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Holy Roman Empire
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Crown of Aragon
(1282–1517 )

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← 1130–1816 →

Flag Coat of arms

The Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily , in 1154

CAPITAL

* Palermo
Palermo
(1130–1816)

GOVERNMENT Feudal monarchy

KING

• 1130–1154 Roger II

• 1266–1282 Charles I of Anjou
Anjou

• 1759–1816 Ferdinand III

HISTORY

• Coronation of Roger 1130

Sicilian Vespers 1282

Two Sicilies 1816

TODAY PART OF Italy
Italy
Malta
Malta
Tunisia
Tunisia
Libya
Libya
Greece
Greece

The KINGDOM OF SICILY (Latin : Regnum Siciliae, Italian : Regno di Sicilia, Sicilian : Regnu di Sicilia, Catalan : Regne de Sicília, Spanish : Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Apennine peninsula from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily
County of Sicily
, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula . Until 1282 the Kingdom (sometimes called the regnum Apuliae et Siciliae, "Kingdom of Apulia and Sicily") covered not only the island of Sicily
Sicily
, but also the whole Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
region of the southern Apennines and the Maltese archipelago. The island was divided into three regions : Val di Mazara, Val Demone and Val di Noto; 'val' being the Arabic word meaning 'district'.

In 1282, a revolt against Angevin rule, known as the Sicilian Vespers , threw off Charles of Anjou 's rule of the island of Sicily. The Angevins managed to maintain control in the mainland part of the kingdom, which became a separate entity also styled Kingdom of Sicily, although it is commonly referred to as the Kingdom of Naples , after its capital. The island became a separate kingdom under the Crown of Aragon .

After 1302 the island kingdom was sometimes called the KINGDOM OF TRINACRIA. Often the kingship was vested in another monarch such as the King of Aragon
King of Aragon
, the King of Spain or the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. In 1816 the island Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
merged with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies . In 1861 the Two Sicilies were amalgamated with Sardinia and several northern city-states and duchies to form the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Norman conquest * 1.2 Norman kingdom * 1.3 Hohenstaufen kingdom * 1.4 Angevin Sicily
Sicily
* 1.5 The insular kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
under the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and Spain * 1.6 Malta
Malta
under the Knights * 1.7 The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
* 1.8 The Tunisian-Sicilian War * 1.9 The two kingdoms under the house of Bourbon of Spain * 1.10 Unification with the Kingdom of Italy
Italy

* 2 Society * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Coinage * 6 Religion * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Sources

HISTORY

NORMAN CONQUEST

Main articles: Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
and Norman conquest of southern Italy
Italy

By the 11th century mainland southern Longobard and Byzantine
Byzantine
powers were hiring Norman mercenaries, who were descendants of the Vikings
Vikings
; it was the Normans under Roger I who conquered Sicily, taking it away from the Arab
Arab
Muslims. After taking Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
, Roger occupied Messina
Messina
with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily
Sicily
being completely under Norman control by 1091.

NORMAN KINGDOM

See also: Roger II of Sicily Roger II , the first king of Sicily. The royal mantle. Scribes of and for the various populations of the Kingdom of Sicily: Greeks, Saracens, Latins. Kingdom of Sicily.

The Norman Kingdom was created on Christmas Day, 1130, by Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
, with the agreement of Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II
, who united the lands Roger had inherited from his father Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
. These areas included the Maltese Archipelago , which was conquered from the Arabs of the Emirates of Sicily
Sicily
; the Duchy of Apulia and the County of Sicily
Sicily
, which had belonged to his cousin William II, Duke of Apulia , until William's death in 1127; and the other Norman vassals. Roger threw his support behind the Antipope Anacletus II , who enthroned him as King of Sicily
Sicily
on Christmas Day 1130.

In 1136, the rival of Anacletus, Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II
, convinced Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
to attack the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
with help from the Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
John II Comnenus . Two main armies, one led by Lothair, the other by Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
Henry the Proud , invaded Sicily. On the river Tronto , William of Loritello surrendered to Lothair and opened the gates of Termoli to him. This was followed by Count Hugh II of Molise. The two armies were united at Bari , from where in 1137 they continued their campaign. Roger offered to give Apulia as a fief to the Empire, which Lothair refused after being pressured by Innocent. At the same period the army of Lothair revolted.

Then Lothair, who had hoped for the complete conquest of Sicily, gave Capua and Apulia from the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
to Roger's enemies. Innocent protested, claiming that Apulia fell under papal claims. Lothair turned north, but died while crossing the Alps on December 4, 1137. At the Second Council of the Lateran in April 1139, Innocent excommunicated Roger for maintaining a schismatic attitude. On March 22, 1139, at Galluccio, Roger's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured the pope. On March 25, 1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano .

Roger spent most of the decade, beginning with his coronation and ending with the Assizes of Ariano , enacting a series of laws with which Roger intended to centralise the government, fending off multiple invasions and quelling rebellions by his premier vassals: Grimoald of Bari , Robert II of Capua , Ranulf of Alife , Sergius VII of Naples
Naples
and others.

It was through his admiral George of Antioch that Roger then proceeded to conquer the Mahdia in Africa ( Ifriqiya ), taking the unofficial title "King of Africa". At the same time Roger's fleet attacked the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, making Sicily
Sicily
the leading maritime power in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
for almost a century.

Roger's son and successor was William I of Sicily
Sicily
, known as "William the Bad", though his nickname derived primarily from his lack of popularity with the chroniclers, who supported the baronial revolts which William suppressed, while during these times North Africa was taken by Almohads . His reign ended in peace (1166), but with his elder son Roger killed in previous revolts, his son, William II , was a minor. Until the end of the boy's regency in 1172, the kingdom saw turmoil which almost brought the ruling family down. The reign of William II is remembered as two decades of almost continual peace and prosperity. For this more than anything, he is nicknamed "the Good". He died in 1189 without having heirs, which led the kingdom to decline.

William II had named Constance , the daughter of Roger II who married future Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
his heiress. As the noblemen did not want to be ruled by a German, Tancred of Lecce
Tancred of Lecce
seized the throne under their support, but he had to contend with the revolt of his distant cousin Roger of Andria and the invasion of Henry on behalf of his wife. Initially Roger was tricked into execution and Henry had to retreat after his attack failed, with Constance even captured and only released under the pressure of the Pope. Tancred died in 1194, and Constance and Henry eventually prevailed and the kingdom fell in 1194 to the House of Hohenstaufen
House of Hohenstaufen
, with William III of Sicily
Sicily
the young son of Tancred deposed. Henry and Constance were crowned as king and queen. Through Constance, the Hauteville blood was passed to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
.

HOHENSTAUFEN KINGDOM

Imperial troops storming Salerno
Salerno
in 1194 Triumph march of Henry VI into Palermo
Palermo
Woodcut illustration of Constance of Sicily , her husband Emperor Henry VI and her son Frederick II

The accession of Frederick, a child who would then become also the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II in 1197, greatly affected the immediate future of Sicily. For a land so used to centralised royal authority, the king's young age caused a serious power vacuum. His uncle Philip of Swabia moved to secure Frederick's inheritance by appointing Markward von Anweiler , margrave of Ancona
Ancona
, regent in 1198. Meanwhile, Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
had reasserted papal authority in Sicily, but recognised Frederick's rights. The pope was to see papal power decrease steadily over the next decade and was unsure about which side to back at many junctures.

The Hohenstaufen's grip on power, however, was not secure. Walter III of Brienne had married the daughter of Tancred of Sicily
Sicily
. She was sister and heiress of the deposed King William III of Sicily. In 1201 William decided to claim the kingdom. In 1202, an army led by the chancellor Walter of Palearia and Dipold of Vohburg was defeated by Walter III of Brienne. Markward was killed, and Frederick fell under the control of William of Capparone , an ally of the Pisans . Dipold continued the war against Walter on the mainland until the claimant's death in 1205. Dipold finally wrested Frederick from Capparone in 1206 and gave him over to the guardianship of the chancellor, Walter of Palearia. Walter and Dipold then had a falling out, and the latter captured the royal palace, where he was besieged and captured by Walter in 1207. After a decade, the wars over the regency and the throne itself had ceased.

The reform of the laws began with the Assizes of Ariano in 1140 by Roger II . Frederick continued the reformation with the Assizes of Capua (1220) and the promulgation of the Constitutions of Melfi (1231, also known as Liber Augustalis ), a collection of laws for his realm that was remarkable for its time. The Constitutions of Melfi were created in order to establish a centralized state. For example, citizens were not allowed to carry weapons or wear armour in public unless they were under royal command. As a result, rebellions were reduced. The Constitutions made the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
an absolute monarchy , the first centralized state in Europe to emerge from feudalism ; it also set a precedent for the primacy of written law. With relatively small modifications, the Liber Augustalis remained the basis of Sicilian law until 1819. During this period, he also built the Castel del Monte , and in 1224, he founded the University of Naples
Naples
, now called Università Federico II . It remained the sole athenaeum of southern Italy
Italy
for centuries.

After the death of Frederick, the Kingdom was ruled by Henry VII of Germany and Conrad IV of Germany
Conrad IV of Germany
. The next legitimate heir was Conrad II , who was too young at the period to rule. Manfred of Sicily, the illegitimate son of Frederick, took the power and ruled the kingdom for fifteen years while other Hohenstaufen heirs were ruling various areas in Germany. After long wars against the Papal States
Papal States
, the Kingdom managed to defend its possessions, but the Papacy declared the Kingdom escheated because of disloyalty of the Hohenstaufen. Under this pretext he came to an agreement with Louis IX
Louis IX
, King of France. Louis's brother, Charles of Anjou , would become king of Sicily. In exchange, Charles recognized the overlordship of the Pope in the Kingdom, paid a portion of the papal debt, and agreed to pay annual tribute to the Papal States. The Hohenstaufen rule in Sicily
Sicily
ended after the 1266 Angevin invasion and the death of Conradin
Conradin
, the last male heir of Hohenstaufen, in 1268.

ANGEVIN SICILY

Church of the Holy Spirit in Palermo.

In 1266, conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy led to Sicily's conquest by Charles I , Duke of Anjou
Anjou
. With the usurpation of the Sicilian throne from Conradin
Conradin
by Manfred of Sicily in 1258, the relationship between the Papacy and the Hohenstaufen had changed again. Instead of the boy Conradin, safely sequestered across the Alps, the Papacy now faced an able military leader who had greatly supported the Ghibelline cause at the battle of Montaperti in 1260. Accordingly, when negotiations broke down with Manfred in 1262, Pope Urban IV again took up the scheme of disseising the Hohenstaufen from the kingdom, and offered the crown to Charles of Anjou again. With Papal and Guelph support Charles descended into Italy
Italy
and defeated Manfred at the battle of Benevento in 1266 and in 1268 Conradin
Conradin
at the battle of Taglicozzo .

Opposition to French officialdom and taxation combined with incitement of rebellion by agents from the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
led to the successful insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers followed by the invitation and intervention by king Peter III of Aragon in 1282. The resulting War of the Sicilian Vespers lasted until the Peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, dividing the old Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
in two. The island of Sicily, called the "Kingdom of Sicily beyond the Lighthouse" or the Kingdom of Trinacria, went to Frederick III of the house of Aragon , who had been ruling it. The peninsular territories (the Mezzogiorno
Mezzogiorno
), contemporaneously called Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
but called Kingdom of Naples by modern scholarship, went to Charles II of the house of Anjou
Anjou
, who had likewise been ruling it. Thus, the peace was formal recognition of an uneasy status quo. The division in the kingdom became permanent in 1372, with the Treaty of Villeneuve . Though the king of Spain was able to seize both crowns in the 16th century, the administrations of the two halves of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
remained separated until 1816, when they were reunited in the Kingdom of Two Sicilies .

THE INSULAR KINGDOM OF SICILY UNDER THE CROWN OF ARAGON AND SPAIN

Martin I king of Sicily
Sicily
in 1390-1409.

Sicily
Sicily
was ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives or cadet branch of the house of Aragon until 1409 and thence as part of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
. The Kingdom of Naples was ruled by the Angevin ruler René of Anjou
Anjou
until the two thrones were reunited by Alfonso V of Aragon , after the successful siege of Naples
Naples
and the defeat of René on June 6, 1443. Eventually, Alfonso of Aragon divided the two kingdoms during his rule. He gave the rule of Naples
Naples
to his illegitimate son Ferdinand I of Naples , who ruled from 1458 to 1494, and the rest of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
and Sicily
Sicily
to Alfonso's brother John II of Aragon . From 1494 to 1503 successive kings of France Charles VIII and Louis XII , who were heirs of Angevins, tried to conquer Naples
Naples
(see Italian Wars ) but failed. Eventually the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
was reunited with the Crown of Aragon. The titles were held by the Aragonese kings of the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
until the end of the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg in 1700.

MALTA UNDER THE KNIGHTS

Main article: History of Malta
Malta
under the Order of Saint John Philippe de Villiers de l\'Isle Adam takes possession of the island of Malta, 26 October 1530 by René Théodore Berthon .

In 1530, in an effort to protect Rome
Rome
from Ottoman invasion from the south, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, as Charles I of Spain, gave the Islands of Malta
Malta
and Gozo
Gozo
to the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
in perpetual fiefdom , in exchange for an annual fee of two Maltese falcons , which they were to send on All Souls\' Day to the Viceroy
Viceroy
of Sicily. The Maltese Islands had formed part of the County, and later the Kingdom of Sicily, since 1091. The feudal relationship between Malta
Malta
and the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
was continued throughout the rule of the Knights, until the French occupation of Malta
Malta
in 1798.

The occupation was not recognized, and Malta
Malta
was de jure part of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
from 1798 to 1814. After the Maltese rebellion against the French, Malta
Malta
was under British protection until it became a British crown colony in 1813. This was officially recognized by the Treaty of Paris of 1814, which marked the end of Malta's 700-year relationship with Sicily.

THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION

Main article: Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
under Savoy

From 1713 until 1720 the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
was ruled briefly by the House of Savoy , which had received it by the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht , which brought an end to the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
. The kingdom was a reward to the Savoyards, who were thus elevated to royal rank. The new king, Victor Amadeus II , travelled to Sicily
Sicily
in 1713 and remained a year before returning to his mainland capital, Turin , where his son the Prince of Piedmont had been acting as regent. In Spain the results of the war had not been truly accepted, and the War of the Quadruple Alliance was the result. Sicily
Sicily
was occupied by Spain in 1718. When it became evident that Savoy had not the strength to defend as remote a country as Sicily, Austria stepped in and exchanged its Kingdom of Sardinia for Sicily. Victor Amadeus protested this exchange, Sicily
Sicily
being a rich country of over one million inhabitants and Sardinia a poor country of a few hundred thousand, but he was unable to resist his "allies". Spain was finally defeated in 1720, and the Treaty of the Hague ratified the changeover. Sicily
Sicily
belonged to the Austrian Habsburgs, who already ruled Naples. Victor Amadeus, for his part, continued to protest for three years, and only in 1723 decided to recognize the exchange and desist from using the Sicilian royal title and its subsidiary titles (such as King of Cyprus and Jerusalem).

THE TUNISIAN-SICILIAN WAR

The TUNISIAN-SICILIAN WAR occurred between June 1801 and April 1804, when Tunisian pirates with Tunisian and Algerian military support attacked and captured several Sicilian ships. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian
Christian
-European slaves for the Muslim - Arab
Arab
slave market in North Africa. The Sicilians defeated the forces of Tunis and then occupied Bizerte and La Goulette until 1808.

THE TWO KINGDOMS UNDER THE HOUSE OF BOURBON OF SPAIN

Royal Palace of Ficuzza La Palazzina Cinese di Palermo, residence of Bourbon

In 1735, Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
were reconquered by King Philip V of Spain , a Bourbon, who installed his younger son, Duke Charles of Parma, as King Charles VII of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
, starting a cadet branch of the house of Bourbon . In 1799 Napoleon
Napoleon
conquered Naples, governed by Ferdinand IV of Naples
Naples
(later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies) at the time. It was formed into the Parthenopaean Republic with French support. Under British pressure, especially from Lord William Bentinck , who was commander of British troops in Sicily, Naples
Naples
was then handed back to Ferdinand, being forced to create a constitution for the Kingdom of Sicily. The island was under British occupation from 1806-14.

A two-chamber parliament in Palermo
Palermo
and in Naples
Naples
was formed. The formation of the parliament brought the end of feudalism in the Kingdom. After the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1815 Ferdinand repealed all reforms. The people of Sicily
Sicily
rebelled but were defeated by Spanish and Austrian forces. In 1848 another Sicilian revolution of independence occurred, which was put down by Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies , who was nicknamed Rè Bomba after his 5-day bombardment of Messina. From 1816 to 1861 the kingdoms were united under the name Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .

UNIFICATION WITH THE KINGDOM OF ITALY

The beginning of the Expedition of the Thousand at Quarto.

On April 4, 1860 a revolt against the Bourbon regime broke out. Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
assisted the revolt with his forces, launching the so-called Expedition of the Thousand . He arrived at Marsala on May 11, 1860 with 1,000 Redshirts . Garibaldi announced that he was assuming dictatorship over Sicily
Sicily
in the name of King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. On May 15, the Redshirts fought the Battle of Calatafimi and within weeks Palermo
Palermo
was freed. Francis II of the Two Sicilies tried to regain control of the Kingdom. On June 25, 1860 he restored the constitution of the Kingdom, adopted the Italian tricolour as the national flag, and promised special institutions for the Kingdom.

On October 21, 1860 a plebiscite regarding the unification with Italy was conducted. The outcome of the referendum was 432,053 (99%) in favour and only 667 in opposition to unification. With three separate armies still fighting within the Kingdom, this outcome was far from an accurate depiction of public opinion. Substantial inconsistencies as well as the absence of secret ballot further complicates the referendum, which Dennis Mack Smith describes as "obviously rigged". Most Sicilians viewed the unification as acceptance of the House of Savoy, in which belonged Victor Emmanuel II , the first king of Italy.

SOCIETY

During the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, the local communities maintained their privileges. The rulers of the Hohenstaufen Kingdom replaced the local nobility with lords from northern Italy, leading to clashes and rebellions against the new nobility in many cities and rural communities. These revolts resulted in the destruction of many agrarian areas and the rise of middle class nationalism, which eventually led to urban dwellers becoming allies of the Aragonese . This situation was continued during the short rule of the Angevin until their overthrowing during the Sicilian Vespers. The Angevin began feudalising the country, increasing the power of the nobility by granting them jurisdiction over high justice. During the 15th century due to the isolation of the Kingdom, the Renaissance had no impact on it.

At the same period the feudalisation of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
was intensified, through the enforcement of feudal bonds and relations among its subjects. In 1669 the eruption of Mount Etna destroyed Catania
Catania
. In 1693, 5% of the Kingdom's population was killed because of earthquakes . In that period there were also plague outbreaks. The 17th and 18th century were an era of decline of the Kingdom. Corruption was prevalent among the upper and middle classes of the society. Widespread corruption and maltreatment of the lower classes by the feudal lords led to the creation of groups of brigands, attacking the nobility and destroying their fiefs . These groups which were self-named "Mafia", were the foundation of the modern Sicilian Mafia . The escalation of revolts against the monarchy eventually led to the unification with Italy.

DEMOGRAPHICS

During the reign of Frederick II the kingdom had a population of about 2.5 million. During the Hohenstaufen era, the Kingdom had 3 towns with a population of over 20,000 each. After the loss of the northern provinces in 1282 during the Sicilian Vespers and several natural disasters like the eruption of Mount Etna in 1669, the population of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
was reduced. In 1803 the population of the Kingdom was 1,656,000. The main cities of the Kingdom at that period were Palermo
Palermo
, Catania
Catania
, Messina
Messina
, Modica , Syracuse .

Population of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
in 1803 DIVISION POPULATION

Val di Mazzara 643,000

Val di Demona 521,000

Val di Noto 459,000

Lipari Islands 18,000

Aegadian Islands 12,000

Pantelleria Island 3,000

TOTAL POPULATION 1,656,000

Population of the main cities of the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
in 1803 CITY POPULATION

Palermo
Palermo
120,000

Catania
Catania
40,000

Messina
Messina
36,000

Modica 23,500

Syracuse 17,000

ECONOMY

Amalfi, an important port during the Norman Kingdom.

The high fertility of the land led the Norman kings to bring settlers from neighbouring regions or to resettle farmers to areas where cultivation of land was needed. This led to increase of agrarian production. The main sources of wealth for the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
at that period were its maritime cities, most important of which were Naples
Naples
and Amalfi
Amalfi
, from which local products were exported. The main export was hard grain , with other products exported including nuts , timber , oil , bacon, cheese , skins, hides , hemp and cloth . Grain and other dry products were measured in salme, which was equivalent to 275.08 litres in the western part of the Kingdom, and 3.3 litres in the eastern part. The salma was divided in 16 tumoli. One tumolo was equivalent to 17,193 litres . Weight was measured in cantari. One cantaro was equivalent to 79.35 kilograms (174.9 lb) and was divided in one hundred rottoli. Cloth
Cloth
was measured in canne. One canna was 2.06 meters long. By the end of the 12th century Messina
Messina
had become one of the leading commercial cities of the kingdom.

Under the Kingdom, Sicily's products went to many different lands. Among these were Genoa , Pisa
Pisa
, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, and Egypt . Over the course of the 12th century, Sicily
Sicily
became an important source of raw materials for north Italian cities such as Genoa. As the centuries went on, however, this economic relationship became less advantageous to Sicily, and some modern scholars see the relationship as frankly exploitative. Furthermore, many scholars believe that Sicily
Sicily
went into decline in the late Middle Ages, though they are not agreed on when this decline occurred. Clifford Backman argues that it is a mistake to see the economic history of Sicily
Sicily
in terms of victimization, and contends that the decline really began in the second part of the reign of Frederick III, in contrast to earlier scholars who believed that Sicilian decline had set in earlier. Where earlier scholars saw late medieval Sicily
Sicily
in continuous decline, Stephen Epstein argued that Sicilian society experienced something of a revival in the 15th century.

Various treaties with Genoa secured and strengthened the commercial power of Sicily.

The feudalising of the society during the Angevin rule reduced royal wealth and treasury. The dependence of the Angevin on north Italian commerce and financing by Florentine bankers were the main factors which led to the decline of the Kingdom's economy. The continuation of the economic decline combined with the increased population and urbanization led to decrease of agrarian production.

In 1800 one-third of the available crops was cultivated with obsolete cultivation methods escalating the problem. In the later period of Spanish rule the trading system was also inefficient in comparison with previous periods because of high taxes on exports and monopolising corporations which had total control of prices.

COINAGE

Example of a Messinese augustale.

The Norman kings in the 12th century used the tari , which had been used in Sicily
Sicily
from 913 as the basic coin. One tari weighed about one gram and was  16 1⁄3 carats of gold. The Arab
Arab
dinar was worth four tari, and the Byzantine
Byzantine
solidus six tari. In the kingdom one onza was equivalent to thirty tari or five florins. One tari was worth twenty grani. One grana was equivalent to six denari. After 1140 the circulation of the copper coin romesina stopped and it was replaced by the follaris. Twenty four follari were equivalent to one Byzantine miliaresion .

After defeating the Tunisians in 1231 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor minted the augustalis . It was minted in  21 1⁄2 carats and weighed 5.28 grams. In 1490 the triumphi were minted in Sicily. They were equivalent to the Venetian ducat . One triumpho was worth  11 1⁄2 aquilae. One aquila was worth twenty grani. In transactions tari and pichuli were mainly used.

RELIGION

During the Norman reign, several different religious communities coexisted in the Kingdom of Sicily. They were: Latin Christians (Roman Catholics ), Greek-speaking Christians (Eastern Orthodox ), Muslims and Jews . Although local religious practices were not interrupted, the fact that Latin Christians were in power tended to favor Latin Christianity (Roman Catholicism). Bishops of the Eastern Orthodox rite were obliged to recognize the claims of the Latin Church in Sicily, while Muslim
Muslim
communities were no longer ruled by local emirs . Greek-speaking Christians, Latin Christians, and Muslims interacted on a regular basis, and were involved in each other's lives, economically, linguistically, and culturally. Some intermarried. Christians living in an Arabic-speaking area might adopt Arabic or even Muslim
Muslim
names. In many cities, each religious community had its own administrative and judicial order. In Palermo
Palermo
, Muslims were allowed to publicly call for prayer in mosques, and their legal issues were settled by qadis , judges who ruled in accordance with Islamic law.

After the establishment of Hohenstaufen authority Latin- and Greek-speaking Christians maintained their privileges, but the Muslim population was increasingly oppressed. The settlements of Italians brought from northern Italy
Italy
(who wanted Muslim
Muslim
property for their own) led many Muslim
Muslim
communities to revolt or resettle in mountainous areas of Sicily. These revolts resulted in some acts of violence, and the eventual deportation of Muslims, which began under Frederick II . Eventually, the government removed the entire Muslim
Muslim
population to Lucera in Apulia and Girifalco in Calabria
Calabria
, where they paid taxes and served as agricultural laborers, craftsmen, and crossbowmen for the benefit of the king. The colony at Lucera was finally disbanded in 1300 under Charles II of Naples
Charles II of Naples
, and many of its inhabitants sold into slavery. The Jewish community was expelled after the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition from 1493 to 1513 in Sicily. The remaining Jews were gradually assimilated, and most of them converted to Roman Catholicism.

SEE ALSO

* Angelo da Furci * Arab-Norman culture * County palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos * Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
* Expedition of the Thousand * Expulsion of the Jews from Sicily
Sicily
* Kingdom of Naples * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies * List of Sicilian monarchs
List of Sicilian monarchs
* Norman conquest of southern Italy
Italy
* Redshirts * Sicilian Parliament * Tunisian-Sicilian War * War of the Sicilian Vespers

REFERENCES

* ^ Documenti per servire alla storia di Sicilia: Diplomatica (in Italian). U. Manfredi Editori. 1891-01-01. * ^ Vio, Michele Del (1706-01-01). Felicis, et fidelissimæ urbis Panormitanæ selecta aliquot ad civitatis decus, et commodum spectantia privilegia per instrumenta varia Siciliæ ... opera don Michaelis De Vio .. (in Italian). in palatio senatorio per Dominicum Cortese. * ^ Gregorio, Rosario (1833-01-01). Considerazioni sopra la storia di Sicilia dai tempi normanni sino al presenti (in Italian). dalla Reale Stamperia. * ^ Mongitore, Antonino; Mongitore, Francesco Serio e (1749-01-01). Parlamenti generali del regno di Sicilia dall\' anno 1446 sino al 1748: con le memorie istoriche dell\' antico, e moderno uso del parlamento appresso varie nazioni, ed in particolare della sua origine in Sicilia, e del modo di celebrarsi (in Italian). Presso P. Bentivenga. * ^ A B C D N. Zeldes (2003). The former Jews of this kingdom: Sicilian converts after the Expulsion, 1492–1516. BRILL. pp. 5, 69, 296–97. ISBN 90-04-12898-0 . * ^ "Chronological - Historical Table Of Sicily". In Italy Magazine. 7 October 2007. * ^ Douglas, David. The Norman Fate, 1100-1154. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. * ^ A B C D Houben, Hubert (2002). Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. pp. 7, 148. ISBN 0-521-65573-0 . * ^ A B C D E F G H Donald Matthew (1992). The Norman kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. pp. 4–6, 71–74, 86–92, 285, 286, 304,. ISBN 0-521-26911-3 . * ^ A B C D Malcolm Barber (2004). The two cities: medieval Europe, 1050–1320. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 0-415-17414-7 . * ^ A B C D E David Nicolle (2002). Italian medieval armies 1000–1300. Osprey Publishing. pp. 5–10, 18–19, 34. ISBN 1-84176-322-5 . * ^ James Ross Sweeney, Stanley Chodorow (1989). Popes, teachers, and canon law in the Middle Ages. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-2264-7 . * ^ Hunt Janin (2008). The University in Medieval Life, 1179–1499. McFarland. p. 132. ISBN 0-7864-3462-7 . * ^ A B Katherine Fisher (2004). Magna Carta. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 53, 84–85. ISBN 0-313-32590-1 . * ^ A B C Steve Runciman (1958). The Sicilian Vespers: a history of the Mediterranean world in the later thirteenth century. Cambridge University Press . pp. 32–34, 209, 274. ISBN 0-521-43774-1 . * ^ Allan W. Atlas (1985). Music at the Aragonese court of Naples. Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. p. 1. ISBN 0-521-24828-0 . * ^ A B Carolyn Bain (2004). Malta
Malta
& Gozo. Lonely Planet. p. 23. ISBN 1-74059-178-X . * ^ A B C D E F G Danforth Prince (2007). Frommer's Sicily. Frommer's. p. 314. ISBN 0-470-10056-7 . * ^ http://daddezio.com/italy/barbary/history.html * ^ Davis, Robert. Christian
Christian
Slaves, Muslim
Muslim
Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. * ^ Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. * ^ W. H. Clements, "The Defences of Sicily, 1806-1815," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Autumn 2009, Vol. 87 Issue 351, pp 256-272 * ^ Alfonso Scirocco (2007). Garibaldi: citizen of the world. Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press
. p. 279. ISBN 0-691-11540-0 . * ^ Smith, Denis Mack (1992-03-01). Italy
Italy
and Its Monarchy. Yale University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0300051328 . * ^ Smith, Denis Mack (1985-04-18). Cavour and Garibaldi 1860: A Study in Political Conflict. Cambridge University Press. p. 389. ISBN 9780521316378 . * ^ Finkelstein, Monte S. (1998-01-01). Separatism, the Allies and the Mafia: The Struggle for Sicilian Independence, 1943-1948. Lehigh University Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780934223515 . * ^ Hess, Henner (1998-01-01). Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power and Myth. NYU Press. p. 155. ISBN 9781863331432 . * ^ Lukacs, John (1968-01-01). Historical Consciousness: The Remembered Past. Transaction Publishers. p. 116. ISBN 9781412825146 . * ^ Ziblatt, Daniel (2006-01-01). Structuring the State: The Formation of Italy
Italy
and Germany and the Puzzle of Federalism. Princeton University Press. p. 102. ISBN 0691121672 . * ^ Noble, Thomas F. X. (1994). Western civilization. Houghton Mifflin. p. 895. * ^ A B Samantha Kelly (2003). The new Solomon: Robert of Naples (1309–1343) and fourteenth-century kingship. BRILL. p. 134. ISBN 90-04-12945-6 . * ^ * ^ Lucy Riall (1998). Sicily
Sicily
and the unification of Italy: liberal policy and local power, 1859–1866. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 206. ISBN 0-19-820680-1 . * ^ Kenneth M. Setton (1985). A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East. University of Wisconsin Press . p. 313. ISBN 0-299-09144-9 . * ^ Perry Anderson (1984). Lineages of the Absolutist State. Verso. p. 146. ISBN 0-86091-710-X . * ^ A B C D Jedidiah Morse. A compendious and complete system of modern geography: or, A view of the present state of the world. Thomas and Andrews. p. 503. * ^ Henri Bresc (in Un monde mediteranéen) claims that Sicily
Sicily
was reduced to an agricultural hinterland for wealthier northern Italian cities, and sees the Sicilian people as an early proletariat * ^ Backman, The Decline and Fall of Medieval Sicily, 1995. * ^ Epstein, An Island for Itself: Economic Development and Social Change in Late Medieval Sicily, (2003). * ^ Desmond Gregory (1988). Sicily: the insecure base: a history of the British occupation of Sicily, 1806–1815. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8386-3306-4 . * ^ Peter L. Bernstein (2000). The power of gold: the history of an obsession. John Wiley and Sons. p. 90. ISBN 0-471-25210-7 . * ^ Metcalfe, Alex. Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily. Arabic Speakers and the End of Islam, (2003). * ^ A B The best discussion of the fate of Sicilian Muslims can be found in Julie Taylor, Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera (2003), but is also discussed in Alex Metcalfe, The Muslims of Medieval Italy
Italy
(2009).

SOURCES

* Abulafia, David. Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor, 1988. * Abulafia, David. The Two Italies: Economic Relations between the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
and the Northern Communes, Cambridge University Press, 1977. * Abulafia, David. The Western Mediterranean Kingdoms 1200–1500: The Struggle for Dominion, Longman, 1997. (a political history) * Johns, Jeremy. Arabic administration in Norman Sicily
Sicily
: the royal dīwān, Cambridge University Press, 2002. * Mendola, Louis; Alio, Jacqueline. The Peoples of Sicily: A Multicultural Legacy, Trinacria Editions, New York, 2013. * Mendola, Louis. The Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
1130-1860, Trinacria Editions, New York, 2015. * Metcalfe, Alex. Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic Speakers and the End of Islam, Routledge, 2002. * Metcalfe, Alex. The Muslims of Medieval Italy, 2009. * Norwich, John Julius. Sicily: An Island at the Crossroads of History, 2015. * Runciman, Steven. The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Late 13th Century, Cambridge University Press, 1958.

* v * t * e

Former states of the Italian Peninsula, Savoy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily
Sicily
and Malta
Malta

Ancient History
Ancient History
and early Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Etruscan civilization

* Lega dei popoli

* Etruscan dodecapolis

Ancient Rome
Rome

* Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
(753 BC–509 BC)

* Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(509 BC–27 BC)

* Roman Italy
Italy
* Sicilia (241 BC–476 AD) * Corsica and Sardinia
Corsica and Sardinia
(238 BC–455 AD)

* Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD)

* Praetorian prefecture of Italy
Italy
(337 AD–584 AD) * Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(285 AD–476 AD)

Post-Roman states

ITALIAN KINGDOM

* Odoacer\'s rule (476–493) * Ostrogothic rule (493–553) * Vandal rule (435–534)

* Lombard rule (568–774)

* Duchy of Benevento * Duchy of Friuli
Duchy of Friuli
* Duchy of Ivrea * Duchy of Spoleto * Duchy of Tridentum

Holy Roman rule (800/962–1806), Papal States
Papal States
and other independent states

* March of Ancona
Ancona
* Duchy of Aosta * Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia) * Bishopric of Bressanone * Duchy of Castro * Commune of Rome
Rome
* Marquisate of Ceva * Republic of Cospaia * Duchy of Ferrara * Marquisate of Finale * City of Fiume and its District * Republic of Florence
Florence
* Duchy of Florence
Florence
* March of Friuli * Republic of Genoa * Republic of Noli * County of Gorizia * Gorizia and Gradisca * County of Guastalla * Duchy of Guastalla * Kingdom of Illyria * March of Istria * Duchy of Ivrea * Republic of Lucca * Margravate of Mantua * Duchy of Mantua * Duchy of Massa and Carrara * Duchy of Merania * Duchy of Milan * Duchy of Mirandola * Duchy of Modena and Reggio * March of Montferrat * Duchy of Montferrat * County of Nizza * Duchy of Parma * Principality of Piedmont * Principality of Piombino * Republic of Pisa
Pisa
* Duchy of Reggio * Marquisate of Saluzzo * County of Savoy * Duchy of Savoy * Republic of Siena * Duchy of Spoleto * Terra Sancti Benedicti * Bishopric of Trento * March of Turin * March of Tuscany * Grand Duchy of Tuscany * County of Tirolo * Duchy of Urbino * March of Verona * Imperial Free City of Trieste

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–1453)

* Exarchate of Ravenna (584–751)

* Duchy of Rome
Rome
(533–751) * Duchy of Perugia (554–752) * Duchy of the Pentapolis (554–752)

* Exarchate of Africa (585–698)

REPUBLIC OF VENICE (697–1797)

* Dogado * Stato da Màr * Domini di Terraferma

Southern Italy (774–1139)

BYZANTINE

* Duchy of Amalfi
Amalfi
* Duchy of Gaeta * Catepanate of Italy
Italy
* Longobardia * Theme of Lucania * Duchy of Naples
Naples
* Sicily
Sicily
(theme) and Byzantine
Byzantine
Sicily
Sicily
* Duchy of Sorrento

ARAB

* Emirate of Bari * Emirate of Sicily
Sicily

LOMBARD

* Principality of Benevento * Principality of Salerno
Salerno
* Principality of Capua

NORMAN

* County of Apulia and Calabria
Calabria
* County of Aversa * County of Sicily
County of Sicily
* Principality of Taranto

Sardinia and Corsica (9th century–1420)

* Giudicati

* Giudicato of Agugliastra * Giudicato of Arborea
Giudicato of Arborea
* Giudicato of Cagliari * Giudicato of Gallura * Giudicato of Logudoro

* Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica * Corsican Republic (1755–1769)

Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
(1130–1816) and Kingdom of Naples (1282–1816)

* State of the Presidi * Duke of San Donato * Duchy of Sora * Principality of Taranto * Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648) * Malta
Malta
under the Order * Gozo
Gozo
* Malta
Malta
Protectorate * Crown Colony of Malta
Malta

French Revolutionary and Napoleonic era (1792–1815)

REPUBLICS

* Alba * Ancona
Ancona
* Bergamo * Bologna * Brescia * Cisalpinia * Cispadania * Crema * Italy
Italy
* Liguria * Lucca * Parthenopea * Piedmont * Rome
Rome
* Subalpinia * Tiberinia * Transpadania

MONARCHIES

* Benevento * Etruria * Guastalla * Italy
Italy
* Lucca and Piombino * Massa and Carrara * Naples
Naples
* Pontecorvo * Tuscany * Elba * Corsica

POST-NAPOLEONIC STATES

* Duchy of Genoa (1815–1848) * Duchy of Lucca (1815–1847) * Duchy of Massa and Carrara (1814–1829) * Duchy of Modena and Reggio (1814–1859) * Duchy of Parma (1814–1859) * Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) * Italian United Provinces (1831) * Provisional Government of Milan (1848) * Republic of San Marco (1848–1849) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(1849) * United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
(1859–1860) * Kingdom of Sardinia (1814–1860) * Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1816–1861) * Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (1815–1866) * Papal States
Papal States
(1814–1870)

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861–1946)

* Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(1869–1946)

* Free State of Fiume (1920–1924) * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945) * Free Territory of Trieste (1947–1954)

* v * t * e

Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire

TIMELINE

* Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
* Habsburgs * Golden Age * Encomiendas * New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous * Expulsion of the Moriscos * Eighty Years\' War * Portuguese Restoration War * Bourbons * Napoleonic invasion * Independence of Spanish continental Americas * Liberal constitution * Carlist Wars
Carlist Wars
* Spanish–American War * German–Spanish Treaty (1899) * Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* Independence of Morocco ( Western Sahara conflict )

TERRITORIES

* Kingdoms of Naples
Naples
, Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia * Milan * Union with Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
* Netherlands * Franche-Comté * Portugal * Philippines * East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) * Northern Taiwan * Tidore
Tidore
* Florida * New Spain (Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) * Spanish Louisiana * Coastal Alaska * Haiti * Belize * Jamaica * Trinidad and Tobago * Venezuela, Northern and Western Guyana * New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) * Peru (Peru, Acre) * Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands ) * Chile * Equatorial Guinea * Spanish North Africa ( Ifni , Cape Juby
Cape Juby
, Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara )

ADMINISTRATION

* Council of the Indies * Cabildo * Trial of residence * Laws of the Indies * Royal Decree of Graces * Exequatur * Papal bull
Papal bull
* School of Salamanca

ADMINISTRATIVE SUBDIVISIONS

VICEROYALTIES

* New Spain * New Granada * Perú * Río de la Plata

AUDIENCIAS

* Bogotá * Buenos Aires * Caracas * Charcas * Concepción * Cusco * Guadalajara * Guatemala * Lima * Manila * Mexico * Panamá * Quito * Santiago * Santo Domingo

CAPTAINCIES GENERAL

* Chile * Cuba * Guatemala * Philippines * Puerto Rico * Santo Domingo * Venezuela * Yucatán * Provincias Internas

GOVERNORATES

* Castilla de Oro * Cuba * New Andalusia (1501–1513) * New Andalusia * New Castile * New Toledo * Paraguay * Río de la Plata

ECONOMY

CURRENCIES

* Dollar * Real * Maravedí * Escudo * Columnario

TRADE

* Manila galleon * Spanish treasure fleet * Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
* Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas
Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas
* Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

MILITARY

ARMIES

* Tercio
Tercio
* Army of Flanders * Spanish Armada * Indian auxiliaries
Indian auxiliaries
* Legión

WARRIORS

* Duke of Alba * Antonio de Leyva * Martín de Goiti * Alfonso d\'Avalos * García de Toledo Osorio * Duke of Savoy * Álvaro de Bazán the Elder * John of Austria * Charles Bonaventure de Longueval * Pedro de Zubiaur * Ambrosio Spinola * Bernardo de Gálvez
Bernardo de Gálvez

SAILORS

* Christopher Columbus * Pinzón brothers * Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
* Juan Sebastián Elcano * Juan de la Cosa * Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
* Miguel López de Legazpi * Pedro Menéndez de Avilés * Sebastián de Ocampo * Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca * Alonso de Ojeda
Alonso de Ojeda
* Vasco Núñez de Balboa * Alonso de Salazar * Andrés de Urdaneta * Antonio de Ulloa
Antonio de Ulloa
* Ruy López de Villalobos * Diego Columbus * Alonso de Ercilla * Nicolás de Ovando * Juan de Ayala * Sebastián Vizcaíno * Juan Fernández * Felipe González de Ahedo

CONQUISTADORS

* Hernán Cortés * Francisco Pizarro * Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada * Hernán Pérez de Quesada * Francisco Vázquez de Coronado * Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar * Pedro de Valdivia
Pedro de Valdivia
* Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado
* Martín de Ursúa * Diego de Almagro
Diego de Almagro
* Pánfilo de Narváez * Diego de Mazariegos * Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera

BATTLES

OLD WORLD

WON

* Bicocca * Landriano * Pavia * Tunis * Mühlberg * St. Quentin * Gravelines * Malta
Malta
* Lepanto * Antwerp * Azores * Siege of Mons * Gembloux * Siege of Ostend * English Armada * Cape Celidonia * White Mountain * Siege of Breda * Nördlingen * Valenciennes * Siege of Ceuta * Bitonto * Bailén * Vitoria * Tetouan * Alhucemas

LOST

* Capo d\'Orso * Preveza * Siege of Castelnuovo * Algiers * Ceresole * Djerba * Tunis * Spanish Armada * Leiden * Rocroi * Downs * Passaro * Trafalgar * Somosierra * Annual

NEW WORLD

WON

* Siege of Tenochtitlan * Cajamarca * Cuzco * Bogotá savanna * Reynogüelén * Penco * Guadalupe Island * San Juan * Cartagena de Indias * Cuerno Verde * Pensacola

LOST

* La Noche Triste * Tucapel * Chacabuco * Carabobo * Ayacucho * Guam * Santiago de Cuba * Manila Bay * Asomante

SPANISH COLONIZATIONS

* Canary Islands * Aztec

* Maya

* Chiapas * Yucatán * Guatemala * Petén

* El Salvador * Honduras * Nicaragua * Chibchan Nations * Colombia * Peru * Chile

OTHER CIVIL TOPICS

* Spanish missions in the Americas * Architecture * Mesoamerican codices * Cusco painting tradition * Indochristian painting in New Spain * Quito painting tradition * Colonial universities in Latin America * Colonial universities in the Philippines * General Archive of the Indies * Colonial Spanish Horse * Castas * Old inquisition * Slavery
Slavery
in Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
* British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

* v * t * e

The Bourbons of Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily

CHARLES VII

SPOUSE(S)

* HH Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony

CHILDREN

* Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Princess María Isabel * Princess María Josefa * Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress * Prince Felipe, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
* Charles IV of Spain
Charles IV of Spain
* Princess María Teresa * Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies * Prince Gabriel * Princess Ana María * Prince Antonio Pascual * Prince Francisco Javier

FERDINAND IV

SPOUSE(S)

* HRH Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria * Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia

CHILDREN

* Maria Teresa, Holy Roman Empress * Luisa, Grand Duchess of Tuscany * Carlo, Duke of Calabria
Calabria
* Princess Maria Ana * Francis I of the Two Sicilies * Maria Christina, Queen of Sardinia * Princess Maria Cristina Amelia * Prince Gennaro * Prince Giuseppe * Maria Amalia, Queen of the French * Princess Maria Cristina * Maria Antonia, Princess of Asturias * Princess Maria Clothilde * Princess Maria Enrichetta * Prince Carlo* * Prince Leopold, Prince of Salerno
Salerno
* Prince Alberto * Princess Maria Isabella

See also: Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies

* v * t * e

Residences of the Royal House of Bourbon- Two Sicilies

* Palace of Capodimonte * Palace of Caserta * Royal Palace of Naples
Naples
* Palace of Portici * Reggia di Quisisana * Royal Palace of Carditello * Villa Favorita * Villa Floridiana * Villa Rosebery

* v * t * e

Sicily
Sicily

Provinces and places

* Agrigento * Caltanissetta * Catania
Catania
* Enna * Messina
Messina
* Palermo
Palermo
* Ragusa * Syracuse

* Trapani * Islands * Cities, towns and villages

HISTORY

* Magna Graecia * Sicilia province * Sicilian revolt * Theme of Sicily
Sicily
* Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
* County of Sicily
County of Sicily
* Kingdom of Sicily * War of the Sicilian Vespers * Monarchs * Viceroys * Sicilian Parliament * Two Sicilies * 1848 Sicilian revolution * Dictatorship of Garibaldi * Risorgimento * Allied invasion of Sicily
Sicily

Politics and government

* Politics of Sicily
Sicily
* Statute of Sicily
Sicily
* Elections in Sicily
Sicily
* List of Presidents of Sicily
Sicily
* Sicilian Regional Assembly

Culture and heritage

* Cuisine

* List of Sicilian dishes

* Language * People * Music * Sicilian Baroque * Sicilian School * Sicilian cart * Coppola * Flags * Triskelion ( Trinacria ) * Mount Etna

Categories

* v * t * e

Malta
Malta
articles

HISTORY

* Timeline * Heads of State * Megalithic Temples * Phoenicians (800–480 BC) * Carthaginian Empire (480–218 BC) * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(218–27 BC) * Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(27 BC–395 AD) * Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(395–870) * Arab
Arab
Period (870–1091) * Sicily
Sicily
(1091–1530) * Order of Saint John (1530–1798) * The Great Siege (1565) * French Occupation and the Insurrection (1798–1800) * Independent Gozo
Gozo
(1798–1801) * British Protectorate (1800–13) * British Colony (1813–1964) * Exiles (1919–20) * World War II (1940–43) * Award of the George Cross (1942) * Independence (1964–74)

GEOGRAPHY

* Caves * Cities * Climate * Fortifications * Islands * Maps * Towns

POLITICS

* Armed Forces * Constitution * Elections * Foreign relations * Parliament * LGBT history * LGBT rights * Local councils * Political parties * President * Prime Minister

ECONOMY

* Central Bank * Energy * Scudo * Lira * Stock exchange * Telecommunications * Trade unions * Transport * Wine * Taxation

SOCIETY

* Demographics * Education * Healthcare * Illegal immigration * Maltese * Religion * Languages

CULTURE

* Architecture * Maltese Carnival * Cuisine * Film * Folklore * Philosophy * Literature * Music * Public holidays * Sport * Symbols * Coat of arms * Flag * Maltese cross
Maltese cross

* Outline * Index

* Category
Category

.