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The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (simplified Chinese: 大理国; traditional Chinese: 大理國; pinyin: Dàlǐ Guó; Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan
Yunnan
province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols. Its kings continued to administer the area as Mongol vassals until the Ming conquest of Yunnan.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Relations with the Song dynasty 1.3 Fall 1.4 Yunnan
Yunnan
under the Mongols

2 Religion 3 Family Tree of the Kings of Dali 4 Art 5 Citations 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] Nanzhao
Nanzhao
was overthrown in 902 and three dynasties followed in quick succession before Duan Siping seized power in 937, establishing himself at Dali.[2] The Duan clan professed to have Han ancestry.[3] Relations with the Song dynasty[edit] Dali's relationship with the Song was cordial throughout its entire existence. Dali congratulated the Song dynasty on the conquest of Later Shu in 965 and voluntarily established tribute relations in 982. It was however essentially an independent state. At times the Song even declined offers of tribute.[2] Dali's primary importance to the Song dynasty was its horses, which were highly prized and sought after as military assets, especially after the fall of the Northern Song. They were described by a Song official in the following passage:

These horses possess a shape [that is] quite magnificent. They stand low with a muscular front, very similar to the shape of a chicken. The diaphragm is broad, shoulders thick, waist flat, and back round. They are trained to squat on their rear ends like a dog. They easily climb steep terrain on command and possess both speed and agility in chase. They have been raised on bitter buckwheat, so they require little to maintain. How could a horse like this not be considered a good horse?[4]

Fall[edit] In 1252 Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
placed his brother Kublai
Kublai
in charge of invading Dali. In 1253 Kublai's army crossed the Jinsha River
Jinsha River
and received the surrender of Duan Xingzhi, who presented to Möngke in 1256 maps of Yunnan. Duan Xingzhi of Dali was enfeoffed as Maharaja
Maharaja
(摩诃罗嵯) by Kublai
Kublai
Khan,[5] and the Duan royal family continued to hold the title of Maharaja
Maharaja
in Yunnan
Yunnan
as vassals to the Mongols under the supervision of Mongolian imperial princes and Muslim
Muslim
governors. The Duan family reigned in Dali while the governors served in Kunming. After the Ming conquest of Yunnan,[6] The Duan royals were scattered in various distant areas of China
China
by the Hongwu Emperor.[7] Yunnan
Yunnan
under the Mongols[edit] The Duan family governed Yunnan's various indigenous peoples for 11 generations until the end of Mongol rule. They willing contributed soldiers to the Mongol campaign against the Song dynasty. They also aided the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in putting down a Mongol rebellion in Yunnan
Yunnan
in 1271.[7] In 1274 Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar was assigned by Kublai
Kublai
to stabilize Yunnan. He instituted a native chieftain system that came to be known as tusi which assigned ranks and posts to native chieftains. Under this institution of "rule based on native customs" the locals retained much of their autonomy with the exception of three obligations. One, they would provide surrendered troops to the Yuan government. Two, local chieftains would provide tribute to the Yuan court. Three, they would follow the rules of appointment, succession, promotion, degradation, reward, and punishment of native chieftains created by the Yuan court.[7] Yuan rule also introduced a significant Muslim
Muslim
influence into Yunnan.[7] Religion[edit]

Gilt Silver Statue of Ganruda Inlaid with Crystal Beads, found at the Qianxun Pagoda of Chonegsheng Temple, exhibated at Yunnan
Yunnan
Provincial Museum.

A version of Buddhism
Buddhism
known as Azhali
Azhali
existed in Yunnan
Yunnan
since the 9th century. The last king of Nanzhao
Nanzhao
established Buddhism
Buddhism
as a state religion and many Dali kings continued the tradition. Ten of Dali's 22 kings retired to become monks.[8] Family Tree of the Kings of Dali[edit]

Family Tree of the Kings of Dali

Duàn Bǎolóng 段寶龍

Duan Siping 段思平 b. c. 894 – d. c. 944 Taizu 太祖 r. 937–9441

Duan Siliang 段思胄 (d.951) Taizong 太宗 (r. 945–951)3

Duan Siying 段思英 Wénjīng huángdì 文経皇帝 r. 944–9452

Duan Sicong 段思聰 d.968 Zhìdàoguǎngcí huángdì 至道广慈皇帝 r. 952–9684

Duan Sushun 段素順 d.985 Yīngdào huángdì 应道皇帝 r. 968–9855

Duan Zhisi 段智思

Duan Suying 段素英 Zhāomíng huángdì 昭明皇帝 r. 985–10096

Duan Silian 段思廉 Xìngzōng 兴宗 r. 1044–107511

Duan Sulian 段素廉 d.1022 Xuānsù huángdì 宣肃皇帝 r. 1009–10227

Duan Lianyi 段廉義 d.1080 Xìngzōng 兴宗 r. 1075–108012

Duan Suzhen 段素真 Shèngdé huángdì 圣德皇帝 r. 1026–10419

Duan Sulong 段素隆 Bǐngyì huángdì 秉义皇帝 r. 1022–10268

Duan Shouhui 段壽輝 Shàngmíng huángdì 上明皇帝 r. 1080–108113

Duan Zhengming 段正明 Bǎodìng huángdì 保定皇帝 r.1081–109414

Duan Zhengchun 段正淳 Zhongzong 中宗 r. 1096–110815

Duan Yu 段和譽 Xianzong 憲宗 r.1108–114716

Duan Suxing 段素興 Tiānmíng huángdì 天明皇帝 r. 1041–104410

Duan Zhengxing 段正興 r. 1147–117117

Duan Zhixing 段智興 Xuanzong 宣宗 r. 1171–120018

Duan Zhixiang 段智祥 r. 1204–123820

Duan Zhilian 段智廉 r. 1200–120419

Duàn Ziangxing 段祥興 Xiàoyì huángdì 孝義皇帝 r. 1238–125121

Duan Xingzhi 段興智 r.1251–1254; 1257–126022

Art[edit]

Kingdom of Dali Buddhist Volume of Paintings. Scroll, Ink and color on paper. 30.4 cm high. Located in the National Palace Museum, Taibei. The entire work is 16.655 meters and is in three portions. Completed in 1176.

Citations[edit]

^ Theobald, Ulrich (17 August 2012), "Dali 大理", China Knowledge . ^ a b Yang 2008a. ^ Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China
China
900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 710–. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.  ^ Herman 2007, p. 40. ^ Yang 2008c. ^ Frederick W. Mote; Denis Twitchett (26 February 1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Cambridge University Press. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.  ^ a b c d Yang 2008b. ^ " Nanzhao
Nanzhao
State and Dali State". City of Dali. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. 

References[edit]

Herman, John E. (2007), Amid the Clouds and Mist China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200–1700, Harvard University Asia Center, ISBN 978-0-674-02591-2  Yang, Bin (2008a), "Chapter 3: Military Campaigns against Yunnan: A Cross-Regional Analysis", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan
Yunnan
(Second Century BCE to Twentieth Century CE), Columbia University Press  Yang, Bin (2008b), "Chapter 4: Rule Based on Native Customs", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan
Yunnan
(Second Century BCE to Twentieth Century CE), Columbia University Press  Yang, Bin (2008c), "Chapter 5: Sinicization and Indigenization: The Emergence of the Yunnanese", Between Winds and Clouds: The Making of Yunnan
Yunnan
(Second Century BCE to Twentieth Century CE), Columbia University Press 

External links[edit]

Media related to Kingdom of Dali at

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