The MONARCHY OF SPAIN (Spanish : Monarquía de España),
constitutionally referred to as THE CROWN (la Corona), is a
constitutional institution and historic office of
The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch , his or her family, and
the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the
monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish
monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI , his wife Queen Letizia ,
and their daughters
Leonor, Princess of Asturias , and
The Spanish monarchy has its roots in the
In 2010, the budget for the Spanish monarchy was 7.4 million euros, one of the lowest public expenditures for the institution of monarchy in Europe.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Marital union of the
* 2 The Crown, constitution, and royal prerogatives
* 2.1 Styles, titles, and the Fount of Honour * 2.2 Inviolablity and lèse majesté * 2.3 Succession and regency * 2.4 The king, the government, and the Cortes Generales * 2.5 Royal assent, judiciary, and promulgation of the laws * 2.6 The king and international diplomacy * 2.7 The king as Commander-in-Chief
* 3 Contemporary monarchy
* 3.1 Popularity and criticism * 3.2 Charitable, cultural, and religious patronage
* 4 Household of H.M. the King
* 4.1 Residences and royal sites * 4.2 Annual budget and taxation
* 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links
The monarchy in
MARITAL UNION OF THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS
In the 15th century, the marriage between
Isabella I of Castile
The territories of the
Main article: Habsburg
In the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy controlled several
territories in Europe under the Habsburg King Charles I (also Holy
Roman Emperor as Charles V), son of Queen
Joanna of Castile . His
reign ushered in the
Spanish Golden Age
With the death of the childless Charles II, the succession to the
throne was disputed. Charles II had designated his sister Maria
Theresa 's grandson, Philip of France ,
Duke of Anjou , as his heir.
The possible unification of
In the mid-eighteenth century, particularly under Charles III of
Philip V was the first member of the House of Bourbon (Spanish: Borbón) to rule Spain, the dynasty that still rules today under Felipe VI.
FIRST SPANISH REPUBLIC
Main article: First Spanish Republic
In September 1873 the First Spanish Republic was founded. A coup d\'état restored the Bourbon dynasty to the throne in 1874.
SECOND SPANISH REPUBLIC AND REGIME OF FRANCISCO FRANCO
In 1931 local and municipal elections produced victories
(particularly in urban areas) for candidates favoring an end to the
monarchy and the establishment of a republic. Faced with unrest in the
cities, Alfonso XIII went into exile, but did not abdicate. The
ensuing provisional government evolved into the relatively short-lived
Second Spanish Republic
After sixteen years without monarchy or kingdom, in 1947,
RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MONARCHY
Despite Franco's alliance with the Carlists, Franco appointed Juan Carlos I de Borbón as his successor, who is credited with presiding over Spain\'s transition from dictatorship to democracy by fully endorsing political reforms.
Impatient with the pace of democratic reforms, the new king, known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as President of the Government in 1977.
The next year the king signed into law the new liberal democratic
Following the events of 1981, Juan Carlos led a less eventful life, according to author John Hooper. Juan Carlos did not preside over ceremonies such as the opening of hospitals and bridges as often as monarchs in other nations. Instead, he worked towards establishing reliable political customs when transitioning one government administration to another, emphasizing constitutional law and protocol, and representing the Spanish State domestically and internationally, all the while aiming to maintain a professionally non-partisan yet independent monarchy.
THE CROWN, CONSTITUTION, AND ROYAL PREROGATIVES
KINGDOM OF SPAIN
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
* Constitutional history * Constitutional Court * Human rights * Taxation
* MONARCH King Felipe VI * PRINCESS OF ASTURIAS Leonor * ROYAL FAMILY
* Government Second Rajoy Government
* Prime Minister (list ) Mariano Rajoy * Deputy Prime Minister Soraya S. de Santamaría
* Ministries * Council of State
* Political parties
* Recent elections
* Parliamentary : 2016 * 2015 * 2011 * 2008
* European : 2014 * 2009 * 2004
* Autonomous communities Regional governments Regional legislatures
* Provinces * Municipalities
* Other countries * Atlas
* v * t * e
The historic Crown of Spain, (la Corona de España) with its roots in
the Visigothic kingdom from the 5th century and subsequent successor
states, is recognized in Title II The Crown, Articles 56 through 65 of
According to the Spanish
National sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people, from whom all
State powers emanate. — Title I, Article 2, the Spanish
The monarch "arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions " and assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in international relations. The monarch exercises the functions expressly conferred on him by the constitution and the laws.
The King is Head of State, the symbol of its unity and permanence. He
arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions,
assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in
international relations, especially with the nations of its historical
community, and exercises the functions expressly conferred on him by
Upon accession to the crown and being proclaimed before the Cortes Generales, the king swears an oath to faithfully carry out his constitutional duties and to abide by the constitution and laws of the state. Additionally, the constitution gives the king the added responsibility to ensure that the constitution is obeyed. Lastly, the king swears to respect the rights of Spanish citizens and of the self-governing communities. The Prince of Asturias, upon reaching the age of majority, in addition to any regent(s) upon assuming the office, swears the same oath as that of the king along with a further oath of loyalty to the monarch.
(1) The King, on being proclaimed before the Cortes Generales, will
swear to faithfully carry out his duties, to obey the
The oath reads as follows:
I swear faithfully to discharge my functions, to sustain and see to
it that the
The 1978 Constitution, Title II The Crown, Article 62, delineates the powers of the king, while Title IV Government and Administration, Article 99, defines the king's role in government. Title VI Judicial Power, Article 117, Articles 122 through 124, outlines the king's role in the country's independent judiciary . However, by constitutional convention established by Juan Carlos I, the king exercises his prerogatives having solicited government advice while maintaining a politically non-partisan and independent monarchy. Receiving government advice does not necessarily bind the monarch into executing the advice, except where prescribed by the constitution. His acts shall always be countersigned in the manner established in section 64. Without such countersignature they shall not be valid, except as provided under section 65(2)
It is incumbent upon the King:
* a. To sanction and promulgate the laws
* b. To summon and dissolve the
Cortes Generales and to call for
elections under the terms provided for in the Constitution.
* c. To call for a referendum in the cases provided for in the
* e. To appoint and dismiss members of the Government on the
President of the Government 's proposal.
* f. To issue the decrees approved in the Council of Ministers , to
confer civil and military honours and distinctions in conformity with
* g. To be informed of the affairs of State and, for this purpose,
to preside over the meetings of the Council of Ministers whenever, he
sees fit, at the President of the Government's request.
* h. To exercise supreme command of the Armed Forces
* i. To exercise the right of clemency in accordance with the law,
which may not authorize general pardons.
* j. To exercise the High
Patronage of the Royal Academies.
— Title II The Crown, Article 62, the Spanish
STYLES, TITLES, AND THE FOUNT OF HONOUR
The 1978 constitution confirms the title of the monarch is the King of Spain, but that he may also use other titles historically associated with the Crown.
The titles used by Alfonso XIII before his exile in 1931 which, with this provision of the constitution, the king is entitled to use include:
Majesty , the King of
According to Royal Decree 1368/1987, regulating the titles,
treatments and honours of the royal family and the regents, the king
and his wife, the queen consort , will formally be addressed as "His
Majesty and Her Majesty" (Their Majesties, Spanish: Su Majestad, Su
represents His or Her) rather than the traditional "Catholic
(Su Católica Majestad). A prince consort , the husband of a queen
regnant , will have the style "His Royal Highness" (Su Alteza Real).
The widows and widowers of monarchs are to retain these styles until
they remarry. The heir from birth shall hold the title of Prince of
Asturias and the other titles historically associated with the heir
apparent. These additional titles include
Prince of Viana ,
historically associated with the heir apparent to the Kingdom of
Navarre ; with the titles
Prince of Girona and Duke of Montblanc
historically associated with the heir apparent for the Crown of Aragon
, among others. Other children of the monarch, and the children of the
heir apparent, shall have the title and rank of
Infante or Infanta
(prince or princess), and styled His or Her Royal Highness (Su Alteza
Real). Children of an
Following his abdication in 2014, Juan Carlos I and his wife Sofía retain courtesy titles of King and Queen of Spain.
The monarch's position as the fount of honour within
During his reign between 1975 and 2014, King Juan Carlos awarded peerages to two of his former prime ministers who had retired from active politics: Adolfo Suárez , who was created 1st Duke of Suárez ; and Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo who was created 1st Marquess of la Ría de Ribadeo . All successive politicians remain active within politics.
The king grants not only military and civil orders, but also grants
awards of distinction, customarily on the advice of government. The
most distinguished order the king may award is the Order of Charles
III to "citizens who, with their effort, initiative and work, have
brought a distinguished and extraordinary service to the Nation".
Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand
INVIOLABLITY AND LèSE MAJESTé
The Spanish monarch is personally immune from prosecution for acts committed by government ministers in the king's name. This legal convention mirrors the concept of sovereign immunity which evolved in similar constitutional monarchies. The legal concept of sovereign immunity evolved into other aspects of immunity law in similar liberal democracies , such as parliamentary immunity , judicial immunity , and qualified immunity in the United States.
The Person of the King of
The concept of lèse majesté (lesa majestad) exists in Spanish
jurisprudence , which is the crime or offense violating the dignity of
the head-of-state or the State itself. According to Article 56 of the
The Spanish satirical magazine El Jueves was fined for violation of Spain's lèse majesté laws after publishing an issue with a caricature of the Prince and Princess of Asturias engaging in sexual intercourse on their cover in 2007. In 2008, 400 Catalonia separatists burned images of the king and queen in Madrid, and in 2009 two Galician separatists were fined for burning effigies of the king.
SUCCESSION AND REGENCY
This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2014)
Statue of Queen Urraca in the
Parque del Buen Retiro in
According to Article 57 the Crown of
The Crown of
Male preference cognatic primogeniture has been practiced in Spain
since the 11th century in the various Visigothic successor states and
codified in the
Siete Partidas , with women able to inherit in certain
circumstances. However, with the succession of Philip V in 1700, the
first of the Spanish Bourbons, women were barred from succession until
The debate on amending the Crown's succession law came to the
forefront on 31 October 2005, when
If all lines designated by law become extinct, the constitution reserves the right for the Cortes Generales to provide for the succession "in the manner most suitable for Spain". The 1978 constitution disinherits members of the royal family from succession if they marry against the expressed prohibition of the monarch and the Cortes Generales, as well as their descendants. Lastly, Article 57 further provides that "Abdications and renunciations and any doubt in fact or in law that may arise in connection with the succession to the Crown shall be settled by an organic act".
Constitutionally, the current heirs of Felipe VI are;
* HRH The Princess of Asturias , elder daughter of the King
* HRH The
The constitution outlines the regency of the monarchy and guardianship of the person of the monarch in the event of his minority or incapacitation. The office of Regent(s) and the Guardianship of the monarch (whether the monarch is in his minority or incapacitated), may not necessarily be the same person. In the event of the minority of the monarch, the surviving mother or father, or oldest relative of legal age who is nearest in line to the throne, would immediately assume the office of Regent, who in any case must be Spanish. If a monarch becomes incapacitated, and that incapacitation is recognized by the Cortes Generales, then the Prince of Asturias (the heir apparent), shall immediately become Regent, if he is of age. If the Prince of Asturias is himself a minor, then the Cortes Generales shall appoint a Regency which may be composed of one, three, or five persons. The person of the king in his minority shall fall under the guardianship of the person designated in the will of the deceased monarch, provided that he or she be of age and of Spanish nationality. If no guardian has been appointed in the will, then the father or mother will then assume the guardianship, as long as they remain widowed. Otherwise, the Cortes Generales shall appoint both the Regent(s) and the guardian, who in this case may not be held by the same person, except by the father or mother of direct relation of the king.
THE KING, THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE CORTES GENERALES
A copy of the Spanish Constitution, signed by King Juan Carlos , is held at the Palace of the Cortes .
The constitution defines the government's responsibilities. The government consists of the President of the Government and ministers of state . The government conducts domestic and foreign policy , civil and military administration, and the defense of the nation all in the name of the king. Additionally, the government exercises executive authority and statutory regulations. The most direct prerogative the monarch exercises in the formation of Spanish governments is in the nomination and appointment process of the President of the Government (Presidente del Gobierno de España). Following the General Election of the Cortes Generales (Cortes), and other circumstances provided for in the constitution, the king meets with and interviews the political party leaders represented in the Cortes, and then consults with the Speaker of the Congress (who, in this instance, represents the whole of the Cortes Generalas).
* (1) After each renewal of the Congress and the other cases provided for under the Constitution, the King shall, after consultation with the representatives appointed by the political groups with parliamentary representation, and through the Speaker of the Congress, nominate for the Presidency of the Government. * (2) The candidate nominated in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing subsection shall submit to the Congress the political program of the Government he or she intends to form and shall seek the confidence of the House. — Title II Government and Administration, Article 99 (1) :
I swear, under my conscience and honor, to faithfully execute the
duties of the office of President of the Government with loyalty to
the King, obey and enforce the
However, if no overall majority was obtained on the first vote of confidence, then the same nominee and program is resubmitted for a second vote within forty-eight hours. Following the second vote, if confidence by the Cortes is still unreached, then the monarch again meets with political leaders and the Speaker, and submits a new nominee for a vote of confidence. If, within two months, no candidate has won the confidence of the Cortes then the king dissolves the Cortes and calls for a new General Election. The king's royal decree is countersigned by the Speaker of the Congress.
In the political life of Spain, the king would already be familiar with the various political leaders in a professional capacity, and perhaps less formally in a more social capacity, facilitating their meeting following a General Election. Conversely, nominating the party leader whose party maintains a plurality and who are already familiar with their party manifesto facilitates a smoother nomination process. In the event of coalitions , the political leaders would customarily have met beforehand to hammer out a coalition agreements before their meeting with the king. Once appointed, the President of the Government forms an administration whose ministers are appointed and removed by the king on the president's advice. No minister may take up his appointment until after they give their oath of office to obey the constitution with loyalty to the king.
As early as 1975, Juan Carlos expressed his view that his role in the government of a "crowned democracy" would be for him to counsel and orient an administration's "thrust in action", but for the government to take the initiative without the need for it to involve the king unnecessarily in its decisions. Therefore, Juan Carlos has abstained from presiding over cabinet meetings except under special occasions or circumstances. Generally, the king presides over cabinet meetings once or twice a year (more regularly if needed) to be directly informed by ministers of non-partisan national and international concerns. However, the king does meet weekly with the President of the Government, usually on Tuesday mornings. During the late-2000s economic recession which gripped the nation, the king discretly used his influence to facilitate a bi-partisan response to the crisis.
Governments and the Cortes sit for a term no longer than four years when the president tenders his resignation to the king and advises the king to dissolve the Cortes, prompting a General Election. It remains within the king's prerogative to dissolve the Cortes if, at the conclusion of the four years, the president has not asked for its dissolution, according to Title II Article 56. The president may call for earlier elections, but no sooner than a year after the prior General Election. Additionally, if the Government loses the confidence of the Cortes, then it must resign. In the event that a president dies or becomes incapacitated while in office, then the government as a whole resigns and the process of royal nomination and appointment takes place. The vice president would take over the day-to-day operations in the meantime, even while vice president himself may be nominated by the king.
ROYAL ASSENT, JUDICIARY, AND PROMULGATION OF THE LAWS
The constitution vests the sanction (
No provision within the constitution invests the king with the ability to veto legislation directly, however no provision prohibits the king from withholding royal assent, effectively a veto. When the media asked King Juan Carlos if he would endorse the 2005 bill legalizing gay marriages (the implication implied that he may not endorse the bill), he answered "Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica" ("I am the King of Spain, not of Belgium") – a reference to King Baudouin I of Belgium who had refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion in Belgium.
According to Title VI of the constitution, Justice in
The General Council of the Judicial Power shall consist of the President of the Supreme Court, who shall preside over it, and of twenty members appointed by the King for a five-year period, of which twelve shall be judges and magistrates of all the judicial categories, under the terms provided for by the organic act; four nominated by the Congress and four by the Senate, elected in both cases by three-fifths of their members amongst lawyers and other jurists of acknowledged competence with more than fifteen years of professional practice. — Title VI Judicial Power, Article 122 (3).
Additionally, the king appoints the State Public Prosecutor on the advice of the government, according to Article 124. The king may grant clemency in accordance with the law, however the king may not authorize a general pardon of government ministers who have been found criminally liable or guilty of treason by the Criminal Article of the Supreme Court, according to Articles 62 and 102.
THE KING AND INTERNATIONAL DIPLOMACY
Members of the Organization of Ibero-American States King Felipe VI serves as president
Constitutionally the king accredits Spanish ambassadors to
international states and governments, and foreign representatives to
During his kingship, Juan Carlos followed a foreign policy during the
first decade of his kingship coined Reencounter and Reconciliation,
which greatly improved Spain's standing on the world stage. The king
reconciled long standing historic tensions with the Netherlands and
cultivated relationships with France and Germany which led directly to
Spain's entry into the
European Community and into NATO. Following
the tensions between Franco and the Papacy over the reforms of the
Second Vatican Council
The monarch is assisted in his diplomatic missions by the Foreign Ministry , and high-ranking members of the Foreign Ministry are made available to the king when he is abroad representing Spain. The royal household coordinates with the Foreign Ministry to ensure successful diplomatic engagements. Additionally, other members of the royal family, most notably the Prince of Asturias, may represent the Spanish State internationally. Though the Spanish monarchy is independent of the government, it is important that royal speeches are compatible with government foreign policy to project a unified diplomatic effort. To achieve balance, royal household speechwriters confer with the Foreign Ministry to ensure that the official speeches strike the desired diplomatic tone between the king's views and government policy. When necessary and appropriate, the king and his government may focus on two different aspects in a diplomatic engagement. The king may emphasize one aspect, such as the promotion of democracy and historic relations; while the government focuses on the details of strategic planning and bilateral coordination.
The king and members of the royal family have represented
THE KING AS COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF
Emblem of Spanish Armed Forces
The role of the Crown in the Spanish Armed Forces is rooted in tradition and patriotism as demonstrated in the symbols and the history of the military. The role of the Spanish monarch in the chain of command of the forces is established by the constitution of 1978, and other statutory law ( Acts of Parliament, Royal Decrees etc. ).
It is incumbent upon the King to exercise Supreme Command of the
Armed Forces. — Title II The Crown, Article 62 (H), the Spanish
The King exercises Supreme Command of the Armed Forces and other powers regarding national defense that are provided for in the constitution and other laws. — Title 1 the Crown, Article 3, National Defense Act, November 17, 2005
However, Title IV of the constitution vests the administration of the armed forces and formulation of national defense policy with the President of the Government , a civil officer who is nominated and appointed by the king, confirmed by the elected Congress of Deputies and, as such, is representative of the Spanish people.
Royal Decree 1310 of 5 October 2007 requires the National Defence Council to report to the monarch, and that the king is to be the Chairman of the Council when he attends its sessions. The National Defence Council is Spain's highest advisory body on security and defense matters and performs the same basic function as the U.S. National Security Council . King Juan Carlos chaired the first full meeting of the council on 10 November 2007, at which the newly proposed National Defence Directive was reviewed along with the ongoing peace missions in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Bosnia and Lebanon. King Juan Carlos I inspecting the troops in a military parade, 2009
As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, the king holds the highest-ranking office in the military chain of command. The king's ranks include Captain General of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The king is the only officer in the military to hold this 5-star General rank. The king takes a keen interest in all aspects of military policy as evidenced by "his direct participation in the life of the Spanish Armed Forces". The king's participation in Spanish military life stems from his constitutional duty to "arbitrate and moderate" the regular working of state institutions. Serving in the armed forces is considered an expectation of the heir apparent, and Juan Carlos served in the various branches of the armed forces before he became king. Likewise, Felipe, as Prince of Asturias, has served in the armed forces.
The monarch has made his desire for a strong rapport with the armed forces clear in speeches to his officer corp:
I do not feel a stranger in your company, and my functions are not limited to being your king and to holding the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces. I am also your companion... I feel one more among you... because my youth has been formed, as yours and with many of you, in military academies where virtues are praised and qualities infused which are not modified by time or by the changes that may occur in society In my heart, in all my being, side by side with my love for the country, palpitates military spirit, and I feel always identified with my companions in the army, with your concerns, your sorrows, your satisfactions and your hopes. So when I see you joyful, I am joyful. When I feel You sad, I am sad. And all, absolutely all of your worries, all absolutely all of your problems gravitate on your king and Captain General-your companion-with the same intensity that is felt by you. — Juan Carlos Easter Military Address, 1980
POPULARITY AND CRITICISM
Prior to the Spanish financial crisis from 2008, the monarchy traditionally enjoyed wide support and popularity by Spanish citizens since its constitutional restoration in 1978, according to Fernando Villespin , president of the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS, English: Sociological Research Center) in 2008. According to Villespin, the king's traditional approval rating of over 70% through the years consistently out-performed those of elected political leaders, with a similar percentage of respondents considering that the king played an important role in maintaining Spanish democracy. Public trust in Juan Carlos’ kingship "comes only behind that of the National Ombudsman ", Villespin continued. Members of the royal family were routinely voted among the most respected public figures in Spain, and in 2010 as many as 75% of Spanish citizens ranked the monarchy as "above any other public institution in the country", according to Dr Juan Díez-Nicolás , a former president of the CIS and founder of the private consulting firm ASEP (Análisis Sociológicos Económicos y Políticos). The CIS, a non-partisan government funded independent research institution, has been researching public opinion of the monarchy since 1984 and tracks three basic lines of inquiry; what is public confidence in the monarchy, what is the role of the monarchy in a democratic system, and to what degree has the king contributed to the democratic process.
The king was routinely considered one of the top ten most popular
figures in Spain, with as many as 80% of Spanish believing Spain's
transition to democracy would not have been made possible without the
king's personal intervention. Historian and royal biographer Charles
Prior to the economic crisis, part of the monarchy's appeal may lay in the personal characteristics of Juan Carlos, whose philosophy on his family, on personal integrity , and on a selfless work ethic were revealed in intimate private letters of fatherly advice to his son Felipe, Prince of Asturias, between 1984 and 1985, when Felipe was then attending university in Canada. According to Juan Carlos a monarch must not take his position for granted but work for the people's welfare, be kind, attentive and helpful, and "appear animated even when you are tired; kind even when you don't feel like it; attentive even when you are not interested; helpful even when it takes an effort You need to appear natural, but not vulgar; cultivated and aware of problems, but not pedantic or conceited".
Juan Carlos continued;
Those whom God has chosen to be kings and to be at the head of the
destiny of a country do not have any other choice than to start to
understand the importance and the special characteristics of the
position, because one can say that they start to become adults long
before other boys of their age. If in this life it is as important to
form and strengthen character enough to permit us to lead, it is not
any less to know how to obey. In spite of the high positions that we
hold in life, it will always be vital to know we also have duties to
perform and obedience always involves real honour We have to build a
closely united family, without fissures or contradictions, we must not
forget that on all and on each one of us are fixed the eyes of
"I have had to stand snubs and contempt, incomprehension and annoyances that you, thank God, have not known", reminded the king to his son in one letter. The private letters from father to son remain within the royal household, but were copied and released into the public domain without any approval or foreknowledge, according to a Zarzuela palace official who confirmed the letter's authenticity.
However, the monarchy became the focus of acute criticism from part
of the left and right of the Spanish political spectrum , and by
regional separatists . As many as 22% of Spanish citizens feel that a
republic would be the better form of government for Spain, while
separatists and independence supporters in the Basque Country and
The monarchy became subject to sharpened criticism during the
financial crisis , particularly 2012 which became a kind of "annus
horribilis " for the monarchy, as members of the royal family became
increasingly seen as out-of-step with the Spanish mainstream or drawn
into scandal. Queen Sofía was criticized in 2008 for inarticulately
disclosing her private opinions on gay marriage in a biography
publicly released that year. In 2011 the king’s son-in-law Iñaki
Urdangarin, Duke of
Palma de Mallorca , was accused of money
laundering and impropriety for using his connection to the royal
family for personal financial gain. In April 2012 the king’s
grandson, 13-year-old Froilán , shot himself in the foot during
target practice at his father’s estate, echoing a similar but far
more serious gun accident involving the king in 1956. According to
historians, the then 18-year-old Juan Carlos was cleaning a revolver
when he accidentally shot to death his 14-year-old brother Alfonso .
Also in 2012, the monarchy was seen as out-of-touch during the
financial crisis as the king went on a hunting safari in Botswana
while Spanish citizens suffered crippling unemployment and austerity
measures at home. Furthermore, sporting a hunting vest and rifle the
king was photographed over a dead elephant propped against a tree.
Despite public knowledge of the king's interest in hunting, the
image this time contrasted sharply with his patronage of the Spanish
branch of the conservation group
World Wildlife Fund
The king took measures to reconcile public confidence in the monarchy. In the wake of the scandal surrounding the Duke of Palma de Mallorca, the king spoke in his 2011 Christmas Eve National Speech that no-one is above the law. Additionally, the king addressed the perennial critique of the monarchy by publishing the budget spent on the monarchy and royal household. In 2012, the king and Prince of Asturias volunteered an additional 7% pay-cut in solidarity with government officials, bringing the king's taxable income for 2012 at about 270,000 euros, and that of the prince at 131,000 euros. Of the events surrounding the safari, the contrite king issued a rare apology and said "I am very sorry. I made a mistake. It will not happen again." Furthermore, the king and the Prince of Asturias stepped up public engagements, particularly those of a business nature, in an effort to promote "Brand Spain," as the king put it as he answered written questions. The king's mantra for Spanish business; "Export, export, export!" Spanish business magnets rallied to the king's cause; "From a corporate point of view, is Spain’s No. 1 ambassador," said César Alierta , chairman of the Spanish telecommunications giant Telefónica . The king is also credited with brokering a deal worth $9.9 billion for a Spanish consortium in Saudi Arabia to construct a high-speed rail line by leveraging his personal relationship with Saudi King Abdullah and outmaneuvering a French bid. “Without the king, this contract would not have gone ahead,” according to former Spanish foreign minister Miguel Angel Moratinos . The king's role as a "business diplomat and deal maker" for his country's interest was brought to light during the safari scandal, as the safari was paid for by Mohamed Eyad Kayali, a Syrian construction magnate and longtime friend of the king. The two worked together on the deal which awarded the Haramain High Speed Rail Project to the Spanish consortium. For supporters of the monarchy the king is an "irreplaceable resource" with unrivaled relationships with other world leaders. Observers credit the king with easing tensions between Spain's former government of José Zapatero and the George W. Bush administration , while also helping to resolve disputes in Latin America.
Opinion polls released in April 2012 revealed that the Spanish public generally forgave the king over the recent scandals, but wished for greater transparency of the monarchy. However, criticism grew increasingly strident towards many senior members of the royal family as investigations continued to dominate headlines throughout 2013. In an act to preserve Spanish constitutional stability Juan Carlos I abdicated the throne on June 19, 2014, in favor of his popular son, now reigning as King Felipe VI.
At the time of his abdication La Razon found that more than 77 per
cent of respondents rated the leadership of King Juan Carlos as "good"
or "very good." Seventy-two per cent thought the monarchy was an
important factor for political stability. The Spanish public also
gave a broadly positive opinion not only of the abdication but of his
reign as a whole. According to a poll taken by El Mundo, believed the
king’s reign was either good or very good, up from 41.3 per cent.
Overall, 55.7 per cent of those polled in the June 3–5 survey by
Sigma Dos supported the institution of the monarchy in Spain, up from
49.9 per cent when the same question was posed six months ago. 57.5
per cent believed the Felipe VI could restore the royal family’s
lost prestige. An overwhelming majority of
CHARITABLE, CULTURAL, AND RELIGIOUS PATRONAGE
Members of the royal family are often invited by non-profit
charitable , cultural , or religious organizations within
Members of the royal family also pursue charitable and cultural causes of special interest to themselves. As prince, King Felipe chaired the Prince of Asturias Foundation (Fundación Príncipe de Asturias), which aims to promote "scientific, cultural and humanistic values that form part of mankind's universal heritage." The Prince of Asturias Foundation holds annual awards ceremonies acknowledging the contributions of individuals, entities, and organizations which make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, or public affairs. Felipe serves as president of the Codespa Foundation , which finances specific economic and social development activities in Ibero-America and other countries, and serves as president of the Spanish branch of the Association of European Journalists , which is composed of achieving communications professionals. Felipe also serves as honorary chair of the Ministry of Culture National Awards Ceremonies.
Queen Sofía devotes much of her time to the Queen Sofía Foundation
(Fundación Reina Sofía). Established in 1977 out of the queen's
private funds, the non-profit aims to assist, promote, and develop the
spiritual and physical needs of men and women from diverse
backgrounds, with a particular focus on progress, welfare, and
King Juan Carlos built a tradition of presenting annual Christmas Eve
National Speeches entitled "Mensaje de S.M. Juan Carlos I," personal
messages from himself as king to the nation which are broadcast by
radio and television through various media outlets. King Juan Carlos
usually referred to social or economic challenges facing the nation as
well as positive messages of charity, good will, and religious faith.
In 2004, the speech was highly related to the 2004
HOUSEHOLD OF H.M. THE KING
The royal household organization, constitutionally La Casa de Su Majestad el Rey, supports and facilitates the monarch and members of the royal family in fulfilling their constitutionally hereditary responsibilities and obligations. The royal household is funded through yearly budgets drafted by the government of the day in consultation with the monarch, and brought before the Cortes for approval, and then paid directly to the monarch. The royal household coordinates with various government administration ministries, and receives their advice and support where needed, though in no way does the royal household form part of the government administration. Royal household staff serve at the pleasure of the monarch, and does not resign when the Spanish government resigns during election cycles. The royal household is managed by the Head of the Household who inspects and supervises all household operations through various bureaus or offices of the General Secretariat. The Head of the Household is assisted by a Secretary General. The General Secretariat is divided into various departments which includes the secretariat (bureau) of King Juan Carlos (since 2014); planning and coordination; the secretariat (bureau) of H.M. the Queen; security services; communication; protocol; and administration, infrastructure and services. Before his abdication, Felipe VI had his own secretariat as Prince of Asturias.
The Spanish Armed Forces are represented by the Head of the Military Chamber, who does not advise the king on matters of national defense, which is the portfolio of the Minister of Defence and President of the Government to advise the king. Rather, the Head of the Military Chamber coordinates royal military operations and ceremonies, and prepares the royal family for any military activities. The Military Chamber is directed by a commander who must be an active lieutenant-general or a general within the Spanish military, and is under the direct orders of the king. The commander maintains an office with a military legal advisor, an auditor, and section heads for staffing, protocol, operations and logistics. The king is assigned personal aides-de-camp for his assistance, and by extension to his wife the queen and to Princess Sofía. Aides-de-camp are drawn from all of the services, from the Army, from the Navy, from the Air Force, and from the Civil Guard. The Princess of Asturias is entitled to, in future, personal aides-de-camp, drawn from the army, the navy and the air force.
The Head of the Household, Secretary General, and Head of the Military Chamber are considered senior management staff and are compensated at the level of senior government administration officials. In 2004, the royal household employed 100 staff members.
The royal household's public relations department manages and maintains an official website on behalf of the royal family known as Casa de S.M. El Rey. The website lists biographical information on members of the immediate royal family, charts their activities, records speeches given at events, and publishes their expected diary of upcoming events, among other information. Additionally, the public relations department publishes the king's diary of his private meetings and the meeting minutes , so long as the other party agrees.
RESIDENCES AND ROYAL SITES
See also: Spanish royal sites
The king and queen preside over many official functions at the
Oriente Palace in
The Oriente Palace and the palaces of the El Pardo estate form part of the " Spanish royal sites ", a collective term used to denote the set of palaces, monasteries, and convents built under royal patronage throughout history. Royal sites are owned by the state and administered by the Patrimonio Nacional (National Heritage) on behalf of the government of the day, and made available for the king as the head of state. Whenever a member of the royal family is not in residence, the royal site is made available for public visitations. The royal household coordinates directly with the National Heritage Council and relevant government ministries or other interests in their planning and staging of state events, with royal sites often providing the setting.
Juan Carlos began a tradition of taking his family on annual holidays
to the island of
Palma de Mallorca , staying at the Marivent Palace
there since the 1960s. Juan Carlos, known as a keen yachtsman, was
presented with a yacht by the
ANNUAL BUDGET AND TAXATION
Constitutionally the monarch is entitled to compensation from the annual state budget for the maintenance of his family and household administration, and freely distributes these funds in accordance with the laws. According to the Royal Household, "he purpose of these resources is to ensure that the Head of State may carry out his tasks with the independence which is inherent to his constitutional functions, as well as with due effectiveness and dignity". The annual budget pays the remunerations for senior management staff, management staff and career civil servants, other minor staffing positions, and for general office expenses. The Head of Household, Secretary General, and other management staff salaries must be comparable to other administration ministers within the government, though in no way do they form part of the government or administration. As such, the management staff experience increases, decreases, or freezes to their pay in accordance with the fluctuations of government minister salaries. Additionally, the annual budget pays for the maintenance and expenses of senior members of the royal family who undertake royal duties; which includes grocery, clothing, and toiletries allotments. The budget approved by the Cortes for 2010 was just under 7.4 million euros, a budget only slightly larger than that spent on the Luxembourg monarchy . In 2011 the king addressed the perennial critique of the monarchy; that of how the annual budget awarded to the monarchy and royal household is spent. The report revealed that only 9.6% of the 8.4 million euros budgeted that year for the monarchy are paid to royal family members as 'salaries and representative duties', with the difference marked for royal household operational expenses such as household staff salaries, various insurance premiums and liabilities, services, and 'supplementals' such as overhead. In 2012, the monarchy volunteered an additional 7% pay-cut in solidarity with government officials.
Not included in the annual budget is the maintenance and upkeep of Spanish royal sites, which are owned by the state and made available to the king as the head-of-state, but administered by Patrimonio Nacional on behalf of the government of the day. Spanish royal sites are open to the public when members of the royal family are not in residence. Maintenance and upkeep includes groundskeeping , domestic staffing and catering. The budget is administered with professional Public Administration accounting procedures, and is audited by government auditors. All members of the royal family are subject to taxation and annually submit Income Tax and Wealth Tax returns and effect the relevant payments.
List of Spanish monarchs
* Monarchs of
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S Powell, Charles, Juan
Carlos of Spain; Self Made Monarch, St. Martin's Press, INC
* ^ These terms are especially popular as synonyms for the Spanish
Empire prior to the unification of
* ^ "
* ^ Artículo 99.
* 1. Después de cada renovación del Congreso de los Diputados, y en los demás supuestos constitucionales en que así proceda, el Rey, previa consulta con los representantes designados por los grupos políticos con representación parlamentaria, y a través del Presidente del Congreso, propondrá un candidato a la Presidencia del Gobierno. * 2. El candidato propuesto conforme a lo previsto en el apartado anterior expondrá ante el Congreso de los Diputados el programa político del Gobierno que pretenda formar y solicitará la confianza de la Cámara.
* ^ (in Spanish) Video:
Rodríguez Zapatero is sworn into his
second term (
RTVE 's Canal 24H , April 12, 2008)
* ^ Juro/Prometo, por mi conciencia y honor, cumplir fielmente las
obligaciones del cargo de Presidente del Gobierno con lealtad al Rey,
guardar y hacer guardar la Constitución como norma fundamental del
Estado, así como mantener el secreto de las deliberaciones del
Consejo de Ministros.
* ^ An exception to these weekly meetings is in August, while the
king is on holiday in Majorca. Then the President or the Vice
President travel to Majorica to meet with the king.
* ^ Title II Article 56 the monarch is the "arbitrator and
moderator of the regular functioning of the institutions", "arbitra y
modera el funcionamiento regular de las instituciones"
* ^ "Don Juan Carlos, sobre el matrimonio gay: \'Soy el Rey de
España y no el de Bélgica\'" (in Spanish). El Mundo. 2006-05-13.
* ^ El Consejo General del Poder Judicial estará integrado por el
Presidente del Tribunal Supremo, que lo presidirá, y por veinte
miembros nombrados por el Rey por un periodo de cinco años. De estos,
doce entre Jueces y Magistrados de todas las categorías judiciales,
en los términos que establezca la ley orgánica; cuatro a propuesta
del Congreso de los Diputados, y cuatro a propuesta del Senado,
elegidos en ambos casos por mayoría de tres quintos de sus miembros,
entre abogados y otros juristas, todos ellos de reconocida competencia
y con más de quince años de ejercicio en su profesión.
* ^ Juan Carlos' had a special relationship with
Pope Paul VI
* ^ Mensaje de S.M. Juan Carlos I – 2008 * ^ Literal translation is House of H.M. the King, often translated into English as 'royal house' or 'royal household'. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U Royal Household Household of H.M. the King website * ^ National Heritage Official Website * ^ "Su casa: Aquí vivirán después de casarse" ("Your Home: They will live here after their wedding)". El Mundo Boda Real (Royal Wedding) (in Spanish). 2004. Retrieved 2009-12-02. * ^ A B "El yate del Rey sale más caro". El Siglo. Retrieved 17 August 2009.
* Hooper, John (2006). The New Spaniards. London, New York: Penguin
Books. ISBN 978-0-14-101609-2 .
* Powell, Charles (1996). Juan Carlos of Spain; Self Made Monarch.
London: Macmillan Press Ltd. ISBN 0-333-54726-8 .
* Preston, Paul (2004). Juan Carlos; Steering
SPANISH GOVERNMENT WEBSITES
* The Royal Household of His Majesty the King * Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas * National Heritage official website
* Título II. De la Corona, Wikisource
* Queen Sofía Foundation * Prince of Asturias Foundation * Codespa Foundation
* The Royal Household of His Majesty the King * Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas * National Heritage official website
* v * t * e
Monarchs of Spain