyrrhic victory. Wladyslaw III is decapitated during this battle.

In 1456, John Hunyadi delivered a crushing defeat on the Ottomans at the Siege of Belgrade . The Noon Bell commemorates the fallen Christian warriors. In the 15th century, the Black Army of Hungary
Hungary
was a modern mercenary army, with the Hussars the most skilled troops of the Hungarian cavalry . In 1479, under the leadership of Pál Kinizsi , the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield . The Army of Hungary
Hungary
destroyed its enemies almost every time when Matthias was king.

In 1526, at the Battle of Mohács , the forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman I _annihilated_ the Hungarian army. In trying to escape, Louis II drowned in the Csele Creek. The leader of the Hungarian army, Pál Tomori , also died in the battle.

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1526–1867)

THE DIVIDED KINGDOM

See also: Ottoman–Hungarian Wars , Ottoman Hungary , Royal Hungary , Eastern Hungarian Kingdom , and Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)

Due to a serious defeat by the Ottomans ( Battle of Mohács ) the central authority collapsed. The majority of Hungary's ruling elite elected John Zápolya (10 November 1526). A small minority of aristocrats sided with Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, who was Archduke of Austria
Austria
, and was related to Louis by marriage. Due to previous agreements that the Habsburgs would take the Hungarian throne if Louis died without heirs, Ferdinand was elected king by a rump diet in December 1526.

Although the borders shifted frequently during this period, the three parts can be identified, more or less, as follows:

* Royal Hungary
Hungary
, which consisted of northern and western territories where Ferdinand I was recognized as king of Hungary. This part is viewed as defining the continuity of the Kingdom of Hungary. The territory along with Ottoman Hungary suffered greatly from the nearly constant wars taking place. * Ottoman Hungary The Great Alföld (i.e. most of present-day Hungary, including south-eastern Transdanubia and the Banat ), partly without north-eastern present-day Hungary. * Eastern Hungarian Kingdom under the Szapolyai . Note that this territory, often under Ottoman influence, was different from Transylvania
Transylvania
proper and included various other territories sometimes referred to as Partium
Partium
. Later the entity was called Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
.

The Battle of Buda
Buda
(1686) : Hungarians
Hungarians
and the Holy League (1684) reconquer Buda.

On 29 February 1528, King John I of Hungary
Hungary
received the support of the Ottoman Sultan. A three-sided conflict ensued as Ferdinand moved to assert his rule over as much of the Hungarian kingdom as he could. By 1529 the kingdom had been split into two parts: Habsburg Hungary and the "eastern-Kingdom of Hungary". At this time there were no Ottomans on Hungarian territories, except Srem's important castles. In 1532, Nikola Jurišić defended Kőszeg and stopped a powerful Ottoman army. By 1541, the fall of Buda
Buda
marked a further division of Hungary into three areas. The country remained divided until the end of the 17th century.

In the following centuries there were numerous attempts to push back the Ottoman forces, such as the Long War or Thirteen Years' War (29 July 1593 – 1604/11 November 1606) led by a coalition of Christian forces. In 1644 the Winter Campaign by Miklós Zrínyi burnt the crucial Suleiman Bridge of Osijek
Osijek
in eastern Slavonia , interrupting a Turkish supply line in Hungary. At the Battle of Saint
Saint
Gotthard (1664) , Austrians and Hungarians
Hungarians
defeated the Turkish army.

After the Ottoman siege of Austria
Austria
failed in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive against the Turks. By the end of the 17th century, they managed to invade the remainder of the historical Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the principality of Transylvania. For a while in 1686, the capital Buda
Buda
was again free from the Ottoman Empire, with the aid of other Europeans.

THE KURUC AGE

Main article: Rákóczi\'s War for Independence Kuruc-Labanc battle Counties of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen around 1880

Rákóczi's War for Independence (1703–1711) was the first significant freedom fight in Hungary
Hungary
against absolutist Habsburg rule. It was fought by a group of noblemen, wealthy and high-ranking progressives who wanted to put an end to the inequality of power relations, led by Francis II Rákóczi (II. Rákóczi Ferenc in Hungarian). Its main aims were to protect the rights of the different social orders, and to ensure the economic and social development of the country. Due to the adverse balance of forces, the political situation in Europe
Europe
and internal conflicts the freedom fight was eventually suppressed, but it succeeded in keeping Hungary
Hungary
from becoming an integral part of the Habsburg Empire, and its constitution was kept, even though it was only a formality.

After the departure of the Ottomans, the Habsburgs dominated the Hungarian Kingdom. The Hungarians' renewed desire for freedom led to Rákóczi's War for Independence. The most important reasons of the war were the new and higher taxes and a renewed Protestant movement. Rákóczi was a Hungarian nobleman, son of the legendary heroine _Ilona Zrínyi _. He spent a part of his youth in Austrian captivity. The _Kurucs_ were troops of Rákóczi. Initially, the Kuruc
Kuruc
army attained several important victories due to their superior light cavalry. Their weapons were mostly pistols, light sabre and _fokos _. At the Battle of Saint
Saint
Gotthard (1705) , János Bottyán decisively defeated the Austrian army. The Hungarian colonel Ádám Balogh nearly captured Joseph I , the King of Hungary
Hungary
and Emperor of Austria.

In 1708, the Habsburgs finally defeated the main Hungarian army at Battle of Trencsén , and this diminished the further effectiveness of the Kuruc
Kuruc
army. While the Hungarians
Hungarians
were exhausted by the fights, the Austrians defeated the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession . They could send more troops to Hungary
Hungary
against the rebels. Transylvania
Transylvania
became part of Hungary
Hungary
again starting at the end of the 17th century, and was led by governors. Distribution of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Kingdom of Croatia- Slavonia (1890) Ethnographic map of Hungary
Hungary
without Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia (1910). The population of areas under 20 persons/km2 is represented in the nearest area above that level, and the area is left blank.

AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1526–1867)

In 1711, Austrian Emperor Charles VI became the next ruler of Hungary. Throughout the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
had its own diet (parliament) and constitution, but the members of the Governor's Council (_Helytartótanács_, the office of the palatine ) were appointed by the Habsburg monarch, and the superior economic institution, the Hungarian Chamber , was directly subordinated to the Court Chamber in Vienna
Vienna
.

The Hungarian language reform started under the reign of Joseph II . The reform age of Hungary
Hungary
was started by István Széchenyi a Hungarian noble, who built one of the greatest bridges of Hungary, the Széchenyi Chain Bridge
Széchenyi Chain Bridge
. The official language remained Latin
Latin
until 1844. Between 1844 and 1849, and from 1867 onward, Hungarian became the official language.

HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION OF 1848

Main article: Hungarian Revolution of 1848

The European revolutions of 1848 swept Hungary, as well. The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 sought to redress the long suppressed desire for political change, namely independence. The Hungarian National Guard was created by young Hungarian patriots in 1848. In literature, this was best expressed by the greatest poet of the revolution, Sándor Petőfi
Sándor Petőfi
.

As war broke out with Austria, Hungarian military successes, which included the campaigns of the Hungarian general, Artúr Görgey , forced the Austrians on the defensive. One of the most famous battles of the revolution, the Battle of Pákozd , was fought on 29 September 1848, when the Hungarian revolutionary army led by Lieutenant-General János Móga defeated the troops of the Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić . Fearing defeat, the Austrians pleaded for Russian help. The combined forces of the two empires quelled the revolution. The desired political changes of 1848 were again suppressed until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 .

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY (1867–1918)

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1867–1918)

Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 , the Habsburg Empire became the "dual monarchy" of Austria-Hungary . The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the existence of the Dual Monarchy. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its fifty-year existence and obsolete medieval institutions continued to disappear. By the early 20th century, most of the Empire began to experience rapid economic growth. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).

The lands of the Hungarian Crown (comprising the Kingdom of Hungary proper, into which Transylvania
Transylvania
was fully incorporated, and the Kingdom of Croatia– Slavonia , which maintained a distinct identity and a certain internal autonomy) were granted equal status with the rest of the Habsburg monarchy. Each of the two states comprising Austria-Hungary exercised considerable independence, with certain institutions, notably the reigning house, defence, foreign affairs, and finances for common expenditures, remaining under joint management. This arrangement lasted until 1918, when the Central Powers went down in defeat in World War I.

TRANSITIONS (1918 TO 1920)

TWO SHORT-LIVED REPUBLICS

Main articles: Hungarian Democratic Republic and Hungarian Soviet Republic

The HUNGARIAN SOVIET REPUBLIC or HUNGARIAN REPUBLIC OF COUNCILS (Hungarian : _Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság_ or _Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság_ ) was a short-lived independent communist state established in Hungary
Hungary
.

It lasted only from 21 March until 1 August 1919. The state was led by Béla Kun and was not recognized by France, the UK or the US. It was the second socialist state in the world to be formed after the October Revolution in Russia
Russia
brought the Bolsheviks to power. The Hungarian Republic of Councils had military conflicts with the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the evolving Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
. It collapsed on 1 August 1919 when Hungarians
Hungarians
sent representatives to negotiate their surrender to the Romanian forces and Béla Kun, together with other high-ranking Communists, fled to Austria.

A 1919 attempt to form a federation with the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
also failed, when the Romanian King ultimately refused to accept the Hungarian Crown.

TREATY OF TRIANON (1920)

The Treaty of Trianon : Hungary
Hungary
lost 72% of its territory, its sea access, half of its 10 biggest cities and all of its precious metal mines. 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
found themselves separated from their motherland.

The new borders set in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon ceded 72% of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
to the neighbouring states. The main beneficiaries were Romania
Romania
, the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , but also Austria
Austria
, Poland
Poland
and Italy
Italy
gained smaller territories. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, but more than 3.3 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
were left outside the new borders of Hungary. Many view this as contrary to the terms laid out by US President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
's Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
, which were intended to honour the ethnic makeup of the territories. As President Wilson left the conference to emphasize his disagreement and because of the U.S. Congress did not enacted the treaty, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
signed a separate peace treaty on 29 August 1921.

BETWEEN 1920 AND 1946

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1920–46)

INTERWAR PERIOD

Main articles: Hungary
Hungary
between the World Wars and Hungarian interwar economy Miklós Horthy was regent of Hungary.

After the pullout of occupation forces of Romania
Romania
in 1920 the country went into civil conflict, with Hungarian anti-communists and monarchists purging the nation of communists, leftists and others by whom they felt threatened. Later in 1920, a coalition of right-wing political forces united, and reinstated Hungary's status as a constitutional monarchy. Selection of the new King was delayed due to civil infighting, and a regent was appointed to represent the monarchy. Former Austro-Hungarian navy admiral Miklós Horthy became that regent . New international borders separated Hungary's industrial base from its sources of raw materials and its former markets for agricultural and industrial products. Hungary
Hungary
lost 84% of its timber resources, 43% of its arable land, and 83% of its iron ore. Furthermore, post-Trianon Hungary
Hungary
possessed 90% of the engineering and printing industry of the Kingdom, while only 11% of timber and 16% iron was retained. In addition, 61% of arable land , 74% of public road, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads , 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, 100% of gold, silver, copper, mercury and salt mines, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the prewar Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbors.

Because most of the country's pre-war industry was concentrated near Budapest, Hungary
Hungary
retained about 51% of its industrial population, 56% of its industry. Horthy appointed Count Pál Teleki as Prime Minister in July 1920. His government issued a numerus clausus law, limiting admission of "political insecure elements" (these were often Jews) to universities and, in order to quiet rural discontent, took initial steps towards fulfilling a promise of major land reform by dividing about 3,850 km2 from the largest estates into smallholdings. Teleki's government resigned, however, after Charles IV unsuccessfully attempted to retake Hungary's throne in March 1921. King Charles's return produced split parties between conservatives who favored a Habsburg restoration and nationalist right-wing radicals who supported election of a Hungarian king. Count István Bethlen, a non-affiliated right-wing member of the parliament, took advantage of this rift forming a new Party of Unity under his leadership. Horthy then appointed Bethlen prime minister. Charles IV died soon after he failed a second time to reclaim the throne in October 1921. (For more detail on Charles's attempts to retake the throne, see _Charles IV of Hungary\'s conflict with Miklós Horthy _.)

As prime minister, Bethlen dominated Hungarian politics between 1921 and 1931. He fashioned a political machine by amending the electoral law, providing jobs in the expanding bureaucracy to his supporters, and manipulating elections in rural areas. Bethlen restored order to the country by giving the radical counterrevolutionaries payoffs and government jobs in exchange for ceasing their campaign of terror against Jews and leftists. In 1921, he made a deal with the Social Democrats and trade unions (called Bethlen-Peyer Pact), agreeing, among other things, to legalize their activities and free political prisoners in return for their pledge to refrain from spreading anti-Hungarian propaganda, calling political strikes, and organizing the peasantry. Bethlen brought Hungary
Hungary
into the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1922 and out of international isolation by signing a treaty of friendship with Italy
Italy
in 1927. The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary's political agenda and the strategy employed by Bethlen consisted by strengthening the economy and building relations with stronger nations. Revision of the treaty had such a broad backing in Hungary
Hungary
that Bethlen used it, at least in part, to deflect criticism of his economic, social, and political policies. István Bethlen , the Prime Minister of Hungary
Hungary

The Great Depression
Great Depression
induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. In 1932 Horthy appointed a new prime-minister, Gyula Gömbös , who changed the course of Hungarian policy towards closer cooperation with Germany. Gömbös signed a trade agreement with Germany that drew Hungary's economy out of depression but made Hungary
Hungary
dependent on the German economy for both raw materials and markets. On 2 November 1938, as the result of the First Vienna
Vienna
Award parts of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
- Southern Slovakia
Slovakia
and a part of Carpathian Ruthenia - were returned to Hungary, an area amounting to 11,927 km² and a population of 869,299 (86.5% of which were Hungarians
Hungarians
according to the 1941 census). Between 5 November and 10 November, Hungarian armed forces peacefully occupied the newly transferred territories. Hitler later promised to transfer all of Slovakia
Slovakia
to Hungary
Hungary
in exchange for a military alliance, but his offer was rejected. Instead, Horthy chose to pursue a territorial revision to be decided along ethnic lines. In March 1939, the Czecho-Slovak Republic was dissolved, Germany invaded it , and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was established. On 14 March, Slovakia
Slovakia
declared itself to be an independent state.

On 15 March, Carpatho- Ukraine
Ukraine
declared itself to be an independent state. Hungary
Hungary
rejected the independence of Carpatho- Ukraine
Ukraine
and, between 14 March and 18 March, Hungarian armed forces occupied the rest of Carpathian Ruthenia and ousted the government of Avgustyn Voloshyn . By contrast, Hungary
Hungary
recognized the Nazi puppet state of Slovakia
Slovakia
led by the Clerical Fascist Jozef Tiso . In September 1940, with troops massing on both sides of the Hungarian-Romanian border, war was averted by the Second Vienna
Vienna
Award . This award transferred the northern half of Transylvania
Transylvania
to Hungary, with a total area of 43,492 km² and a total population of 2,578,100 with a 53.5% Hungarian majority according to the 1941 census. By dividing Transylvania between Romania
Romania
and Hungary, Hitler was able to ease tensions in Hungary. In October 1940, the Germans initiated a reciprocity policy between Romania
Romania
and Hungary
Hungary
which was continued until the end of World War II. The region of Sub-Carpathia was given special autonomous status with the intention that (eventually) it would be self-governed by the Ruthenian minority. The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
in 1942, during World War II
World War II

DURING WORLD WAR II 1941–1945

Main article: Hungary
Hungary
during World War II
World War II

After being granted part of southern Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Subcarpathia by the Germans and Italians in the First Vienna
Vienna
Award of 1938, and then northern Transylvania
Transylvania
in the Second Vienna
Vienna
Award of 1940, Hungary participated in their first military maneuvers on the side of the Axis powers in 1941. Thus, the Hungarian army was part of the invasion of Yugoslavia , gaining some more territory and joining the Axis powers in the process. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Operation Barbarossa . Hungary
Hungary
joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 26 June, and entered World War II
World War II
on the side of the Axis. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman . By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the river Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies. On 19 March 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary
Hungary
in what was known as Operation Margarethe . By then it was clear that Hungarian politics would be suppressed according to Hitler's intention to hold the country in the war on the side of the Nazi Third Reich because of its strategic location. On 15 October 1944, Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary
Hungary
from the war. The Germans launched Operation Panzerfaust and Horthy's regime was replaced by a fascist puppet government under the pro-German Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi , thus effectively ending the possibility for independent actions in the war. However, the form of government was only changed to a republic two years later.

TRANSITIONING INTO A REPUBLIC

Following its occupation of Hungary
Hungary
in 1944 , the Soviet Union imposed harsh conditions allowing it to seize important material assets and control internal affairs. After the Red Army
Red Army
set up police organs to persecute class enemies, the Soviets assumed that the impoverished Hungarian populace would support the communists in the coming elections. The communists fared poorly, receiving only 17% of the vote, resulting in a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy . Soviet intervention, however, resulted in a government that disregarded Tildy, placed communists in important ministries, and imposed restrictive and repressive measures, including banning the victorious Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party . In 1945, Soviet Marshal Kliment Voroshilov
Kliment Voroshilov
forced the freely elected Hungarian government to yield the Interior Ministry to a nominee of the Hungarian Communist Party
Hungarian Communist Party
. Communist Interior Minister László Rajk established the ÁVH secret police , which suppressed political opposition through intimidation, false accusations, imprisonment and torture. In 1946 the form of government was changed to a republic. Soon after the monarchy was finally abolished, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
pressed Hungarian leader Mátyás Rákosi to take a "line of more pronounced class struggle." What emerged was a communist state lasting until October 1989 when the Communists agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for free elections in March 1990 . In today's free republic, the Kingdom is regarded as one long stage in the development of the state. This sense of continuity is reflected in the republic's national symbols such as the Holy Crown of Hungary
Hungary
and the Coat of arms of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary
, which are the same as when the monarchy was still in place. Several holidays, the official language (Hungarian), and the capital city Budapest
Budapest
have also been retained. The official Hungarian name of the country is _Magyarország_ (simply Hungary) since 2012; it was also the common name of the monarchy. The millennium of the Hungarian statehood was commemorated in 2000 and codified by the Millennium Act of 2000.

SEE ALSO

* Austria-Hungary portal

* Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen * List of Hungarian rulers * Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
* Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
* Demographics of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
* Comitatus (Kingdom of Hungary) * Holy Crown of Hungary
Hungary
* Coat of arms of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary

REFERENCES

* ^ Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). _World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions_. Ed. Thomas J. Sienkewicz and James T. McDonough, Jr. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-86516-422-3 . * ^ The majority of Hungarian people became Christian in the 10th century. Hungary's first king , Saint
Saint
Stephen I , took up Western Christianity . Hungary
Hungary
remained solely Catholic until the Reformation took place during the 16th century and, as a result, Lutheranism and then, soon afterwards, Calvinism started to spread. * ^ _A_ _B_ _Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
._ Carthographia, Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary
Hungary
, 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9 * ^ Emil Valkovics:Demography of contemporary Hungarian society, 1996, p. 15 * ^ Kollega Tarsoly, István, ed. (1996). "Magyarország". _Révai nagy lexikona_ (in Hungarian). Volume 21. Budapest: Hasonmás Kiadó. p. 572. ISBN 963-9015-02-4 . * ^ Élesztős László; et al., eds. (2004). "Magyarország". _Révai új lexikona_ (in Hungarian). Volume 13. Budapest: Hasonmás Kiadó. pp. 882, 895. ISBN 963-9556-13-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kristó Gyula - Barta János - Gergely Jenő: Magyarország története előidőktől 2000-ig (History of Hungary from the prehistory to 2000), Pannonica Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, ISBN 963-9252-56-5 , p. 687, pp. 37, pp. 113 ("Magyarország a 12. század második felére jelentős európai tényezővé, középhatalommá vált."/"By the 12th century Hungary
Hungary
became an important European constituent, became a middle power.", "A Nyugat részévé vált Magyarország.../ Hungary
Hungary
became part of the West"), pp. 616–644 * ^ Stickel, Gerhard (1 January 2010). "National, regional and minority languages in Europe: contributions to the annual conference 2009 of EFNIL in Dublin". Peter Lang – via Google Books. * ^ " Hungary
Hungary
- history - geography". * ^ "Hungary: St. Stephen\'s Day - office Holidays". * ^ Hintersteiner, Norbert (9 February 2017). "Naming and Thinking God in Europe
Europe
Today: Theology in Global Dialogue". Rodopi – via Google Books. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Magyarország geográfiai szótára". * ^ _A_ _B_ Fundamental Law of Hungary
Hungary
(2012), Wikisource * ^ Acta orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Volume 36 Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences), 1982, p. 419 * ^ "Aba Sámuel". * ^ Archived 6 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Larousse online encyclopedia , _Histoire de la Croatie_: (in French) * ^ " Croatia
Croatia
(History)". _ Britannica
Britannica
_. * ^ John Van Antwerp Fine: The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, 1991, p. 288 * ^ Barna Mezey: Magyar alkotmánytörténet, Budapest, 1995, p. 66 * ^ A szentek élete I. (szerk. Dr. Diós István), Szent István Társulat, 1984. * ^ " Transylvania
Transylvania
- region, Romania". * ^ "Grand Principality of Transylvania". * ^ A Forradalmi Kormányzótanács XXVI. számú rendelete (in Hungarian) * ^ Official name of the state between 23 June and 1 August according to the constitution, see: A Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság alkotmánya (in Hungarian) * ^ Brecher, Michael; Wilkenfeld, Jonathan (1 January 1997). "A Study of Crisis". University of Michigan Press – via Google Books. * ^ " Hungary
Hungary
Hungarian Soviet Republic - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements, Population, Social Statistics, Political System". 2002. * ^ Béla K. Király, Gunther Erich Rothenberg, _War and Society in East Central Europe: Trianon and East Central Europe
Central Europe
antecedents and repercussions_, p. 114 * ^ Francis Tapon: _The Hidden Europe: What Eastern Europeans Can Teach Us_, Thomson Press India, 2012 * ^ Molnar, _A Concise History of Hungary_, p. 262 * ^ Richard C. Frucht, _Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture_ p. 359-360M1 * ^ 1921. évi XLVIII. törvénycikk az Amerikai Egyesült-Államokkal 1921. évi augusztus hó 29. napján Budapesten kötött békeszerződés becikkelyezéséről - XLVIII. Act of 1921 about the enactment the peace treaty signed in Budapest
Budapest
on 29. August 1921 with the United States of America - http://www.1000ev.hu/index.php?a=3¶m=7504 * ^ _Flood-light on Europe: a guide to the next war_ by Felix Wittmer, published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 Item notes: pt. 443 Original from Indiana University Digitized 13 November 2008 p. 114 * ^ _History of the Hungarian Nation_ by Domokos G. Kosáry, Steven Béla Várdy, Danubian Research Center Published by Danubian Press, 1969 Original from the University of California Digitized 19 June 2008 p. 222 * ^ _The European powers in the First World War: an encyclopedia_ by Spencer Tucker, Laura Matysek Wood, Justin D. Murphy Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1996 ISBN 0-8153-0399-8 , ISBN 978-0-8153-0399-2 p.697 * ^ Thomas, _The Royal Hungarian Army in World War II_, pg. 11 * ^ "Slovakia". * ^ Wettig 2008 , p. 51 * ^ _A_ _B_ Wettig 2008 , p. 85 * ^ Norton, Donald H. (2002). _Essentials of European History: 1935 to the Present_, p. 47. REA: Piscataway, New Jersey. ISBN 0-87891-711-X . * ^ UN General Assembly _ Special
Special
Committee on the Problem of Hungary_ (1957) "Chapter II.N, para 89(xi) (p. 31)" (PDF). (1.47 MB) * ^ Wettig 2008 , p. 110 * ^ Text of the Millennium Act (in Hungarian)

FURTHER READING

* Engel, Pál. _The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526_. (2001). * Frucht, Richard. _Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
to the Fall of Communism_ (2000) online edition * Hoensch, Jörg K., and Kim Traynor. _A History of Modern Hungary, 1867–1994_ (1996) online edition * Hanak, Peter et al. _A History of Hungary_ (1994) * Kontler, Laszlo. _A History of Hungary_ (2006) excerpt and text search * Molnár, Miklós, and Anna Magyar. _A Concise History of Hungary_ (2001) excerpt and text search * Palffy, Geza. _The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
in the Sixteenth Century_ (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 2010) 406 pages; Covers the period after the battle of Mohacs in 1526 when the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
was partitioned in three, with one segment going to the Habsburgs.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KINGDOM OF HUNGARY _.

* Hungary
Hungary
in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica

* v * t * e

Historical development of Hungary
Hungary

Principality of Hungary (896-1000)

Royal Hungary
Hungary
→ (1526–1571)

Eastern Hungarian Kingdom → (1526–1571)

.