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Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)

Monarch

 •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a]

 •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]

Legislature Parliament

 •  Upper house House of Lords

 •  Lower house House of Commons

History

 •  Unification 10th century

 •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066

 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283

 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542

 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603

 •  Glorious Revolution 11 December 1688

 •  Union with Scotland 1 May 1707

Area

 •  1283–1542 est. 145,000 km2 (56,000 sq mi)

 •  1542–1707 est. 151,000 km2 (58,000 sq mi)

Population

 •  1283 est. 2,600,000 

     Density 18/km2 (46/sq mi)

 •  1542 est. 3,000,000 

     Density 21/km2 (54/sq mi)

 •  1707 est. 5,750,000 

     Density 38/km2 (99/sq mi)

Currency Pound sterling

Preceded by Succeeded by

Wessex

Sussex

Essex

Kent

Dumnonia

Mercia

East Anglia

Northumbria

Welsh Marches

Principality of Wales

Great Britain

Today part of

 United Kingdom  ∟  England  ∟  Wales

a. ^ Monarch of Wessex
Wessex
from 925.

b. ^ Continued as monarch of Great Britain
Great Britain
until her death in 1714.

Part of a series on the

History of England

Timeline

Prehistoric Britain Roman Britain Sub-Roman Britain Medieval period

Economy in the Middle Ages Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period

English unification

High Middle Ages

Norman conquest Norman period

Late Middle Ages

Black Death in England

Tudor period

Tudor dynasty Elizabethan period English Renaissance

Stuart period

English Civil War Commonwealth Protectorate Restoration Glorious Revolution

Georgian period

Regency period

Victorian period Edwardian period First World War Interwar period Second World War Social history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1945–present) Political history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1945–present)

Topics

Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language

Polities

Kingdom of England Kingdom of Great Britain United Kingdom

By county

Bedfordshire Berkshire City of Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire

By city or town

Birmingham Bournemouth Brighton Bristol Chester Christchurch Colchester Coventry Dover Folkestone Leeds Liverpool London Maidstone Manchester Milton Keynes Newcastle Nottingham Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Rochester Sheffield Shrewsbury Southampton St Albans Torquay Wetherby Worthing York

England
England
portal

v t e

The Kingdom of England
England
(French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England;) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland
Scotland
to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In the early 10th century the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms, united by Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(r. 927–939), became part of the North Sea Empire
North Sea Empire
of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway. The Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of England
England
in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
one at Winchester
Winchester
to Westminster, and the City of London
City of London
quickly established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre.[1] Histories of the kingdom of England
England
from the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714 (interrupted by the Interregnum (England) of 1649–1660). Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 ultimately claim descent from the Normans; the distinction of the Plantagenets is merely conventional, beginning with Henry II (reigned 1154–1189) as from that time, the Angevin kings became "more English in nature"; the houses of Lancaster and York
York
are both Plantagenet cadet branches, the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
claimed descent from Edward III
Edward III
via John Beaufort and James VI and I
James VI and I
of the House of Stuart
House of Stuart
claimed descent from Henry VII via Margaret Tudor. The completion of the conquest of Wales
Wales
by Edward I
Edward I
in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown. Edward III
Edward III
(reigned 1327–1377) transformed the Kingdom of England
England
into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe; his reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament. From the 1340s the kings of England
England
also laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
ruled during the English Renaissance
English Renaissance
and again extended English monarchical power beyond England
England
proper, achieving the full union of England
England
and the Principality of Wales
Principality of Wales
in 1542. Henry VIII
Henry VIII
oversaw the English Reformation, and his daughter Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
(reigned 1558–1603) the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England
England
as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire
British Empire
by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I
James VI and I
in 1603, the Stuart dynasty
Stuart dynasty
ruled England
England
in personal union with Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament. This concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy.[nb 5] On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.[2][3]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England 2.2 Norman conquest 2.3 High Middle Ages 2.4 Late Middle Ages 2.5 Tudor period 2.6 Early Modern history

2.6.1 Civil War and Interregnum 2.6.2 Restoration and Glorious Revolution 2.6.3 Union with Scotland

3 Territorial divisions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography

Name[edit] Main article: Name of England The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles
Angles
(called Angulus by Bede).[4] The name Engla land became England
England
by haplology during the Middle English
Middle English
period (Engle-land, Engelond).[5] The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French
Old French
and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.[6] By the 14th century, England
England
was also used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan
Æthelstan
until John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie ("King of England"). From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title (now usually rendered in English rather than Latin) King of Great Britain. The English and Scottish parliaments, however, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. History[edit] Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England[edit] Main article: Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England The kingdom of England
England
emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex. The Viking invasions
Viking invasions
of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan
Æthelstan
in 927 CE. During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia
Mercia
allowed Wessex
Wessex
to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex
Sussex
in 825. The kings of Wessex
Wessex
became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England
England
during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria
Northumbria
submitted to Egbert of Wessex
Wessex
at Dore, briefly making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
says that "all of the English people
English people
(all Angelcyn) not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred."[7] Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly ... and made it habitable once more."[8] Alfred's "restoration" entailed reoccupying and refurbishing the nearly deserted Roman walled city, building quays along the Thames, and laying a new city street plan.[9] It is probably at this point that Alfred assumed the new royal style 'King of the Anglo-Saxons.' During the following years Northumbria
Northumbria
repeatedly changed hands between the English kings and the Norwegian invaders, but was definitively brought under English control by Eadred
Eadred
in 954, completing the unification of England. At about this time, Lothian, the northern part of Northumbria
Northumbria
(Roman Bernicia), was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. On 12 July 927 the monarchs of Britain gathered at Eamont
Eamont
in Cumbria
Cumbria
to recognise Æthelstan
Æthelstan
as king of the English. This can be considered England's 'foundation date', although the process of unification had taken almost 100 years.

The dominions of Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
(1014–1035)

England
England
has remained in political unity ever since. During the reign of Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready
(978–1016), a new wave of Danish invasions was orchestrated by Sweyn I of Denmark, culminating after a quarter-century of warfare in the Danish conquest of England
England
in 1013. But Sweyn died on 2 February 1014, and Æthelred was restored to the throne. In 1015, Sweyn's son Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
(commonly known as Canute) launched a new invasion. The ensuing war ended with an agreement in 1016 between Canute and Æthelred's successor, Edmund Ironside, to divide England
England
between them, but Edmund's death on 30 November of that year left England
England
united under Danish rule. This continued for 26 years until the death of Harthacnut
Harthacnut
in June 1042. He was the son of Canute and Emma of Normandy
Emma of Normandy
(the widow of Æthelred the Unready) and had no heirs of his own; he was succeeded by his half-brother, Æthelred's son, Edward the Confessor. The Kingdom of England
England
was once again independent. Norman conquest[edit] Main article: Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of England The peace lasted until the death of the childless Edward in January 1066. His brother-in-law was crowned King Harold, but his cousin William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, immediately claimed the throne for himself. William launched an invasion of England
England
and landed in Sussex
Sussex
on 28 September 1066. Harold and his army were in York following their victory against the Norwegians at the Battle of Stamford Bridge (25 September 1066) when the news reached him. He decided to set out without delay and confront the Norman army in Sussex
Sussex
so marched southwards at once, despite the army not being properly rested following the battle with the Norwegians. The armies of Harold and William faced each other at the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
(14 October 1066), in which the English army, or Fyrd, was defeated, Harold and his two brothers were slain, and William emerged as victor. William was then able to conquer England
England
with little further opposition. He was not, however, planning to absorb the Kingdom into the Duchy of Normandy. As a mere duke, William owed allegiance to Philip I of France, whereas in the independent Kingdom of England
England
he could rule without interference. He was crowned on 25 December 1066 in Westminster
Westminster
Abbey, London. High Middle Ages[edit] Main article: England
England
in the High Middle Ages Further information: Angevin Empire, Norman invasion of Wales, and Conquest of Wales
Wales
by Edward I In 1092, William II led an invasion of Strathclyde, a Celtic kingdom in what is now southwest Scotland
Scotland
and Cumbria. In doing so, he annexed what is now the county of Cumbria
Cumbria
to England. In 1124, Henry I ceded what is now southeast Scotland
Scotland
(called Lothian) to the Kingdom of Scotland, in return for the King of Scotland's loyalty. This final cession established what would become the traditional borders of England
England
which have remained largely unchanged since then (except for occasional and temporary changes). This area of land had previously been a part of the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria. Lothian
Lothian
contained what later became the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. This arrangement was later finalised in 1237 by the Treaty of York.

King John signs Magna Carta
Magna Carta
at Runnymede
Runnymede
in 1215, surrounded by his baronage. Illustration from Cassell's History of England, 1902.

The Duchy of Aquitaine
Duchy of Aquitaine
came into personal union with the Kingdom of England
England
upon the accession of Henry II, who had married Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. The Kingdom of England
England
and the Duchy of Normandy remained in personal union until John Lackland, Henry II's son and fifth-generation descendant of William I, lost the continental possessions of the Duchy to Philip II of France
Philip II of France
in 1204. A few remnants of Normandy, including the Channel Islands, remained in John's possession, together with most of the Duchy of Aquitaine. Up until the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of England, Wales
Wales
had remained for the most part independent of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms, although some Welsh kings did sometimes acknowledge the Bretwalda. Soon after the Norman conquest of England, however, some Norman lords began to attack Wales. They conquered and ruled parts of it, acknowledging the overlordship of the Norman kings of England
England
but with considerable local independence. Over many years these "Marcher Lords" conquered more and more of Wales, against considerable resistance led by various Welsh princes, who also often acknowledged the overlordship of the Norman kings of England. Edward I
Edward I
defeated Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, and so effectively conquered Wales, in 1282. He created the title Prince of Wales
Wales
for his heir, the future Edward II, in 1301. Edward I's conquest was brutal and the subsequent repression considerable, as the magnificent Welsh castles such as Conwy, Harlech, and Caernarfon attest; but this event re-united under a single ruler the lands of Roman Britain
Roman Britain
for the first time since the establishment of the Kingdom of the Jutes
Jutes
in Kent in the 5th century, some 700 years before. Accordingly, this was a highly significant moment in the history of medieval England, as it re-established links with the pre-Saxon past. These links were exploited for political purposes to unite the peoples of the kingdom, including the Anglo-Normans, by popularising Welsh legends. The Welsh language—derived from the British language, continued to be spoken by the majority of the population of Wales
Wales
for at least another 500 years, and is still a majority language in parts of the country. Late Middle Ages[edit] Main article: England
England
in the Late Middle Ages Further information: Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
and Hundred Years' War

Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the English victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt.

Edward III
Edward III
was the first English king to have a claim to the throne of France. His pursuit of the claim resulted in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), which pitted five kings of England
England
of the House of Plantagenet against five kings of France of the Capetian House of Valois. Though the English won numerous victories, they were unable to overcome the numerical superiority of the French and their strategic use of gunpowder weapons. England
England
was defeated at the Battle of Formigny in 1450 and finally at the Battle of Castillon
Battle of Castillon
in 1453, retaining only a single town in France, Calais. During the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
an English identity began to develop in place of the previous division between the Norman lords and their Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
subjects. This was a consequence of sustained hostility to the increasingly nationalist French, whose kings and other leaders (notably the charismatic Joan of Arc) used a developing sense of French identity to help draw people to their cause. The Anglo-Normans became separate from their cousins who held lands mainly in France and mocked the former for their archaic and bastardised spoken French. English also became the language of the law courts during this period. The kingdom had little time to recover before entering the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487), a series of civil wars over possession of the throne between the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(whose heraldic symbol was the red rose) and the House of York
House of York
(whose symbol was the white rose), each led by different branches of the descendants of Edward III. The end of these wars found the throne held by the descendant of an initially illegitimate member of the House of Lancaster, married to the eldest daughter of the House of York: Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. They were the founders of the Tudor dynasty, which ruled the kingdom from 1485 to 1603. Tudor period[edit] Main articles: Tudor period, Elizabethan era, Stuart period, and English Renaissance Wales
Wales
retained a separate legal and administrative system, which had been established by Edward I
Edward I
in the late 13th century. The country was divided between the Marcher Lords, who gave feudal allegiance to the crown, and the Principality of Wales. Under the Tudor monarchy, Henry VIII replaced the laws of Wales
Wales
with those of England
England
(under the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542). Wales
Wales
was incorporated into the Kingdom of England, and henceforth was represented in the Parliament of England.

Portrait of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
made to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's international power is symbolised by the hand resting on the globe.

During the 1530s, Henry VIII
Henry VIII
overthrew the power of the Roman Catholic Church within the kingdom, replacing the pope as head of the English Church and seizing the Church's lands, thereby facilitating the creation of a variation of Catholicism that became more Protestant over time. This had the effect of aligning England
England
with Scotland, which also gradually adopted a Protestant religion, whereas the most important continental powers, France and Spain, remained Roman Catholic. In 1541, during Henry VIII's reign, the Parliament of Ireland proclaimed him king of Ireland, thereby bringing the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
into personal union with the Kingdom of England. Calais, the last remaining continental possession of the Kingdom, was lost in 1558, during the reign of Philip and Mary I. Their successor, Elizabeth I, consolidated the new and increasingly Protestant Church of England. She also began to build up the kingdom's naval strength, on the foundations Henry VIII
Henry VIII
had laid down. By 1588, her new navy was strong enough to defeat the Spanish Armada, which had sought to invade England
England
to put a Catholic monarch on the throne in her place. Early Modern history[edit] Main articles: Early modern Britain
Early modern Britain
and Stuart period The House of Tudor ended with the death of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
on 24 March 1603. James I ascended the throne of England
England
and brought it into personal union with the Kingdom of Scotland. Despite the Union of the Crowns, the kingdoms remained separate and independent states: a state of affairs which lasted for more than a century. Civil War and Interregnum[edit] Main articles: English Civil War, English Interregnum, English Commonwealth, and English Protectorate

Cromwell at Dunbar. Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England.

The Stuart kings overestimated the power of the English monarchy, and were cast down by Parliament in 1645 and 1688. In the first instance, Charles I's introduction of new forms of taxation in defiance of Parliament led to the English Civil War
English Civil War
(1641–45), in which the king was defeated, and to the abolition of the monarchy under Oliver Cromwell during the interregnum of 1649–1660. Henceforth, the monarch could reign only at the will of Parliament. After the trial and execution of Charles I in January 1649, the Rump Parliament passed an act declaring England
England
to be a Commonwealth on 19 May 1649. The monarchy and the House of Lords
House of Lords
were abolished, and so the House of Commons became a unitary legislative chamber with a new body, the Council of State becoming the executive. However the Army remain the dominant institution in the new republic and the most prominent general was Oliver Cromwell. The Commonwealth fought wars in Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
which were subdued and placed under Commonwealth military occupation. In April 1653 Cromwell and the other Grandees of the New Model Army, frustrated with the members of the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
who would not pass legislation to dissolve the Rump and to allow a new more representative parliament to be elected, stopped the Rumps session by force of arms and declared the Rump dissolved. After an experiment with a Nominated Assembly (Barebone's Parliament), the Grandees in the Army, through the Council of State imposed a new constitutional arrangement under a written constitution called the Instrument of Government. Under the Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government
executive power lay with a Lord Protector
Lord Protector
(an office be held for life of the incumbent) and there were to be triennial Parliaments, with each sitting for at least five months. Article 23 of the Instrument of Government stated that Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
was to be the first Lord Protector. The Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government
was replaced by a second constitution (the Humble Petition and Advice) under which the Lord Protector could nominate his successor. Cromwell nominated his son Richard who became Lord Protector
Lord Protector
on the death of Oliver on 3 September 1658. Restoration and Glorious Revolution[edit] Main articles: Restoration (England)
Restoration (England)
and Glorious Revolution Richard proved to be ineffectual and was unable to maintain his rule. He resigned his title and retired into obscurity. The Rump Parliament was recalled and there was a second period where the executive power lay with the Council of state. But this restoration of Commonwealth rule similar to that before the Protectorate, proved to be unstable, and the exiled claimant, Charles II, was restored to the throne in 1660. Following the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, an attempt by James II to reintroduce Roman Catholicism—a century after its suppression by the Tudors—led to the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688, in which he was deposed by Parliament. The Crown was then offered by Parliament to James II's Protestant daughter and son-in-law/nephew, William III and Mary II. Union with Scotland[edit] In the Scottish case, the attractions were partly financial and partly to do with removing English trade sanctions put in place through the Alien Act 1705. The English were more anxious about the royal succession. The death of William III in 1702 had led to the accession of his sister-in-law Anne to the thrones of England
England
and Scotland, but her only surviving child had died in 1700, and the English Act of Settlement 1701 had given the succession to the English crown to the Protestant House of Hanover. Securing the same succession in Scotland became the primary object of English strategic thinking towards Scotland. By 1704, the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
was in crisis, with the Scottish Act of Security allowing for the Scottish Parliament to choose a different monarch, which could in turn lead to an independent foreign policy during a major European war. The English establishment did not wish to risk a Stuart on the Scottish throne, nor the possibility of a Scottish military alliance with another power. A Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
was agreed on 22 July 1706, and following the Acts of Union of 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain, the independence of the kingdoms of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
came to an end on 1 May 1707. The Acts of Union created a customs union and monetary union and provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Acts would "cease and become void". The English and Scottish Parliaments were merged into the Parliament of Great Britain, located in Westminster, London. At this point England
England
ceased to exist as a separate political entity, and since then has had no national government. The laws of England
England
were unaffected, with the legal jurisdiction continuing to be that of England
England
and Wales, while Scotland
Scotland
continued to have its own laws and law courts. This continued after the 1801 union between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Territorial divisions[edit] Further information: Historic counties of England, List of earldoms, Domesday Book, County palatine, English county histories, and English feudal barony The counties of England
England
were established for administration by the Normans, in most cases based on earlier shires established by the Anglo-Saxons. They ceased to be used for administration only with the creation of the administrative counties in 1889.[10][11] Unlike the partly self-governing boroughs that covered urban areas, the counties of medieval England
England
existed primarily as a means of enforcing central government power, enabling monarchs to exercise control over local areas through their chosen representatives – originally Sheriffs and later the Lord Lieutenants – and their subordinate Justices of the Peace.[12] Counties were used initially for the administration of justice, collection of taxes and organisation of the military, and later for local government and electing parliamentary representation.[13][14] Although all of England
England
was divided into shires by the time of the Norman conquest, some counties were formed considerably later, up to the 16th century. Because of their differing origins the counties varied considerably in size. The county boundaries were fairly static between the 16th century Laws in Wales
Wales
acts and the Local Government Act 1888.[15] Each shire was responsible for gathering taxes for the central government; for local defence; and for justice, through assize courts.[16] The power of the feudal barons to control their landholding was considerably weakened in 1290 by the statute of Quia Emptores. Feudal baronies became perhaps obsolete (but not extinct) on the abolition of feudal tenure during the Civil War, as confirmed by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 passed under the Restoration which took away Knights service and other legal rights. Tenure by knight-service was abolished and discharged and the lands covered by such tenures, including once-feudal baronies, were henceforth held by socage (i.e. in exchange for monetary rents). The English Fitzwalter Case in 1670 ruled that barony by tenure had been discontinued for many years and any claims to a peerage on such basis, meaning a right to sit in the House of Lords, were not to be revived, nor any right of succession based on them. The Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 followed the conquest of Wales
Wales
by Edward I
Edward I
of England. It assumed the lands held by the Princes of Gwynedd under the title "Prince of Wales" as legally part of the lands of England, and established shire counties on the English model over those areas. The Marcher Lords were progressively tied to the English kings by the grants of lands and lordships in England. The Council of Wales
Wales
and the Marches, administered from Ludlow Castle, was initially established in 1472 by Edward IV of England
England
to govern the lands held under the Principality of Wales.[17] Under the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535–1542 introduced under Henry VIII, the jurisdiction of the marcher lords was abolished in 1536. The Acts had the effect of annexing Wales
Wales
to England
England
and creating a single state and legal jurisdiction, commonly referred to as England
England
and Wales. See also[edit]

List of English monarchs English colonial empire English Army Royal Navy Privy Council of England Crown Jewels of England England
England
and Wales Anglo-Norman language Middle English
Middle English
language

Notes[edit]

^

Old English (until 1066) Middle English (1066–1550) Modern English (1550–1707)

^

Old Welsh (until 12th century) Middle Welsh (12th–14th century) Modern Welsh (14th century–1707)

^

Old Cornish (until 12th century) Middle Cornish (12th–16th century) Late Cornish
Late Cornish
(16th century–1707)

^ Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. ^ The Constitution of the United Kingdom, with the reservation that it is "uncodified", is taken[by whom?] to be based in the Bill of Rights 1689.

References[edit]

^ London, 800–1216: The Shaping of a City, "...rivalry between City and government, between a commercial capital in the City and the political capital of quite a different empire in Westminster.", accessed November 2013. ^ Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
parliament.uk, accessed 27 January 2011 ^ Making the Act of Union 1707 scottish.parliament.uk, accessed 27 January 2011 Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Stephen Harris, Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Literature, Studies in Medieval History and Culture, Routledge, 2004, 139f. ^ A. L. Mayhew and Walter W. Skeat, A Concise Dictionary of Middle English From A.D. 1150 To 1580 (1888) ^ " Anglia " (par L. Favre, 1883–1887), dans du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, éd. augm., Niort : L. Favre, 1883‑1887, t. 1, col. 251c. http://ducange.enc.sorbonne.fr/ANGLIA ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Freely licensed version at Gutenberg Project. Note: This electronic edition is a collation of material from nine diverse extant versions of the Chronicle. It contains primarily the translation of Rev. James Ingram, as published in the Everyman edition. ^ Asser's Life of King Alfred, ch. 83, trans. Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge, Alfred the Great: Asser's Life of King Alfred & Other Contemporary Sources (Penguin Classics) (1984), pp. 97–8. ^ Vince, Alan, Saxon London: An Archaeological Investigation, The Archaeology of London series (1990). ^ Vision of Britain – Type details for ancient county. Retrieved 19 October 2006. ^ Youngs, Frederic A, Jr. (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol.I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 0-901050-67-9. Ancient County: Counties are geographic entities whose origins reach back into the pre-Conquest period. They were derived either from Anglo-Saxon kingdoms whose size made them suitable administrative units when England
England
was unified in the tenth century, or as artificial creations formed from larger kingdoms. The number of 'shires' (the Anglo-Saxon term) or 'counties' (Norman term) varied in the medieval period, particularly in the north of England.  ^ Chandler, J. A. (2007). "Local government before 1832". Explaining Local Government: Local Government in Britain Since 1800. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0719067065.  ^ Hackwood, Frederick William (1920). The Story of the Shire, being the Lore, History and Evolution of English County Institutions (PDF). London: Heath Cranton Limited.  ^ Byrne, Tony (1994). Local Government in Britain. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017663-2.  ^ Vision of Britain – Census Geographies. Retrieved 19 October 2006. ^ Winchester, Angus J L (1990). Discovering Parish Boundaries. Oxford: Shire
Shire
Publications. ISBN 0-7478-0060-X.  ^ William Searle Holdsworth, "A History of English Law," Little, Brown, and Company, 1912, pg. 502

Bibliography[edit]

Bartlett, Robert. England
England
under the Norman and Angevin kings: 1075-1225 ( Oxford
Oxford
UP, 2002), major scholarly survey. Black, J.R. The Reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603 (1959), scholarly survey. Borman, Tracy. Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII's Most Faithful Servant (2015) popular biography. Elton, G. R., England
England
under the Tudors (London: Methuen, 1955), scholarly survey Ellis, Steven G. Ireland
Ireland
in the age of the Tudors, 1447-1603: English expansion and the end of Gaelic rule (Routledge, 2014). Guy, John. The Tudors: a very short introduction ( Oxford
Oxford
UP, 2013). Harriss, G.L. Shaping the nation: England
England
1360-1461 ( Oxford
Oxford
UP, 2005), scholarly survey. Jacob, E.F. The Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485 ( Oxford
Oxford
History of England, 1961)), scholarly survey. Jenkins, Elizabeth. Elizabeth the Great (Time Incorporated, 1964). popular well-illustrated biography. Jones, J. Gwynfor. Wales
Wales
and the Tudor state: government, religious change and the social order, 1534-1603 (U of Wales
Wales
Press, 1989). Levin, Carole. The heart and stomach of a king: Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I
and the politics of sex and power (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2013). Loades, David Michael. Politics and nation: England
England
1450-1660 (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999). Loades, David Michael. Power in Tudor England
England
(1997). McCaffrey, Wallace. Elizabeth I, a major scholarly biography McKisack, May. The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399 ( Oxford
Oxford
History of England, 1959). Neale, J.E. Queen Elizabeth I: a biography (1957) old scholarly biography; very well written. Penn, Thomas. Winter king: Henry VII and the dawn of Tudor England (2012). Powicke, Maurice. The Thirteenth Century, 1216-1307 ( Oxford
Oxford
History of England, 1962) scholarly survey Ridley, Jasper G. Henry VIII
Henry VIII
(1985), biography. Roberts, Clayton, F. David Roberts, and Douglas Bisson. A History of England, Volume 1: Prehistory to 1714 (Routledge, 2016). university textbook. Thomson, John A,F. The Transformation of Medieval England
England
1370-1529 (Routledge, 2014). Williams, Penry. The Later Tudors: England, 1547-1603 ( Oxford
Oxford
UP, 1995), major scholarly survey..

Preceded by The Heptarchy c. 500 – c. 927 Kingdom of England c. 927 – 1649 Succeeded by English Interregnum 1649–1660

Preceded by English Interregnum 1649–1660 Kingdom of England 1660–1707 Succeeded by Kingdom of Great Britain 1707–1800

v t e

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